2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10029/10300
Title:
Integrated Criteria Document Dioxins
Authors:
Liem AKD; Berg R van den; Bremmer HJ; Hesse JM; Slooff W
Other Titles:
Basisdocument Dioxinen
Abstract:
This report contains general information on mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (dioxins) considering standards, emissions, exposure levels and effect levels. The document also discusses the need and possibilities to reduce the risks related to this group of compounds. Dioxins includes 210 tricyclic chlorinated organic compounds in total. International Toxicity Equivalency Factors (-TEFs) are used to describe to toxicity of dioxins, expressed in toxic equivalents (I-TEQ) based on 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most known compound. Information to quantify dioxin emissions is scarce ; they are not commercially produced nor applied, being formed in incineration and industrial processes. Based on 1990 figures, direct emissions to air, water and soil amount approximately 600, 4 and 3 g I-TEQ per year, respectively. Deposition and sludge application contribute significantly to the load of soil (approx. 330 g I-TEQ), whereas, the contamination of water bodies is largely determined by deposition and trans-boundary emissions (approx. 100-125 g I-TEQ). In total the amount of dioxins in the soil and sediment compartments has been increased in 1990 with approx. 330 and over 65-90 g I-TEQ, respectively. Information on the occurrence of dioxins in the environment is very limited. Based on estimated exposure levels (approx. 1-3 pg I-TEQ.kg-1 b.w. per day by food, which contributes 90-95% to the total exposure) dioxins are considered not to present a risk to humans, the TDI being 10 pg I-TEQ.kg-1 b.w. However, information is lacking to evaluate the risks for sucklings during breast-feeding. Generally the risks to ecosystems is limited and only locally ecosystems may be at risk. However, secondary poisoning can not be ruled out and foodchain effects may occur in both the aquatic and terrestric environment. As a result of policy measures emission to air will decrease to approx. 125 g I-TEQ per year by 2000, those to water and soil will be the same as in 1990. The yearly increase in dioxin content of the soil will then amount 0.1 ng I-TEQ.kg-1. Additional measures are possible.
Publisher:
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM
Issue Date:
31-Dec-1993
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10029/10300
Additional Links:
http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/710401032.html
Language:
en
Series/Report no.:
RIVM Rapport 710401032
Appears in Collections:
RIVM reports - old archive

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorLiem AKDen_US
dc.contributor.authorBerg R van denen_US
dc.contributor.authorBremmer HJen_US
dc.contributor.authorHesse JMen_US
dc.contributor.authorSlooff Wen_US
dc.date.accessioned2007-03-09T17:01:22Z-
dc.date.available2007-03-09T17:01:22Z-
dc.date.issued1993-12-31en_US
dc.identifier710401032en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10029/10300-
dc.description.abstractThis report contains general information on mixtures of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (dioxins) considering standards, emissions, exposure levels and effect levels. The document also discusses the need and possibilities to reduce the risks related to this group of compounds. Dioxins includes 210 tricyclic chlorinated organic compounds in total. International Toxicity Equivalency Factors (-TEFs) are used to describe to toxicity of dioxins, expressed in toxic equivalents (I-TEQ) based on 2,3,7,8-TCDD, the most known compound. Information to quantify dioxin emissions is scarce ; they are not commercially produced nor applied, being formed in incineration and industrial processes. Based on 1990 figures, direct emissions to air, water and soil amount approximately 600, 4 and 3 g I-TEQ per year, respectively. Deposition and sludge application contribute significantly to the load of soil (approx. 330 g I-TEQ), whereas, the contamination of water bodies is largely determined by deposition and trans-boundary emissions (approx. 100-125 g I-TEQ). In total the amount of dioxins in the soil and sediment compartments has been increased in 1990 with approx. 330 and over 65-90 g I-TEQ, respectively. Information on the occurrence of dioxins in the environment is very limited. Based on estimated exposure levels (approx. 1-3 pg I-TEQ.kg-1 b.w. per day by food, which contributes 90-95% to the total exposure) dioxins are considered not to present a risk to humans, the TDI being 10 pg I-TEQ.kg-1 b.w. However, information is lacking to evaluate the risks for sucklings during breast-feeding. Generally the risks to ecosystems is limited and only locally ecosystems may be at risk. However, secondary poisoning can not be ruled out and foodchain effects may occur in both the aquatic and terrestric environment. As a result of policy measures emission to air will decrease to approx. 125 g I-TEQ per year by 2000, those to water and soil will be the same as in 1990. The yearly increase in dioxin content of the soil will then amount 0.1 ng I-TEQ.kg-1. Additional measures are possible.en
dc.format.extent9958000 bytesen_US
dc.format.extent10196481 bytes-
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf-
dc.language.isoenen_US
dc.publisherRijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesRIVM Rapport 710401032en_US
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/710401032.htmlen_US
dc.subject.otherstandardsen
dc.subject.otherexposureen
dc.subject.othereffectsen
dc.subject.otherpcdden
dc.subject.otherpcdfen
dc.subject.otherreviewen
dc.subject.otherecosystemen
dc.subject.otherdioxinsen
dc.subject.othermaximum tolerable concentrationsen
dc.subject.othernormnl
dc.subject.otherblootstellingnl
dc.subject.othereffectennl
dc.subject.otherdioxinennl
dc.subject.otherpcdfnl
dc.subject.otherreviewnl
dc.subject.otherecosysteemnl
dc.titleIntegrated Criteria Document Dioxinsen_US
dc.title.alternativeBasisdocument Dioxinenen_US
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