• Het 131-I-gehalte van het rioolwater in Utrecht

      Mattern; F.C.M. (1984-03-26)
      Abstract not available
    • The 18th EURL-Salmonella workshop : 30 may 2013, St. Malo, France

      Mooijman KA; VDL; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2014-03-27)
      This report contains the summaries of the presentations of the 18th annual workshop for the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for Salmonella, held in St. Malo, France on 30 May 2013. The aim of this workshop is to facilitate the exchange of information on the activities of the NRLs and the European Union Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (EURL-Salmonella). An important yearly item on the agenda is the presentation of the results of the annual ring trials organized by the EURL, which provide valuable information on the quality of the work carried out by the participating NRL laboratories. Another yearly item is the presentation of the most recent European summary report on Zoonoses by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This latter report gives an overview on the number and types of zoonotic micro-organisms that were causing health problems in Europe in 2011. For several years, the number of health problems caused by Salmonella has been decreasing, but in 2011 it was still the second most significant cause, after Campylobacter, of zoonotic diseases in Europe. Other presentations give information on the molecular typing databases which are built by EFSA and by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). The database of EFSA is intended for the storage of molecular typing data of pathogens isolated from food, animal feed or animals. The one of ECDC will contain information gathered from pathogens isolated from humans. Each strain has its unique molecular typing pattern. The molecular typing data in both databases can be useful for comparing strains from different sources. This knowledge can contribute to find the source of a European or national foodborne outbreak. The workshop was organized by the EURL-Salmonella and is located at the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. The main task of the EURL-Salmonella is to evaluate the performance of the European NRLs in detecting and typing Salmonella in different products.
    • 19-Nortestosterone in urine of slaughtered cattle illegally injected with anabolic preparations

      Jansen EHJM; van den Berg RH; Enkelaar-Willemsen C; van Blitterswijk H; Stekelenburg P; Both-Miedema R; Stephany RW (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1986-02-28)
      In deze studie is het urinaire 19-nortestosteron (NT) gehalte van met NT behandelde dieren vergeleken met de hoeveelheid resterend NT in de toedieningsplaats. Er zijn in totaal 136 dieren onderzocht, hoofdzakelijk kalveren, verdeeld over drie groepen. Geconcludeerd wordt dat er geen correlatie te vinden is tussen het urinaire NT-gehalte en de hoeveelheid NT restant in de toedieningsplaats. Tevens werd aangetoond dat indien de monsters urine van deze dieren in een keuringsprogramma onderzocht zouden zijn via een combinatie van hoge druk vloeistofchromatografie en radioimmunochemisch onderzoek (HPLC- RIA), er afhankelijk van de keuze van de beslissingsgrens voor voortgezet bevestigingsonderzoek een zeer groot aantal (70-90%) fout- negatieve resultaten zouden zijn verkregen.<br>
    • 1992 Quadrennial Ozone Symposium. Nieuwe inzichten in ozonvorming en ozonafbraak in de vrije atmosfeer

      Woerd HJ van der; Beck JP; Krol MS (1992-10-31)
      This report summarises the main results presented during the most recent "Quadrennial Ozone Symposium", held in Charlottesville, Virginia, USA.At the symposium the knowledge on production, loss and transport of ozone in troposphere and stratosphere were highlighted. In the lower troposphere in the Northern Hemisphere ozone is increasing by 1 percent per year. Key questions are how this increase is connected with emissions of NOx, VOC, CH4, and CO, and the role of biomass burning in the tropics. Ozone is decreasing at a rate of 0.5 to 1.5% per year in the stratosphere. The research here is concentrated on the ozone loss in the Arctic regions and heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds, background sulphate aerosols and the Pinatubo aerosols.
    • The 1996 RIVM Catalogue of International Datasets

      Woerden JW van; Diederiks J; Klein Goldewijk K; CIM (1997-06-30)
      RIVM's involvement in integrated environmental assessment, reporting and forecasting has brought about the development of a comprehensive information infrastructure. Over the last few years, this has resulted in a collection of information systems for the acquisition, processing, distribution and presentation of environmental information. These systems operate mainly within RIVM, although the collaboration with external partners, which continues both nationally and internationally, justifies the need to review data and information policies. Data access and harmonisation are further promoted in print-outs of data sets on global and regional research activities, published yearly as RIVM's Catalogue of International Data Sets. These will be discussed in the 1996 catalogue.
    • The 19th EURL-Salmonella workshop : 26 and 27 May 2014, Zaandam, the Netherlands

      Mooijman KA; VDL; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2014-12-18)
      The RIVM has summarised the presentations of the 19th annual workshop for the European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for Salmonella (26 and 27 May 2014). The aim of this workshop is to facilitate the exchange of information on the activities of the NRLs and the European Union Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (EURL-Salmonella). An important yearly item on the agenda is the presentation of the results of the annual ring trials organised by the EURL, which provide valuable information on the quality of the work carried out by the participating NRLs. Detailed information on the results per ring trial is provided in separate RIVM reports. Campylobacter and Salmonella still the most important zoonoses Another yearly item is the presentation of the most recent European summary report on zoonoses by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). The 2014 report gives an overview of the number and types of zoonotic micro-organisms that were causing health problems in Europe in 2012. For several years, the number of health problems caused by Salmonella has been decreasing, but in 2012 it was still the second most significant cause, after Campylobacter, of zoonotic diseases in Europe. Molecular typing of increasing importance Other presentations give information on new techniques to show the type of Salmonella present in food or animals. Several laboratories are now using molecular techniques, based on detection of DNA of the micro-organism. Each strain has a unique molecular typing pattern. This information is important to show whether a Salmonella type found in humans is similar to one found in food or animals. The workshop is organised by the EURL-Salmonella. This EURL is located at the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. The main task of the EURL-Salmonella is to evaluate the performance of the European NRLs in detecting and typing Salmonella in different products.
    • The 20th EU Interlaboratory comparison study in primary production (2017) : Detection of Salmonella in chicken faeces

      Pol-Hofstad IE; Mooijman KA; Z&O; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-05-28)
      Dit rapport bevat een erratum d.d. 17-7-2018 na pagina 34. In maart 2017 vond het twintigste EURL-Salmonella ringonderzoek naar Salmonella plaats. Deze jaarlijkse kwaliteitstoets is verplicht voor alle Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) van de Europese lidstaten die verantwoordelijk zijn voor het aantonen van Salmonella in dierlijke mest. Resultaten. Alle deelnemers waren in staat om Salmonella op te sporen in de kunstmatig besmette kippenmestmonsters. Ook hebben de laboratoria de meegestuurde controlemonsters correct geanalyseerd. Eén laboratorium heeft een fout gemaakt met het labelen van de monsters en heeft daardoor de twee controlemonsters verwisseld. Hiervoor kreeg dit laboratorium een matige score. Bijna alle laboratoria konden de monsters waar geen Salmonella aan was toegevoegd (blanco) als zodanig opsporen. Eén laboratorium vond echter Salmonella in drie van de zes blanco monsters en scoorde daardoor een onvoldoende. Deelnemers. In totaal hebben 36 NRL's deelgenomen: 29 NRL's van 28 lidstaten in de EU, zes NRL's uit kandidaat-landen voor het EU-lidmaatschap of landen van de European Free Trade Association (EFTA) en één niet-Europees NRL dat op verzoek van de Europese Commissie is toegevoegd (Israël). Het Europese Referentie Laboratorium (EURL) Salmonella is gevestigd bij het Nederlandse Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM). De hoofdtaak van het EURL-Salmonella is toezien op de kwaliteit van de nationale referentielaboratoria voor deze bacterie in Europa. Werkwijze. Elk laboratorium kreeg een pakket toegestuurd met daarin de monsters met kippenmest. De kippenmest is op het EURL-laboratorium besmet met de Salmonella-bacterie in twee concentraties (hoog en laag). Ook zijn er onbesmette blanco monsters meegestuurd. De laboratoria dienden de monsters te analyseren volgens de internationaal voorgeschreven methode op de aanwezigheid van Salmonella.
    • 20th EURL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study (2015) on typing of Salmonella spp

      Jacobs-Reitsma, WF; Maas, HME; Bouw, E; Mooijman, KA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, 2018-12-28)
      The National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) of all 28 European Union (EU) Member States performed well in the 2015 quality control test on Salmonella typing. One laboratory was found to require a follow-up study after the initial test. Overall, the EU-NRLs were able to assign the correct name to 97% of the strains tested. In addition to the standard method for typing Salmonella (serotyping), sixteen laboratories performed typing at DNA level, using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). This more detailed typing method is sometimes needed to trace the source of a contamination. For quality control, the participants received another ten strains of Salmonella to be tested by this method. Fourteen of the sixteen participating laboratories were suitably equipped to use the PFGE method. Since 1992, the NRLs of the EU Member States are obliged to participate in annual quality control tests which consist of interlaboratory comparison studies on Salmonella. Each Member State designates a specific laboratory within their national boundaries to be responsible for the detection and identification of Salmonella strains in animals and/or food products. These laboratories are referred to as the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). The performance of these NRLs in Salmonella typing is assessed annually by testing their ability to identify twenty Salmonella strains. NRLs from countries outside the European Union occasionally participate in these tests on a voluntary basis. The EU-candidate-countries Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Turkey, and EFTA countries Iceland, Norway and Switzerland took part in the 2015 assessment. The annual interlaboratory comparison study on Salmonella typing is organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (EURL-Salmonella). The EURL-Salmonella is located at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
    • The 20th EURL-Salmonella workshop : 28 and 29 May 2015, Berlin, Germany

      Mooijman KA; VDL; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2015-02-08)
      In this report, the RIVM presents a summary of the presentations given at the 20th annual workshop for the European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for Salmonella (28 and 29 May 2015). The aim of this workshop is to facilitate the exchange of information on the activities of the NRLs and the European Union Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (EURL-Salmonella). An important item on the agenda is the presentation of the results of the annual ring trials organised by the EURL, which provide valuable information on the quality of the work carried out by the participating NRL laboratories. Detailed information on the results per ring trial is described in separate RIVM-reports. New techniques more important Several presentations provide information on the use of new techniques to show similarities between different Salmonella strains. These are often molecular techniques, analysing the DNA of the bacterium. These techniques are often used to trace the pathogen in food, animals or humans, as each strain has its own unique molecular typing pattern. A database for unique molecular typing results The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) presented their pilot database in which molecular typing results of Salmonella can be stored. This will make it possible to check whether a specific strain is found in different countries and products. NRLs present their activities In four presentations information is given of the activities performed by the NRLs for Salmonella of Northern-Ireland, Portugal, Spain and the Slovak Republic. The annual workshop is organised by the EURL-Salmonella, part of the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. The main task of the EURL-Salmonella is to evaluate the performance of the European NRLs in detecting and typing Salmonella in different products.
    • 21st EURL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study (2016) on typing of Salmonella spp

      Jacobs-Reitsma, WF; Verbruggen, A; Bouw, E; Mooijman, KA (r, 2018-12-18)
      The National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) of all 28 European Union (EU) Member States performed well in the 2016 quality control test on Salmonella typing. Overall, the EU-NRLs were able to assign the correct name to 99% of the strains tested. In addition to the standard method for typing Salmonella (serotyping), fifteen laboratories performed typing at DNA level using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). This more detailed typing method is sometimes needed to trace the source of a contamination. For quality control, participants received another ten strains of Salmonella to be tested by this method. Thirteen of the fifteen participating laboratories were suitably equipped to use the PFGE method. Since 1992, the NRLs of the EU Member States are obliged to participate in annual quality control tests which consist of interlaboratory comparison studies on Salmonella. Each Member State designates a specific laboratory within their national boundaries to be responsible for the detection and identification of Salmonella strains in animals and/or food products. These laboratories are referred to as the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). The performance of these NRLs in Salmonella typing is assessed annually by testing their ability to identify 20 Salmonella strains. NRLs from countries outside the European Union occasionally participate in these tests on a voluntary basis. The EU-candidate-countries Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia, and EFTA countries Iceland, Norway and Switzerland took part in the 2016 assessment. The annual interlaboratory comparison study on Salmonella typing is organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (EURL-Salmonella). The EURL-Salmonella is located at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
    • The 21st EURL-Salmonella workshop : 9 June 2016, Saint Malo, France

      Mooijman KA; VDL; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2016-12-15)
      This report contains a summary of the presentations given at the 21st annual workshop for the European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for Salmonella (9 June 2016). The aim of the workshop is to facilitate the exchange of information on the activities of the NRLs and the European Union Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (EURL-Salmonella). Annual ring trials A recurring item at the workshops is the presentation of the results of the annual ring trials organised by the EURL. These ring trials give information on the quality of the NRL laboratories tested. The 2015 trial showed that all NRLs were able to detect Salmonella in whole liquid egg. Detailed information on the results per ring trial is given in separate RIVM-reports. Molecular techniques Several presentations provided information on the use of molecular techniques for Salmonella typing. These techniques analyse the DNA of the bacterium, and are often used to trace pathogens in food, animals or humans. Each strain has its own unique molecular typing pattern. Storage of molecular typing results The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) presented a database for storage of the molecular Salmonella typing results. This database has been available since early 2016 and will make it possible to check whether a specific strain is found in different countries and products. The annual workshop is organised by the EURL-Salmonella, part of the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. The main task of the EURL-Salmonella is to evaluate the performance of the European NRLs in detecting and typing Salmonella in different products.
    • 22nd EURL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study (2017) on typing of Salmonella spp

      Jacobs-Reitsma, WF; Verbruggen, A; Bouw, E; Mooijman, KA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, 2018-12-18)
      The National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) of all 28 European Union (EU) Member States performed well in the 2017 quality control test on Salmonella typing. Overall, the EU-NRLs were able to assign the correct name to 98% of the strains tested. In addition to the standard method for typing Salmonella (serotyping), fifteen laboratories performed typing at DNA level using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). This more detailed typing method is sometimes needed to trace the source of a contamination. For quality control, participants received another eleven strains of Salmonella to be tested by this method. Eleven of the fifteen participating laboratories were suitably equipped to use the PFGE method. Since 1992, the NRLs of the EU Member States are obliged to participate in annual quality control tests which consist of interlaboratory comparison studies on Salmonella. Each Member State designates a specific laboratory within their national boundaries to be responsible for the detection and identification of Salmonella strains in animals and/or food products. These laboratories are referred to as the National Reference Laboratories (NRLs). The performance of these NRLs in Salmonella typing is assessed annually by testing their ability to identify 20 Salmonella strains. NRLs from countries outside the European Union occasionally participate in these tests on a voluntary basis. The EU-candidate-countries Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia, EFTA countries Iceland, Norway and Switzerland, and Israel took part in the 2017 assessment. The annual interlaboratory comparison study on Salmonella typing is organised by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (EURL-Salmonella). The EURL-Salmonella is located at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, the Netherlands.
    • The 22nd EURL-Salmonella workshop : 29 and 30 May 2017, Zaandam, the Netherlands

      Mooijman KA; VDL; Z&O (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-06-15)
      This report gives a summary of the presentations held at the 22nd annual workshop for the European National Reference Laboratories (NRLs) for Salmonella (29-30 May 2017). The aim of the workshop is to facilitate the exchange of information on the activities of the NRLs and the European Union Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (EURL-Salmonella). Annual ring trials A recurring item at the workshops is the presentation of the results of the annual ring trials organised by the EURL. These ring trials give information on the quality of the NRL laboratories tested. The NRLs had high scores in the 2016 studies. Detailed information on the results per ring trial is available in separate RIVM-reports. Outbreaks In some presentations, a number of outbreaks were reported, where a large number of people became ill due to Salmonella. It is often hard to detect the source of an outbreak, however, the source of a specific outbreak involving many people in several European Member States could be identified: Polish eggs contaminated with Salmonella. Methods Other presentations were held on the standardisation and harmonisation of methods, e.g. for testing food products on the presence of Salmonella. In this way, agreements on standard test methods can be made at European level, ensuring that Member States perform the tests uniformly. This enables a better comparison of results between different countries. The annual workshop is organised by the EURL-Salmonella, part of the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment. The main task of the EURL-Salmonella is to evaluate the performance of the European NRLs in detecting and typing Salmonella in different products.
    • 24-uurs urine-excretie van jodium. Voedingsstatusonderzoek bij volwassen Nederlanders

      Wilson-van den Hooven C; Fransen HJ; Ris-Stalpers C; Ocke M; CVG (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMAMC, 2008-01-02)
      De mediane jodiumconcentratie in urine van volwassenen uit Doetinchem was 109 microgram per liter. Dit wordt door de Wereldgezondheidsorganisatie geclassificeerd als een populatie met een adequate inneming. Deze bevinding maakt het aannemelijk dat de jodiuminneming voor de algemene Nederlandse bevolking ook adequaat is.
    • 24-uurs urine-excretie van natrium. Voedingsstatusonderzoek bij volwassen Nederlanders

      van den Hooven C; Fransen H; Jansen E; Ocke M; CVG; GBO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2007-07-09)
      De zoutinneming van volwassenen uit Doetinchem is gemiddeld bijna 9 gram per dag. Dit is 50% boven de aanbeveling van maximaal 6 gram per dag. Deze bevinding maakt het aannemelijk dat de zoutinneming voor de algemene Nederlandse bevolking ook ruim boven de aanbeveling ligt. Bij mannen en jongvolwassenen is de zoutconsumptie gemiddeld hoger dan bij vrouwen en personen van 50-70 jaar. Bij mannen is de zoutinneming gemiddeld 10,1 gram onder 19-49 jarigen en 9,7 gram onder 50-70 jarigen. Bij vrouwen is dit respectievelijk 8,6 en 7,5 gram. Bovengenoemde schattingen zijn gebaseerd op een onderzoek waarin 333 personen van 19-70 jaar in November 2006 24-uur hun urine verzamelden. Aan de hand van de natriumexcretie in de urines is de zoutinneming geschat. De deelnemers waren afkomstig uit Doetinchem of nabije omgeving. Door het reduceren van de huidige te hoge zoutinneming van de Nederlandse bevolking naar de aanbevolen hoeveelheid kan aanzienlijke gezondheidswinst behaald worden. Maatregelen worden dan ook geadviseerd.
    • 2nd EVALUATION of the course AQUATIC ECOTOXICOLOGY in INDIA

      Rebers SM (1990-01-31)
      In april 19888 a course on aquatic ecotoxicology was held at the Industrial Toxicological Research Centre in Lucknow as part of an Indo-Dutch collaboration program. Immediately afterwards an evaluation was held among the participants of the course. One year later this second evaluation has been held. Aim was to get an overview of the applicability of the course in the work of the participants, and to generate suggestions for improvement of its contents and organization. Several people from different institutes and universities, who were involved with the course, have been requested about the different subjects, the presentations and about organizational aspects. Main conclusions are: - In general the course was thought very interesting, but a more practical course was expected and preferred. - The sections aquatic toxicology and monitoring were thought to be most useful. - Only a few, those working in the field of ecotoxicology, have been able to apply parts of the course. - The opinions of the participants about different subjects and their possibilities to apply the gained knowledge vary greatly and are mainly dependent of their workingfield and -place. Those employed at Pollution Control Boards are in general less interested in detailed information and more in quick practical methods for monitoring of waterbodies. - The course contributed to contacts with people from other institutes. - More examples of aquatic exotoxicological research in India should be included.
    • 39-week carcinogenicity study with cyclosporin A in XPA-/- mice, wild type mice and XPA-/-.P53+/- double transgenic mice. Part of the ILSI/HESI Program on Alternative Methods for Carcinogenicity Testing

      Beems RB; van Kreijl CF; van Steeg H; LPI; LEO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-05-16)
      The objective of this study was to evaluate the carcinogenic response of cyclosporin A in XPA-/- mice having a C57BL/6 background. XPA-/- mice are deficient in nucleotide excision repair and have shown increased susceptibility to genotoxic carcinogens and uv-light. The study was part of a world-wide evaluation program of alternative carcinogenicity assays, including assays with transgenic mice, coordinated by the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (USA). Cyclosporin A is an immunosuppressive drug and a non-genotoxic human carcinogen, inducing lymphomas and Kaposi sarcomas in transplantation patients. The study protocol also enables a reduction of the number of laboratory animals as compared with the conventional carcinogenicity study. Groups of 15 male and 15 female XPA-/- mice or wild type (WT) mice were fed diets containing 0, 3, 10, 30 or 80 mg/kg bw cyclosporin A for 9 months (ad lib). Groups of 15 male and 15 female XPA-/-,P53+/- double transgenic (DT) mice were fed 0, 30 or 80 mg/kg bw for 9 months. Cyclosporin A induced lymphomas and lymphoid hyperplasia of the spleen and lymph nodes. It is concluded that cyclosporin A is negative for carcinogenicity in the short-term alternative carcinogenicity assay in male and female XPA-/- and WT mice and in male DT mice when administered at the 'maximum tolerated dose' (30 mg/kg bw). It is positive in female DT mice at 30 mg/kg bw. At a dose of 80 mg/kg bw that distinctly exceeds the maximum tolerated dose, cyclosporin A is positive for carcinogenicity in XPA-/- mice and in DT mice of both sexes. The positive response is stronger in DT mice than in XPA-/- mice. At 80 mg/kg bw cyclosporin A is also considered to be positive in WT females (based on a positive Peto trend test) and it is negative in WT male mice.
    • 3D-printing, een nieuwe dimensie voor de 3V&apos;s : Over 3D-printing, innovatie en alternatieven voor dierproeven

      van Zijverden M; van Kesteren PCE; Deleu S; NKA; V&amp;Z (Nationaal Kenniscentrum Alternatieven voor dierproeven (NKCA), 2014-03-28)
    • 4th EURL-Salmonella interlaboratory comparison study Animal Feed 2018 : Detection of Salmonella in chicken feed

      Kuijpers, AFA; Mooijman, KA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, 2019-02-06)
      In februari 2018 organiseerde het EURL-Salmonella het vierde ringonderzoek om Salmonella in diervoeder aan te tonen. Door problemen met het te onderzoeken kippenvoer was het niet mogelijk de Nationale Referentie Laboratoria (NRL's) te beoordelen op hun vermogen om Salmonella in de monsters aan te tonen. Alle NRL’s van de 28 Europese lidstaten die verantwoordelijk zijn voor de opsporing van Salmonella in diervoeder, zijn verplicht om aan het onderzoek deel te nemen. In totaal namen 35 NRL’s deel. Het EURL- Salmonella is gevestigd bij het Nederlandse Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu (RIVM). Voor het ringonderzoek gebruiken de laboratoria de internationaal erkende analysemethode om Salmonella in kippenvoer aan te tonen. Elk laboratorium kreeg een pakket toegestuurd met kippenvoer dat ofwel besmet was met Salmonella Mbandaka in twee verschillende concentraties, of geen Salmonella bevatte. De monsters werden, net zoals in eerdere studies, op het laboratorium van het EURL-Salmonella kunstmatig besmet met Salmonella. Dit keer is in onverwacht weinig monsters de aanwezigheid van Salmonella aangetoond. Zeer waarschijnlijk is dit veroorzaakt doordat onbekende stoffen in de partij kippenvoer zaten die de groei van Salmonella remden.
    • Aan roken toe te schrijven productiviteitskosten voor Nederlandse werkgevers in 1999

      Jacobs-van der Bruggen MAM; Welte RA; Koopmanschap MA; Jager JC; CZO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMErasmus Universiteit RotterdamiMTA/BMG, 2002-06-17)
      The productivity costs to Dutch employers attributable to smoking are estimated here for 1999. Included are productivity costs (value of lost production) due to absenteeism, and disability and death of employees due to smoking. Costs associated with smoking breaks during working hours or early retirement were not included due to lacking data. Costs connected with a special organisation of the space in buildings, and garbage or fire due to smoking fall outside the scope of this report. Production loss due to smoking was estimated on the basis of published information on disease-specific relative risks of death applicable to smokers, as compared to non smokers, combined with national disease-specific data on absenteeism, disability and deaths. Considering that employees can be replaced, production loss is restricted to the period from absence to replacement, the friction period. In the primary analysis in this report we estimated productivity costs, assuming a friction period of 6 months. In a comparative analysis we estimated the same costs with a different method, where the estimate was based on direct costs to employers such as salary payment, costs for replacement, death benefits and increased insurance contributions, resulting from employee absence. In 1999, 1.9% absenteeism, 3.3% new disability and 22% deaths among employees could be attributed to smoking. The associated costs were estimated at 305 million Euro or 105 Euro per employed smoker. The estimate based on direct costs to the employer was comparable (both methods estimate the same costs, so the productivity costs and direct costs should not be added up). Considering that health hazards of smoking do not disappear immediately after stopping, the employer saves 27 Euro per year in the short term on an employee who stops smoking. The estimates are conservative because not all smoking-related diseases are included in the calculations. Furthermore, no costs were attributed to passive smoking. Apart from pointing out the advantages to health, employers can also promote a smoking stop for economic reasons.