Verbranding van huishoudelijk afval in Nederland: emissies bij verbranding ; verspreiding en risico's van dioxinen

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10029/10469
Title:
Verbranding van huishoudelijk afval in Nederland: emissies bij verbranding ; verspreiding en risico's van dioxinen
Authors:
Slob W; Troost LM; Krijgsman M; Koning J de; Sein AA
Other Titles:
Incineration of municipal waste in the Netherlands: emissions from incineration ; dispersion and risks of dioxins
Abstract:
Elevated dioxin concentrations in Dutch cow's milk originating from areas near municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators triggered an extensive research programme in the Netherlands, including (1) emission measurements of all Dutch municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators, (2) compliance of MSW incinerators with licences and directives, (3) dispersion and occurrence of dioxins in air, soil and cow's milk, and (4) dioxin exposure of the Dutch population. These investigations resulted in a large number of reports. This report provides a comprehensive overview of research results and associated policy implications. Seven out of the twelve incinerators did not comply with the licenses, whereas nine of them did not satisfy the Incineration Directive 1985. Technical management and process control were found to be unsatisfactory in several cases. Dioxin emissions varied between 2,2 to 360 ng TEQ/m3 flue gas. Four installations were closed down in 1990. Near several MSW incinerators dioxin concentrations in milk were found exceeding the milk standard of 6 pg/g fat. Milk and related products from these areas were banned from consumption. The milk standard was based on the result of an exposure analysis that at this value less than 1% of the Dutch population would exceed the TDI of 10 pg TEQ/kg body weight. At background dioxin concentrations in milk and related products (2 pg TEQ/g fat), the TDI is exceeded by a small fraction of children below 7 years of age. A mathematical chain model was developed that succeeded in quantitatively relating dioxin emissions with amounts in cow's milk. In addition, this model showed that emissions below the required level of 0.1 ng/m3 (to be satisfied at 30 November 1993) will make a negligible contribution to levels in cow's milk. Great efforts are presently made to reduce the emissions to this required level. Therefore, it may be expected that in the near future exceedance of the milk standard will not occur anymore in the Netherlands. At some sited levels of 3-4 pg TEQ/g fat will endure because of dioxins that have accumulated in soil from high emissions in the past. Although the dioxin problem in the Netherlands has triggered drastic improvements in emissions, it has at the same time aroused opposition from the Dutch population against incineration of municipal waste. Therefore a delay in growth in incineration capacity may be expected.
Publisher:
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM
Issue Date:
30-Apr-1992
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10029/10469
Additional Links:
http://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/730501043.html
Language:
nl
Series/Report no.:
RIVM Rapport 730501043
Appears in Collections:
RIVM reports - old archive

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorSlob Wen_US
dc.contributor.authorTroost LMen_US
dc.contributor.authorKrijgsman Men_US
dc.contributor.authorKoning J deen_US
dc.contributor.authorSein AAen_US
dc.date.accessioned2007-03-09T17:21:51Z-
dc.date.available2007-03-09T17:21:51Z-
dc.date.issued1992-04-30en_US
dc.identifier730501043en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10029/10469-
dc.description.abstractElevated dioxin concentrations in Dutch cow's milk originating from areas near municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators triggered an extensive research programme in the Netherlands, including (1) emission measurements of all Dutch municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerators, (2) compliance of MSW incinerators with licences and directives, (3) dispersion and occurrence of dioxins in air, soil and cow's milk, and (4) dioxin exposure of the Dutch population. These investigations resulted in a large number of reports. This report provides a comprehensive overview of research results and associated policy implications. Seven out of the twelve incinerators did not comply with the licenses, whereas nine of them did not satisfy the Incineration Directive 1985. Technical management and process control were found to be unsatisfactory in several cases. Dioxin emissions varied between 2,2 to 360 ng TEQ/m3 flue gas. Four installations were closed down in 1990. Near several MSW incinerators dioxin concentrations in milk were found exceeding the milk standard of 6 pg/g fat. Milk and related products from these areas were banned from consumption. The milk standard was based on the result of an exposure analysis that at this value less than 1% of the Dutch population would exceed the TDI of 10 pg TEQ/kg body weight. At background dioxin concentrations in milk and related products (2 pg TEQ/g fat), the TDI is exceeded by a small fraction of children below 7 years of age. A mathematical chain model was developed that succeeded in quantitatively relating dioxin emissions with amounts in cow's milk. In addition, this model showed that emissions below the required level of 0.1 ng/m3 (to be satisfied at 30 November 1993) will make a negligible contribution to levels in cow's milk. Great efforts are presently made to reduce the emissions to this required level. Therefore, it may be expected that in the near future exceedance of the milk standard will not occur anymore in the Netherlands. At some sited levels of 3-4 pg TEQ/g fat will endure because of dioxins that have accumulated in soil from high emissions in the past. Although the dioxin problem in the Netherlands has triggered drastic improvements in emissions, it has at the same time aroused opposition from the Dutch population against incineration of municipal waste. Therefore a delay in growth in incineration capacity may be expected.en
dc.format.extent7839862 bytes-
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdf-
dc.language.isonlen_US
dc.publisherRijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesRIVM Rapport 730501043en_US
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/730501043.htmlen_US
dc.subject.otherdomestic wasteen
dc.subject.othercombustionen
dc.subject.otherincineratorsen
dc.subject.otherpcdden
dc.subject.otherpcdfen
dc.subject.otheremissionen
dc.subject.othermonitoringen
dc.subject.othermilken
dc.subject.otherexposureen
dc.subject.otherrisksen
dc.subject.otherhuishoudelijk afvalnl
dc.subject.otherverbrandennl
dc.subject.otherverbrandingsinstallatienl
dc.subject.otherdioxinennl
dc.subject.otheremissienl
dc.subject.othermonitoringnl
dc.subject.othermelknl
dc.subject.otherblootstellingnl
dc.subject.otherrisiconl
dc.subject.otheravinl
dc.subject.otherketenmodel dioxinennl
dc.subject.otherdioxin chain modelnl
dc.titleVerbranding van huishoudelijk afval in Nederland: emissies bij verbranding ; verspreiding en risico's van dioxinenen_US
dc.title.alternativeIncineration of municipal waste in the Netherlands: emissions from incineration ; dispersion and risks of dioxinsen_US
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