Risk factors for gastroenteritis associated with canal swimming in two cities in the Netherlands during the summer of 2015: A prospective study.

2.50
Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10029/621346
Title:
Risk factors for gastroenteritis associated with canal swimming in two cities in the Netherlands during the summer of 2015: A prospective study.
Authors:
Joosten, Rosa; Sonder, Gerard; Parkkali, Saara; Brandwagt, Diederik; Fanoy, Ewout; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Lodder, Willemijn; Ruland, Erik; Siedenburg, Evelien; Kliffen, Suzanne; van Pelt, Wilfrid
Abstract:
Urban canal swimming events are popular in the Netherlands. In 2015, two city canal swimming events took place, in Utrecht (Utrecht Singel Swim, USS) and in Amsterdam (Amsterdam City Swim, ACS). This prospective study characterizes the health risks associated with swimming in urban waters. Online questionnaires were sent to 160 (USS) and 2,692 (ACS) participants, with relatives of participants who did not swim completing the questionnaire as a control. Swimming water specimens and stool specimens of diarrheic participants in the ACS group were analysed. A total of 49% of USS and 51% of ACS swimmers returned their questionnaires. Nine percent of USS swimmers and 4% of non-swimmers reported gastrointestinal complaints (aRR 2.1; 95% CI: 0.3-16), while a total of 31% of ACS swimmers and 5% of non-swimmers reported gastrointestinal complaints (aRR 6.3; 95% CI: 4.1-9.5). AGI risk among ACS participants was directly related to increasing number of mouthfuls of water swallowed. Various norovirus genotypes were detected in five out of seven stool specimens taken from ACS participants and in all three tested ACS water samples. We conclude that the AGI risk among open-water swimmers in urban areas depends on the circumstances around the event. The epidemiological curve, the statistical association between swimming and AGI, and the microbiological evidence for norovirus in stool and water specimens suggest that AGI outbreak after the ACS event was due to water contamination by multiple norovirus strains, which is possibly linked to sewage overflow due to prior heavy rainfall. There is need for more targeted preventive measurements and recommendations for organizers, municipal authorities and participants to prevent this reoccurring in the future.
Citation:
Risk factors for gastroenteritis associated with canal swimming in two cities in the Netherlands during the summer of 2015: A prospective study. 2017, 12 (4):e0174732 PLoS ONE
Journal:
Plos One 2017; 12(4):e0174732
Issue Date:
2017
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10029/621346
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0174732
PubMed ID:
28369101
Type:
Article
Language:
en
ISSN:
1932-6203
Appears in Collections:
Miscellaneous

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorJoosten, Rosaen
dc.contributor.authorSonder, Gerarden
dc.contributor.authorParkkali, Saaraen
dc.contributor.authorBrandwagt, Diederiken
dc.contributor.authorFanoy, Ewouten
dc.contributor.authorMughini-Gras, Lapoen
dc.contributor.authorLodder, Willemijnen
dc.contributor.authorRuland, Eriken
dc.contributor.authorSiedenburg, Evelienen
dc.contributor.authorKliffen, Suzanneen
dc.contributor.authorvan Pelt, Wilfriden
dc.date.accessioned2018-02-07T08:07:38Z-
dc.date.available2018-02-07T08:07:38Z-
dc.date.issued2017-
dc.identifier.citationRisk factors for gastroenteritis associated with canal swimming in two cities in the Netherlands during the summer of 2015: A prospective study. 2017, 12 (4):e0174732 PLoS ONEen
dc.identifier.issn1932-6203-
dc.identifier.pmid28369101-
dc.identifier.doi10.1371/journal.pone.0174732-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10029/621346-
dc.description.abstractUrban canal swimming events are popular in the Netherlands. In 2015, two city canal swimming events took place, in Utrecht (Utrecht Singel Swim, USS) and in Amsterdam (Amsterdam City Swim, ACS). This prospective study characterizes the health risks associated with swimming in urban waters. Online questionnaires were sent to 160 (USS) and 2,692 (ACS) participants, with relatives of participants who did not swim completing the questionnaire as a control. Swimming water specimens and stool specimens of diarrheic participants in the ACS group were analysed. A total of 49% of USS and 51% of ACS swimmers returned their questionnaires. Nine percent of USS swimmers and 4% of non-swimmers reported gastrointestinal complaints (aRR 2.1; 95% CI: 0.3-16), while a total of 31% of ACS swimmers and 5% of non-swimmers reported gastrointestinal complaints (aRR 6.3; 95% CI: 4.1-9.5). AGI risk among ACS participants was directly related to increasing number of mouthfuls of water swallowed. Various norovirus genotypes were detected in five out of seven stool specimens taken from ACS participants and in all three tested ACS water samples. We conclude that the AGI risk among open-water swimmers in urban areas depends on the circumstances around the event. The epidemiological curve, the statistical association between swimming and AGI, and the microbiological evidence for norovirus in stool and water specimens suggest that AGI outbreak after the ACS event was due to water contamination by multiple norovirus strains, which is possibly linked to sewage overflow due to prior heavy rainfall. There is need for more targeted preventive measurements and recommendations for organizers, municipal authorities and participants to prevent this reoccurring in the future.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to PloS oneen
dc.subject.meshAdolescent-
dc.subject.meshAdult-
dc.subject.meshCaliciviridae Infections-
dc.subject.meshDisease Outbreaks-
dc.subject.meshEnterobacteriaceae-
dc.subject.meshEnterobacteriaceae Infections-
dc.subject.meshFeces-
dc.subject.meshFemale-
dc.subject.meshFresh Water-
dc.subject.meshGastroenteritis-
dc.subject.meshHumans-
dc.subject.meshMale-
dc.subject.meshMiddle Aged-
dc.subject.meshNetherlands-
dc.subject.meshNorovirus-
dc.subject.meshProspective Studies-
dc.subject.meshRisk Factors-
dc.subject.meshSurveys and Questionnaires-
dc.subject.meshSwimming-
dc.subject.meshWater Microbiology-
dc.subject.meshWater Pollution-
dc.subject.meshWater Quality-
dc.subject.meshYoung Adult-
dc.titleRisk factors for gastroenteritis associated with canal swimming in two cities in the Netherlands during the summer of 2015: A prospective study.en
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.journalPlos One 2017; 12(4):e0174732en

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