• Dag- en nacht bewegingsactiviteit in de rat tijdens morfine- afhankelijkheid en morfine-onthouding

      van der Laan JW; Loeber JG; de Groot G; Sekhuis VM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1986-09-30)
      In het kader van het onderzoek naar de effecten van behandeling van morfine onthoudingsverschijnselen bij de rat is recent de methode van toediening van morfine via het voer gei"ntroduceerd en dat model is nu diepgaander onderzocht. Het verloop van de onthoudingsfase is onderzocht aan de hand van de bewegingsactiviteit van de ratten. De bewegings- activiteit van de rat vertoont een dagelijks ritme 's nachts hoog en overdag laag, dat door morfine aanvankelijk enigszins verstoord wordt, maar later treedt tolerantie op. Tijdens de onthoudingsfase treedt een sterke verlaging op 's nachts die niet samenvalt met de daling van de voedselinname. Toediening van clonidine tijdens de onthoudingsfase heeft geen invloed op het activiteits- patroon van morfine afhankelijke ratten, en evenmin op de voedselinname. Clonidine heeft echter ook geen invloed op het symptoom gewichtsverlies dat samen lijkt te hangen met de overactiviteit van het symphatische zenuwstelsel. Verder onderzoek is nodig om de werking van clonidine nader te bestuderen.<br>
    • DAMES: een bestand voor de macro-emissies van het Nederlandse elektriciteitsaanbod in 1995, 1998, 2010, 2020 en 20300

      Gijsen A; Spakman J; LAE (2001-05-31)
      This report describes the datafile DAMES (in Dutch: Databestand Macro-emissies Elektriciteitssector). DAMES offers an overall view of the Netherlands' electricity supply and it's attendant emissions of CO2, NOx and SO2. It incorporates results from different sources: (1) monitoring reports on production and emissions from central power plants, (2) an electricity supply model for future years and (3) a database with actual and future emission factors. In DAMES, the electricity supply has been divided into contributions from: central production (electricity produced by companies producing electricity as core business), decentral production (electricity produced by companies producing electricity as by-product) and the import balance. Within these three 'subsectors', DAMES calculates production and emissions on the level of installation types. For combined heat and power production (CHP-installations), DAMES allocates a distinct fraction of the total emissions to the produced electricity. DAMES calculates aggregated emissions per kWh, an indicator that is often used in calculations on effectiveness measures. Furthermore, DAMES has an advantage over previous used instruments that it gives an integral overview of the effect of the fuel-mix, CHP, imports and the part of sustainable energy sources. DAMES has been applied on the years 1995/1998 and the future years 2010, 2020 and 2030. For the future years, prognoses have been used from two different scenarios of the CPB (Central Planning Bureau). These scenarios are called Global Competition and European Coordination.
    • DAMES: een bestand voor de macro-emissies van het Nederlandse elektriciteitsaanbod in 1995, 1998, 2010, 2020 en 20300

      Gijsen A; Spakman J; LAE (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-05-31)
      Dit rapport beschrijft de datafile DAMES (DAtabestand Macro-emissies Elektriciteitssector). Dames biedt een integraal overzicht van het Nederlandse elektriciteitsaanbod en de daarmee gepaard gaande emissies van CO2, NOx and SO2. DAMES voegt de resultaten samen van verschillende bronnen: (1) voortgangsreportages van de produktie en emissies van elektriciteitscentrales, (2) een elektriciteitsaanbod model voor toekomstige jaren en (3) een database met actuele en toekomstige emissiefactoren. In DAMES is het elektriciteitsaanbod verdeeld naar centrale produktie (elektriciteit geproduceerd door bedrijven die elektriciteitsopwekking als kernactiviteit hebben), decentrale produktie (elektriciteit geproduceerd door bedrijven die elektriciteit als bijprodukt produceren) en importsaldo. Binnen deze drie 'subsectoren' zijn in DAMES de elektriciteitsproduktie en de emissies op het niveau van installatie-typen berekend. Voor warmte-kracht installaties zijn in DAMES de emissies verdeeld naar het aandeel dat elektriciteitsproduktie heeft in de totale energieproduktie (elektriciteit + warmte) van deze installaties. DAMES berekent geaggregeerde emissies per kWh, een indicator die vaak wordt gebruikt voor berekeningen van effectiviteit van maatregelen. Tevens heeft DAMES als meerwaarde dat het een integraal overzicht geeft in het effect op de emissies van de brandstofmix, WKK, import en het aandeel van duurzame energiebronnen. DAMES is toegepast op de gerealiseerde jaren 1995/1998 en op de toekomstige jaren 2010, 2020 en 2030. Voor de toekomstige jaren zijn prognoses gebruikt van twee scenario's van het CPB (Centraal Plan Bureau). Deze scenario's zijn het Global Competition (GC) en het European Coordination (EC) scenario's.
    • Daphnia magna: reproduction tests with eight different media

      Roghair CJ; Wolters-Balk MAH; Mathhijssen-Spiekman EAM (1990-12-31)
      The effects of eight different media on reproduction, condition and growth of Daphnia magna were measured in three consecutive generations. These media were: 1) ISO-medium, 2) ISO-medium + trace-elements, 3) ISO-medium + selenium + bromide, 4) Elendt-medium, 5) DSW + old rearing water, 6) DSW + trace-elements, 7) DSW + selenium + bromide and 8) DSW + enriched pond water. The design of the experiments was based on the EEC draft guideline "Prolonged toxicity study with Daphnia magna: Effects on reproduction." ISO medium and two modifications of ISO medium gave an unacceptable low reproduction together with a high mortality among newborn daphnias. The best results were produced by the medium consisting of DSW and enriched pond water.
    • Dare to Compare! : Benchmarking Dutch health with the European Community Health Indicators (ECHI)

      Harbers MM; van der Wilk EA; Kramers PGN; Kuunders MMAP; Verschuuren M; Eliyahu H; Achterberg PW; VTV (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2008-11-27)
      Following a period of stagnation in the 1990s, the life expectancy of Dutch women has been increasing since 2000. The average age of 82 years is now following the trend for the average age of women in the 27 European Union (EU) Member States. As in other EU countries, women in the Netherlands live longer than men but they are slightly less healthy when compared to other countries. In the Netherlands, a relatively high number of women die from cancer and diseases of the respiratory system, such as COPD. More and more women are dying from lung cancer in the Netherlands - partly because of the high percentage of women who smoke in this country. The above are some of the conclusions drawn from an RIVM study, which compares the health of people in the Netherlands with that of other EU countries. One reason for conducting this study was prompted by the 2006 Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport who wanted to return the Netherlands back to the top five European countries regarding public health. The comparisons also show that the Netherlands is one of the best countries regarding mortality from cardiovascular disease and accidents. The life expectancy of Dutch men is in line with life expectancy in the 15 more affluent 'old' EU countries. This life expectancy is higher than the average of the new Member States in the current 27 EU countries. Dutch men reach an average age of 78 years. This is the first time that Dutch public health has been internationally compared based on the ECHI shortlist. The shortlist is a set of more than eighty European health indicators on, e.g., disease, lifestyle and prevention. The report also focuses on the health of young and old people and includes an analysis of the availability, comparability and quality of the data necessary for international comparisons.
    • Darmmacrofagen in het konijn. Inventarisatie in situ en isolatie

      Moberts; R.M.P.*; Buys; J. (1984-05-16)
      Abstract not available
    • Data Assimilation in Dynamic Environmental Pollution Modeling

      Zhang XF; van Eijkeren JCH; Heemink AW; CWM; TUD (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-07-31)
      Integration of data with environmental quality models is a key element for the estimation of dynamic spatial concentration patterns. Therefore, data assimilation methods are useful tools to assist in monitoring and controlling environmental quality. This report discusses the applicability of two such data assimilation methods for the estimation and prediction of air pollution. First, a computational effective time-invariant Kalman filter is developed by using a Chandrasekhar-type filter algorithm. Then, as an alternative, a more simple data assimilation method based on Kriging is proposed. The two data assimilation methods are compared in a number of experiments. It appeared that the Kriging approach is only valid if the isotropic and intrinsic hypothesis is satisfied. However, this assumption may not be realistic in many practical problems. In addition, it requires a relatively large number of measurements to produce reliable predictions. Kalman filtering provides a more accurate estimation and is more widely applicable. However, it suffers from computational burden. For real life applications in the next research phase, it is promising that a recently developed Chandrasekhar-type Kalman filter approach can be incorporated to improve computational effectiveness significantly.<br>
    • Data Assimilation in Groundwater Quality Models Using Kriging. Part I

      Zhang XF; van Eijkeren JCH; Heemink AW; TUD; CWM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-06-30)
      As part of a research program directed towards the development of data assimiliation procedures for environmental models, in this report kriging techniques to integrate models and monitoring networks are studied. Simulated data are obtained from a random concentration field Z(x,t) which is generated as a sum of a deterministic component mu (x,t) giving the main trend of Z (x,t) and a stochastic component e (x) giving the natural variation of Z (x,t) around mu (x,t) with zero mean, constant variance and high spatial correlation. The deterministic part mu (x,t) with known mu (x,0) is formed as a superposition of a constant background concentration field and a rotating cone interpreted as the representation of a local pollution. To integrate models and data simple kriging and universal kriging techniques are implemented and compared. In each experiment the number of observations N is varied, as well as the spatial observation pattern which may be regular or irregular. Every case is subdivided into the situations that the spatial correlation structure, i.e. the semivariogram, is known or not. The method for fitting a semivariogram model is also investigated. In particular, some drawbacks existing in a popularly used cost criterion of weighted least squares method for fitting a semivariogram model are pointed out, and a new cost criterion is proposed. The simulation study illustrates the advantages of the proposed new cost criterion. Further, for a specified underlying realization of a stochastic process, different semivariogram models are employed for kriging. Since the real concentration is known in all these cases, the data assimilation methods are quantitatively compared with the real concentration field. In the next research phases emphasis will be on the elaboration of data assimilation procedures, the testing of their applicability in practice under various conditions, and if necessary and feasible the incorporation of more physics-based information into procedures.<br>
    • Data Issues of Global Environmental Reporting: Experiences form GEO-2000

      Woerden J van (eds); MNV; SB5; LWD; LLO (2000-02-28)
      The report highlights major problems encountered when trying to derive policy-relevant environmental information from underlying core data sets. Major data gaps and shortcomings are identified for reporting on global environment problems and sustainable development. Issues of data integration, processing and mapping are described and exemplified by various assessment examples, such as land degradation, climate change and water stress.
    • Data Issues of Global Environmental Reporting: Experiences form GEO-2000

      Woerden J van; MNV; SB5; LWD; LLO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-02-28)
      The report highlights major problems encountered when trying to derive policy-relevant environmental information from underlying core data sets. Major data gaps and shortcomings are identified for reporting on global environment problems and sustainable development. Issues of data integration, processing and mapping are described and exemplified by various assessment examples, such as land degradation, climate change and water stress.
    • Data Management in support of Integrated Environmental Assessment and Modelling at RIVM (Including the 1995 Catalogue of International Data Sets)

      Woerden JW van; Diederiks J; Klein Goldewijk K; CIM (1995-10-31)
      This report describes how global and regional data sets are managed within RIVM in relation to UNEP's Global Environmental Outlook and other environmental assessment and global change studies. The majority of these data sets serves as core input data for assessments and modelling activities, while a smaller number of data sets reflects the results of these activities. Moreover, such core data typically form the basis for defining and deriving environmental indicators for integrated environmental assessment. Logistically, these 'international' data sets are integrated into the overall information infrastructure currently under construction within RIVM, including systems for managing data sets, meta-data (information about the data), quality control and report presentation. In addition to providing such a selection of meta-data as the 1995 data catalogue, an attempt has been made to put the data logistical work on data into a wider context for environmental data management. This is done by describing both how data needs have been made explicit, and how the information infrastructure has been developed and applied to date.
    • A data model for an exposure assessment database for consumer products

      Veen MP van; LBO (1996-04-30)
      In order to provide default values for the exposure assessment of consumer products, the author categorized consumer products into a limited number of categories and made an inventory to available data. To make this categorization and the data available for users and computer applications, a database is necessary. The structure and contents of this consumer product defaults database are described by a data model. The data model will be used to set up a relational database containing the defaults. The central entity in the model is the product. The product is linked to contact, exposure and uptake categories directly, if specific data are available, and indirectly via the product category, if defaults are needed. The product is also linked to a number of entities containing further information, such as its composition, its producer and literature references.
    • Data-uitwisselingsplatform gezondheid en milieu - Haalbaarheidsstudie en plan van aanpak

      Staatsen BAM; Mulder YM; van Overveld AJP; MGO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2006-12-31)
      A web-based platform for the exchange of national and local data on health and the environment contributes to better harmonisation and accessibility of data, and will facilitate the development and evaluation of environmental policies. Experiences with similar initiatives and needs of the target users (national and regional authorities, Municipal Health Services, environmental agencies and citizens) led to the preparation of a list of requirements and a proposal for the development of such a platform. The data exchange platform, as described in this report, should offer possibilities for exchange, comparison and analysis of national, regional and local environment and health data. A pilot study, in which a selection of data is disclosed by way of already available applications, has been proposed. In this way, participating authorities can start using the data at this stage for their own purposes. The experiences gained in the pilot and presented here will have a role in the preparation of a framework report on the continuation of the project. This second report will be used in making decisions on the actual development of a custom-made application.
    • Databank voor zeldzame aandoeningen. Is een "weesbase" haalbaar?

      de Vries C; Hegger I; BMT (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2008-01-16)
      Er is in Nederland geen databank die een complete verzameling van Nederlandse prevalentiegegevens voor zeldzame aandoeningen levert. Door het RIVM is onderzocht of het ontwikkelen van een complete databank met betrouwbare prevalentiegegevens voor zeldzame aandoeningen in Nederland haalbaar is. Uit dit onderzoek blijkt dat het ontwikkelen en in stand houden van een databank zeldzame aandoeningen mogelijk is indien dit duidelijk gecoordineerd wordt en een financiele tegemoetkoming tot stand gebracht wordt voor de lange termijn.
    • Database biocidengebruik in verschillende bedrijftypes : Inventarisatie van toegelaten en niet-toegelaten middelen

      Scheepmaker JWA; de Jong FMW; van der Grinten E; Alkadhimi M; SEC ; LER ; EMI; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2013-01-25)
      The Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate (ILT) of the Netherlands is responsible for supervising and enforcing government regulations on the use of biocides. Upon request of the ILT, the RIVM has developed a system that specifies which biocides may be used in the various economic sectors. The system distinguishes between biocides that are registered, those that are not registered and those that are registered but not used according to the manufacturer's specifications. For the purposes of the report, the last two types of biocides are grouped together under the term 'off-label' biocides. All of the data collected were inserted into a database. Each biocide was linked to economic sectors based on the intended use of the respective biocide. The number of off-label biocides that each economic sector possibly uses is presented as a percentage of the total package of biocides used by that economic sector. The ILT can use these data to identify those economic sectors having the highest potential for off-label biocide use. This inventory provides only an indication of the potential for use of these off-label biocides - at this stage the actual extent of the use of off-label biocides is still unknown. Based on these data, however, the ILT can select those economic sectors in which the use of off-label biocides seems to be relatively high as targets for further enforcement measures. he database contains biocides that are registered in the Netherlands, Belgium and United Kingdom. Those biocides registered abroad, but not in the Netherlands, are tagged as off-label biocides in the database. Other biocides included in the database are those with a temporary license for use in the Netherlands, those which have been taken off the market and those available on the Internet despite being unregistered. This report describes the database and how the study was conducted. For illustrative purposes, a number of core tables are included in the report.
    • A database of methane concentrations as measured in the Netherlands and Europe

      Janssen LHJM; Wal JT van der; Hollander JC; Vermeulen A; Vosbeek MEJP; LLO (1997-02-28)
      In order to increase our knowledge of methane emissions on a small scale the project 'Sources, regional scaling and validation of CH4 emissions from the Netherlands and Northwest Europe' is carried out in the framework of Phase 2 of the National Research Program on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-2). This project aims at the development of a validated CH4 emission database on a scale of 5x5 km and 25x25 km for the Netherlands and Europe respectively for the main source categories. CH4 emissions are validated in this project by comparing results of atmospheric models which use this emission database as an input, with measured CH4 concentrations. In this report the data of methane measurements at 4 locations in the Netherlands and 3 locations in Northwest Europe over the period 1990-1994 are gathered and reported. Besides data on CH4 concentrations also meteorological data as measured by KNMI near the measuring sites in the Netherlands are included in the database. The sources of the data, their formats, the procedures to process the data, the databases which are constructed to include the data in a systematic way and time series of the CH4 measurements over the period 1990-1994 are described in this report.
    • A database of methane concentrations as measured in the Netherlands and Europe

      Janssen LHJM; Wal JT van der; Hollander JC; Vermeulen A; Vosbeek MEJP; LLO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-02-28)
      Om meer inzicht te verkrijgen in de emissies en bronnen en putten van methaan op kleine schaal is het project 'Bronnen, ruimtelijke opschaling en validatie van Methaan emissies in Nederland en West-Europa' gestart in de 2e fase van het Nationaal Onderzoeksprogramma Mondiale Luchtverontreiniging en Klimaatverandering (NOP-2). Het doel van dit project is om een gevalideerde database van CH4 emissies te realiseren op een schaal van 5x5 km en 25x25 km voor Nederland en Europa respectievelijk voor de belangrijkste broncategorieen. Validatie van de CH4 emissies gebeurt door resultaten van berekeningen met atmosfeermodellen te vergelijken met metingen van CH4 in de buitenlucht. Een product van dit project is een gegevensbestand van methaanconcentraties zoals gemeten in Nederland en Europa. In dit rapport worden de gegevens van methaanmetingen zoals ze zijn uitgevoerd op 4 locaties in Nederland en op 3 locaties in noord-west Europa gedurende de periode 1990-1994 bijeengebracht. Behalve gegevens over CH4-concentraties in de buitenlucht, zijn ook meteorologische gegevens, zoals gemeten door het KNMI in de buurt van de Nederlandse CH4-meetstations, in de database bijeengebracht. De bronnen van de gegevens, het gegevensformaat, de procedures voor gegevensbewerking en de gegevensbestanden die zijn gemaakt om de data op een systematische manier op te kunnen slaan worden beschreven. Verder worden tijdreeksen van de metingen over de periode 1990-1994 gepresenteerd.
    • Dataopslag, monitoring en evaluatie van dierproeven, proefdieren en 3V-alternatieven voor proefdiergebruik in Nederland

      van Zijverden M; Noorlander CW; Deleu S; NKA; V&Z (Nationaal Kenniscentrum Alternatieven voor dierproeven (NKCA), 2013-05-01)