• e-Medication met behulp van apps : Gebruik en gebruikerservaringen

      van Kerkhof LWM; van de Laar K; Schooneveldt B; Hegger I; EVG; V&Z (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2015-12-15)
      The past years many apps for medication use have become available, for health care professionals as well as consumers. Appreciation of these apps is highly dependent on ease-of-use. This is shown in a study by RIVM among people with diabetes and anesthesiologists. Both user groups experience many advantages and few disadvantages. The most experienced advantage is that information is available quickly and up-todate. Health benefits and improved self-reliability are other advantages experienced by people with diabetes using apps. The amount of respondents using apps is highly different among the two groups investigated. Respondents indicate not to use the apps for medication use when they are time-consuming, when they are inconvenient to use, or when they seem unreliable. Users do not worry much about privacy or quality of the apps. Among the responding anesthesiologists, apps are used frequently for calculating dosages, choosing anesthetics or checking drug interactions. Use of apps among responding persons with diabetes is much lower: about one third of the respondents uses apps for regulating blood glucose levels. Respondents not using apps often do not know these apps exist, but are interested in using them. Good instructions and the guarantee that they are reliable are prerequisites. Respondents that do use apps are very positive about the benefits that they have.
    • Early warning systems to detect new and emerging risks in Europe

      Palmen NGM; NAT; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2016-05-24)
      The Dutch ministry of Social Affairs and Employment aims to reduce worker exposure to carcinogens. So, it is important to identify carcinogens and work processes that may cause cancer as early as possible. Also at the European level there is much interest in so-called early warning systems, but countries use different systems. RIVM made an inventory in 51 European countries for identifying new and emerging risks for workers. Seven countries developed a signaling tool, sometimes in cooperation with another country. Using such a tool, physicians can report health effects, e.g. cancer, when they suspect a hitherto unknown causal relationship between substances or work processes and the reported health effect. Next, a group of experts in occupational disease and exposure will evaluate the possible causal relationship. Ten other countries reported systems which are not specifically designed to identify new and emerging risks of chemicals, but which may be used as such. Besides signaling tools, databases are available with information on exposure to hazardous substances and processes, and health effects. These databases can be used to identify possible carcinogens. Again, expert groups play a fundamental role in the evaluation. National centres that investigate work-related health effects of workers play an essential role in the evaluation of a possible causal relationship between exposure and health effect, according to experts in the field. According to most of the countries in this study, cases should be collected and evaluated preferably at an international level. Many suggestions were given; e.g. using an already existing international network of professionals who evaluate and discuss new and emerging risks for workers (MODERNET) or other international advisory committees. Once a new and emerging health risk has been established, action has to be taken to control the risk. This study gives an overview of possible actions.
    • EARSS Annual report 2005, On-going surveillance of S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa

      CIE (EARSS Management Teammembers of the Advisory Boardand national representatives of EARSS, 2006-10-01)
      The European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) is an international initiative funded by the Director General for Health and Consumer Protection (DG SANCO) of the European Commission and the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. It maintains a comprehensive surveillance and information system that links national networks by providing comparable and validated data on the prevalence and spread of major invasive bacteria with clinically and epidemiologically relevant antimicrobial resistance in Europe. EARSS collects routinely generated antimicrobial susceptibility (AST) data, provides spatial trend analyses and makes timely feedback available via an interactive website at www.rivm.nl/earss. Routine data for major indicator pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are regularly submitted by over 900 laboratories serving around 1400 hospitals in 32 European countries. By the end of 2005 two new countries joined the EARSS initiative, Lithuania and Turkey. Based on a previous laboratory/hospital questionnaire, the overall hospital catchment population of the EARSS network is estimated to include over 100 million inhabitants in the European region, with national coverage rates that ranged between 20-100% for individual countries. In 2005, information on the laboratory demands for external quality assessment (EQA) was collected by questionnaire. Several countries do not have formal agreements on national or international quality assessment schemes in place. Among the international providers of EQA the British UK-NEQAS scheme was most frequently named by countries. Alternatively, different national schemes are in place, either alone or in combination with one of the international programs. Importantly, the majority of laboratories that participate in EARSS utilise some type of EQA, demonstrating their commitment to diagnostic accuracy. In Europe the proportion of antibiotic resistant S. pneumoniae keeps changing with decreasing penicillin-resistance in some highly endemic countries and with continuous loss of susceptibility against penicillin and erythromycin in others. The main resistance phenotypes in pneumococci are confined to few serogroups, all of which are included in the currently promoted conjugate vaccines. This suggests that vaccination, especially in young children, may represent an effective additional means of controlling antibiotic resistance in pneumococcal disease in Europe. The increase of MRSA is consistent throughout Europe and includes countries with high, medium and low baseline MRSA endemicity. At the same time it appears that the MRSA pandemic is not an irreversible secular trend as two European countries (Slovenia and France) succeeded in constantly reducing the proportion of MRSA among S. aureus blood stream infections over the past five or six years. The speed with which fluoroquinolones loose their activity against E. coli is next to no other compound pathogen combination in the EARSS database. Combined resistance is a frequent occurrence, with co-resistance to three antimicrobial classes including third generation cephalosporins already among the four most common resistance patterns encountered in invasive E. coli in Europe, and undeniably these resistance traits are on the increase as well. In K. pneumoniae a high prevalence of resistant strains to third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides becomes evident in Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Combined resistance is the dominant threat imposed by invasive P. aeruginosa. Our data suggest that the same geographical gradient exists for all gramnegative pathogens and shows that lower resistance prevails in the Northwest with increasing resistance towards the Southeast of Europe. It appears that the overall threat imposed on European communities by the increasing loss of antimicrobial effectiveness continues unabated with the same speed as has been previously described by our network. This is shown most convincingly among the pathogens that are frequently transmitted in health care settings (MRSA and VRE) and for antimicrobial compounds that are available for oral administration and hence preferred in ambulatory care (aminopenicillins, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones). The growing availability of third-line antimicrobial drugs as oral formulations is in this context a matter of concern and underscores the need of locally or nationally advised prescribing practices for both ambulatory and hospital-based care.
    • EARSS Annual report 2005, On-going surveillance of S. pneumoniae, S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. faecium, E. coli, K. pneumoniae and P. aeruginosa

      EARSS Management Team, members of the Advisory Board, and national representatives of EARSS; CIE (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2006-10-01)
      The European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS) is an international initiative funded by the Director General for Health and Consumer Protection (DG SANCO) of the European Commission and the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports. It maintains a comprehensive surveillance and information system that links national networks by providing comparable and validated data on the prevalence and spread of major invasive bacteria with clinically and epidemiologically relevant antimicrobial resistance in Europe. EARSS collects routinely generated antimicrobial susceptibility (AST) data, provides spatial trend analyses and makes timely feedback available via an interactive website at www.rivm.nl/earss. Routine data for major indicator pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) are regularly submitted by over 900 laboratories serving around 1400 hospitals in 32 European countries. By the end of 2005 two new countries joined the EARSS initiative, Lithuania and Turkey. Based on a previous laboratory/hospital questionnaire, the overall hospital catchment population of the EARSS network is estimated to include over 100 million inhabitants in the European region, with national coverage rates that ranged between 20-100% for individual countries. In 2005, information on the laboratory demands for external quality assessment (EQA) was collected by questionnaire. Several countries do not have formal agreements on national or international quality assessment schemes in place. Among the international providers of EQA the British UK-NEQAS scheme was most frequently named by countries. Alternatively, different national schemes are in place, either alone or in combination with one of the international programs. Importantly, the majority of laboratories that participate in EARSS utilise some type of EQA, demonstrating their commitment to diagnostic accuracy. In Europe the proportion of antibiotic resistant S. pneumoniae keeps changing with decreasing penicillin-resistance in some highly endemic countries and with continuous loss of susceptibility against penicillin and erythromycin in others. The main resistance phenotypes in pneumococci are confined to few serogroups, all of which are included in the currently promoted conjugate vaccines. This suggests that vaccination, especially in young children, may represent an effective additional means of controlling antibiotic resistance in pneumococcal disease in Europe. The increase of MRSA is consistent throughout Europe and includes countries with high, medium and low baseline MRSA endemicity. At the same time it appears that the MRSA pandemic is not an irreversible secular trend as two European countries (Slovenia and France) succeeded in constantly reducing the proportion of MRSA among S. aureus blood stream infections over the past five or six years. The speed with which fluoroquinolones loose their activity against E. coli is next to no other compound pathogen combination in the EARSS database. Combined resistance is a frequent occurrence, with co-resistance to three antimicrobial classes including third generation cephalosporins already among the four most common resistance patterns encountered in invasive E. coli in Europe, and undeniably these resistance traits are on the increase as well. In K. pneumoniae a high prevalence of resistant strains to third generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides becomes evident in Eastern and Southeastern Europe. Combined resistance is the dominant threat imposed by invasive P. aeruginosa. Our data suggest that the same geographical gradient exists for all gramnegative pathogens and shows that lower resistance prevails in the Northwest with increasing resistance towards the Southeast of Europe. It appears that the overall threat imposed on European communities by the increasing loss of antimicrobial effectiveness continues unabated with the same speed as has been previously described by our network. This is shown most convincingly among the pathogens that are frequently transmitted in health care settings (MRSA and VRE) and for antimicrobial compounds that are available for oral administration and hence preferred in ambulatory care (aminopenicillins, macrolides, and fluoroquinolones). The growing availability of third-line antimicrobial drugs as oral formulations is in this context a matter of concern and underscores the need of locally or nationally advised prescribing practices for both ambulatory and hospital-based care.
    • EARSS: European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System; data from the Netherlands (1999).Incidence and resistance rates for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus

      Goettsch WG; Neeling AJ de; CIE; LIO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-07-30)
      Gevoeligheid voor antimicrobiele middelen in Streptococcus pneumoniae en Staphylococcus aureus werd bepaald in 1999 in Nederland binnen het raamwerk van het European antomicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). Het EARSS project had in Nederland een dekkingsgraad van 40% van de Nederlandse populatie (extramuraal) en 40% van het totale aantal patientdagen (intramuraal). Resistentiie tegen penicilline in S. pneumoniae was minimaal; slechts 9 van 767 (1,2%) isolatn waren niet gevoelig. Resistentie tegen oxacilline in S. aureus was ook laag; slechts 4 ((0,3%) isolaten waren MRSA. de incidentie van invasieve S. pneumoniae was 117 gevallen/1.000.000 persoonsjaren, de incidentie van invasieve penicilline niet gevoelige S. pneumoniae was 1 geval/1.000.000 persoonsjaren. De incidentie van invasieve S. aureus infecties was 0,25 gevallen/1000 patientdagen; de incidentie van invasieve MRSA infecties was 0,0006 gevallen/1000 patientdagen. hetis duidelijkj dat resistentie tegen antibiotica bij deze twee pathogenen in vergelijkijng tot andere Europese landen nog steeds erg laag is.
    • EARSS: European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System; data from the Netherlands (1999).Incidence and resistance rates for Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus

      Goettsch WG; de Neeling AJ; CIE; LIO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-07-30)
      In a porspective prevalence and incidence survey in The Netherlands in 1999 antimicrobial susceptibility data on invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus infections were collected sithin the framework of European Antomicrobial Resistance Surveillance System (EARSS). The EARSS project covered approximately 40% of the Dutch population (extramural) and 40% of the total number of patient-days (intramural). Penicillin resistance in S. pneumoniae was minimal; only 9 of 767 (1,2%) isolates were non-susceptible. Resistance to oxacillin in S. aureus was low, only (0,3%) isolates were MRSA (mecA positive). The incidence of invasive S. pneumoniae was 117 cases/1.000.000 person-years; the incidence of invasive penicillin non-susceptible S. pneumoniae was 1 case/1.000.000 person-years. The incidence of invasive S. aureus infections was 0.25 cases/1000 patient-days; the incidence of invasive MRSA infections was 0.0006 cases/1000 patient-days. It may be concluded that resistance to antibiotics in these two pathogens, when compared to other European countries, is still very low.<br>
    • EC-collaborative study on the determination of aflatoxin B1 in animal feeding stuffs

      Egmond HP van; Heisterkamp SH; Paulsch WE (1989-08-31)
      Abstract not available
    • Eco-efficiency in industrial production

      Raesfeld A von; Bakker F de; Groen A; NOP (Universiteit Twente (UTw), 2001-12-02)
      This report of the MATRIC project investigated 'Eco-efficiency in industrial production'. After a general introduction into the domain of eco-efficiency, the first part of this report further focusses on the organisation of Product-Oriented Environmental Management (POEM), which is defined as the systematic attention of a company for reducing the environmental impact of its products across the entire product lifecycle. The second part of this report focusses on the adoption of eco-efficient construction systems in Dutch house building. After a general description of socio-technical development in Dutch housing construction, the housing construction regime is described, special attention is given to the adoption paths of timber-frame and calcium silicate stone construction systems, and, finally lessons for the governance of socio-technical development in Dutch housing construction are drawn.
    • Het ecohydrologisch voorspellingsmodel DEMNAT-2; conceptuele modelbeschrijving

      Witte JPM; Groen CLG; Nienhuis JG; LWD; LUW; CML (Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen LUWCentrum voor Milieukunde Leiden CMLRijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM, 1992-11-30)
      The model DEMNAT-2 is designed to predict the impact of water management scenarios on groundwater-dependent ecosystems. The model can be applied to national and regional studies, provided there is enough ecological data available for this purpose. Input to DEMNAT is formed by hydrological changes, for example changes in seepage intensity and spring groundwater level, which can be predicted with existing hydrological models. Output is formed by changes in the completeness of 15 ecosystem types and in resulting values for nature conservation. Three modules of DEMNAT can be distinguished: geographical schematisation of a lot of hydrological and ecological data, dose-effect functions for calculation and valuation of effects. This report ends with a chapter discussing DEMNATs usefulness: its main shortcomings are shown and possible improvements mentioned.
    • Het ecohydrologisch voorspellingsmodel DEMNAT-2; interpretatie van de rekenresultaten

      Groen CLG; Meijden R; Nienhuis JG; Pakes U; Witte JPM; CML; RHHB; LBG; RIZA; LUW (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM; Centrum voor Milieukunde Leiden CML; Rijksinstituut voor Integraal Zoetwaterbeheer en Afvalwaterbehandeling RIZA, 1992-12-31)
      The Dose-Effect Model for terrestrial NATure (DEMNAT) is a model for the nationwide prediction of effects of water management measures on vegetation. For scenario analyses with DEMNAT geographical data on vegetation (ecotope groups), soil and groundwater (ecoseries) and hydrological doses are combined. Effects can either be expressed as changes in the completeness (or relative species richness) of ecotope groups, or as changes in nature value. This allows combining changes in various ecotope groups, weighed relative to their significance for nature conservation. With DEMNAT both damage and recovery due to water management measures can be calculated. To this end, seperate dosis-effect functions for damage and recovery were defined, as recovery is often less rapid or incomplete. For the National Policy Plan on Drinking Water and Industrial Water Supply wich was to be accompanied by an Environmental Impact Assessment eight basic scenarios were evaluated. A scenario is defined by a percentual change in the amount of groundwater withdrawn in a certain way (e.g. from phreatic groundwater) and for a pre-defined application. As subsstantial amounts of groundwater are withdrawn from ice-pushed ridges, the largest effects occur around the ridges. Smaller effects occur over larger surfaces, especially at the Holocene alluvial plains along the boundary of the elevated Pleistocene parts of the Netherlands. Ecotope groups of nutrient-poor, weakly acid sites are the most severely influenced by most scenarios. A comparison of the results of each scenario with the reference situation shows that various scenarios may add substantially to the recovery of wet and moist ecotope groups.
    • Het ecohydrologisch voorspellingsmodel DEMNAT-2; technische modelbeschrijving

      Nienhuis JG; Gan JBS; Lieste R; LBG (1992-12-31)
      To study the impact of water management scenarios on the value and distribution of terrestrial ecosystems "eco-hydrological prediction" models are used. DEMNAT (Dose Effect Model for terrestrial NATure) is one of these models. The second version of this model (DEMNAT-2), build by the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) and the Institute for Inland Water Management and Waste Water Treatment (RIZA), is used to analyse the impact assessment of different groundwater extraction scenarios in the Netherlands. Specially developed FORTRAN calculation programs, along with a Geographical Information System (GIS), are used to calculate the changes of wet and moist ecotopes, specific for wet and moist conditions. Water-management policy scenarios provide information for two different hydrological models. These models (National Groundwater Model for the Netherlands, LGM) and DEMandGENerator, DEMGEM) produce files with information concerning hydrological changes. These changes, along with vegetation and soil data, are used by DEMNAT-2 to carry out calculations. The model DEMNAT-2 consists of three FORTRAN calculating programs: PREDEM (the preprocessor), EFFDEM (the effect module) and POSDEM (the postprocessor). Development and application of these programs as well as their operation are described in this document. Its objective is, on the one hand, to provide insight into the structure, preparation and the flow of data in DEMNAT-2, while on the other hand it is meant to be a user's manual for DEMNAT-2, along with some of the related documents published in the context of the impact assessment study.
    • Ecological effects of pesticide use in the Netherlands: Modeled and observed effects in the field ditch

      Zwart D de; LER (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-04-14)
      Dit rapport behandeld een nieuwe methode voor het berekenen van het ecologische risico in kavelsloten dat wordt veroorzaakt door het gebruik van een groot aantal bestrijdingsmiddelen (261) in Nederland voor het jaar 1998. De gehele berekening is terug te voeren op een GIS-kaart van het agrarisch landgebruik, waarbij 51 verschillende teelten worden onderscheiden. Hierdoor is het mogelijk om de resultaten in kaartbeelden weer te geven. Door de toepassing van soortengevoeligheidsverdelingen (SSD) en rekenregels voor combinatietoxiciteit, wordt de berekende blootstelling omgerekend naar een risicoschatting voor de aquatische levensgemeenschap die aanwezig hoort te zijn in kavelsloten. Dit risico wordt weergegeven als de fractie van de soorten die wordt geacht enig effect van de blootstelling te ondervinden. In de samenvatting van de risicokaarten wordt aangetoond dat het merendeel van het voorspelde risico wordt veroorzaakt door het gangbare bestrijdingsmiddelengebruik in de aardappelteelt. Slechts 7 van de 261 bestrijdingsmiddelen zijn verantwoordelijk te stellen voor 95% van het voorspelde risico. Voor alle bestrijdingsmiddelen tezamen is 50% het maximum risico dat is berekend voor enige plek in Nederland. Met behulp van simpele statistische regressie technieken is het berekende risico vergeleken met de door waterkwaliteitsbeheerders gemeten soortensamenstelling in het veld. Deze analyse levert een zwakke indicatie dat de voorspelde aantasting van het ecosysteem ook werkelijk waarneembaar is in het veld. Het geringe aantal beschikbare biologische waarnemingen in klavelsloten tezamen met een grote variabiliteit in de meetgegevens is er echter voor verantwoordelijk dat er geen significante relatie tussen modelvoorspelling en waarnemingen is aan te tonen.
    • Ecological effects of pesticide use in the Netherlands: Modeled and observed effects in the field ditch

      de Zwart D; LER (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-04-14)
      This study dealing with risks to the aquatic ecosystem imposed by the application of pesticides in the Netherlands made use of a novel method to calculate aquatic exposure to a large variety of pesticides (261 in total), which is worked out in detail here. Since the entire calculation is founded on GIS-based maps of agricultural land use (51 crops in open culture), it is possible to generate country-wide maps of the results. Through the application of Sensitivity Distributions for aquatic species (SSD), in combination with rules for mixture toxicity calculation, the modeled exposure is transformed to a risk estimate for the species assemblage in the aquatic ecosystem. The risk is expressed as the proportion of species likely to be suffering any effect from the exposure. In the summary of the risk maps, the majority of predicted effects is observed to be caused by the pesticide application practice in growing potato crops: 95% of the predicted risk is caused by only 7 of the 261 pesticide ingredients. The maximum local risk of pesticide use is estimated to affect about 50% of species. For the purpose of validation, local toxic risk estimates were compared to observed species composition in field ditches using simple statistical methods (regression analysis). However, the number of field observations was not sufficient enough to generate quantitative results. The unexplained variability in the biotic field data collected by a range of non-aligned monitoring networks does not allow highly significant conclusions. Nevertheless, there is a weak indication that the predicted risks are associated to biodiversity changes in field-exposed communities.
    • The ecological footprint of Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica and the Netherlands

      Vuuren DP van; Smeets EMW; Kruijf HAM de; MNV (1999-07-09)
      The Ecological Footprint (EF) has recieved much attention as a potential indicator for sustainable development over the last years. In this report, the EF concept has been applied to four different countries, i.e. Benin, Bhutan, Costa Rica and the Netherlands in 1980, 1987 and 1994. The results of the assessment are discussed and the experiences are used to discuss the current potential and limitations of the EF as a sustainable development indicator. The originally defined methodology has been slightly adapted: 1) the report focuses on individual components of the EF (land and carbon dioxide emissions) instead of focuses on the aggregated EF and 2) the land use calculations are based on local yiels instead of global average yields. Although per capita and total land use highly differ among the four countries, available data suggests increasing land use in all four countries while per capita land use decreases. The EF for carbon dioxide emissions increases for all four countries both per capita and in absolute terms. Differences in productivity, aggregation (of different resources) and multi-functional land use have been shown to be important obstacles in EF application - depending on the assessment objective. However, despite the obstacles, the study concludes that the EF has been successful in providing an interesting basis for discussion on environmental effects of consumption patterns - including those outside the national borders - and on equity concerning resource use.
    • Ecological rehabilitation of the river Rhine: a proposal for a Netherlands research programme

      Admiraal W; Ruijter van Steveninck ED de; Wit JAW de; Cazemier WG (1988-05-24)
      Abstract not available
    • Ecological risk assessment of contaminated land - Decision support for site specific investigations

      Jensen J; Mesman M; Bierkens J; Loibner A; Rutgers M; Bogolte T; Celis R; Dirven-van Breemen EM; Erlacher E; Ehlers C; Hartnik T; Sorokin N; ter Laak T; Jensen J; Mesman M; LER (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNational Environmental Research Institute (NERI)SilkeborgDenmarkFlemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO)Centre of Expertise Integrated Environmental SolutionsMolBelgiumUniversity of Natural Resources and Applied Life SciencesViennaDepartment for Agrobiotechnology(IFA-Tulln)Institute for Environmental BiotechnologyTullnAustriaInstitute for Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Seville (CSIC)SevillaSpainNorwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental ResearchSoil and Environment Division4sNorwayWRc plcNational Centre for Environmental Toxicology (NCET)SwindonUnited KingdomUtrecht UniversityInstitute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)UtrechtThe Netherlands, 2006-05-31)
      This book documents the outcome of the EU-funded research project 'LIBERATION', aimed at the development of a decision support system (DSS) for sustainable management of contaminated land with special focus on organic contaminants. The book is geared to providing guidance to risk assessors and stakeholders of contaminated land in their decision-making process. The DSS, which follows a stepwise approach, is divided into three different stages: - Stage I: Site characterisation and description of land use; - Stage II: Determination of ecological aspects and - Stage III: Site-specific assessment (The Triad) consisting of four tiers: 1. Simple screening; 2. Refined screening; 3. Detailed assessment and 4. Final assessment. Each of the tiers is based on a weight of evidence approach combining three lines of evidence (LoEs), Chemistry, Toxicology and Ecology. The book also contains useful lists of techniques and tools dedicated to each tier within the three LoEs. In this book it is shown how measures of bioavailability are systematically incorporated into a framework for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soil. However, most techniques for assessing bioavailability are relatively novel and hence not yet fully validated; the challenge to fully understand the underlying processes controlling bioavailability is still immense. Nevertheless, this book will hopefully generate a discussion, encourage further development of tools and, most important of all, promote more practical experience in site-specific evaluation of ecological risk.
    • Ecological risk assessment of contaminated land - Decision support for site specific investigations

      Jensen J; Mesman M; Bierkens J; Loibner A; Rutgers, Michiel; Bogolte T; Celis R; Dirven-van Breemen EM; Erlacher E; Ehlers C; Hartnik T; Sorokin N; Laak, T L ter (RIVM, 2006-05-31)
      This book documents the outcome of the EU-funded research project 'LIBERATION', aimed at the development of a decision support system (DSS) for sustainable management of contaminated land with special focus on organic contaminants. The book is geared to providing guidance to risk assessors and stakeholders of contaminated land in their decision-making process. The DSS, which follows a stepwise approach, is divided into three different stages: - Stage I: Site characterisation and description of land use; - Stage II: Determination of ecological aspects and - Stage III: Site-specific assessment (The Triad) consisting of four tiers: 1. Simple screening; 2. Refined screening; 3. Detailed assessment and 4. Final assessment. Each of the tiers is based on a weight of evidence approach combining three lines of evidence (LoEs), Chemistry, Toxicology and Ecology. The book also contains useful lists of techniques and tools dedicated to each tier within the three LoEs. In this book it is shown how measures of bioavailability are systematically incorporated into a framework for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soil. However, most techniques for assessing bioavailability are relatively novel and hence not yet fully validated; the challenge to fully understand the underlying processes controlling bioavailability is still immense. Nevertheless, this book will hopefully generate a discussion, encourage further development of tools and, most important of all, promote more practical experience in site-specific evaluation of ecological risk.
    • The ecological risks of antibiotic resistance in aquatic environments: a literature review

      Mensink BJWG; Montforts MHMM; SEC (2008-02-01)
      Bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics occur in the aquatic environment, including sewage and surface waters. The consequences for ecosystems are however difficult to assess, RIVM concluded in a literature review ordered by the Centre for Water Management. RIVM investigated the environmental risks of antibiotic resistance genes in aquatic environments. Resistance genes render bacteria insusceptible to antibiotics. In the Netherlands, for the treatment of humans and animals yearly about 40 and 508 tonnes antibiotics are used, respectively. After enteric bacteria have become resistant to these antibiotics, the bacteria and their resistance genes may enter the sewage or manure. Via DNA particles that may be easily transferred, these genes can be further spread to other bacteria. Resistance genes present in enteric bacteria from waste water have been found in surface water downstream of sewage treatment plants, also when enteric bacteria were absent. Resistance is further favoured by different environmental conditions such as nutrients, chemicals and metals in the water. Recent Dutch research indicated that the use of antibiotics in pig farming leads to an increase diversity of bacterial resistance genes in the local aquatic environment. However, the studies did not conclude on the relationship between the presence of resistance genes and numbers of resistant bacteria. The review concludes that no research is available on the possible environmental effects. Also there is little information on the presence of resistance genes in unpolluted waters, which makes a thorough comparison impossible. RIVM recommends studying the presence and possible effects of resistance genes in such a way that also the absolute number of resistant bacteria can be compared between polluted and unpolluted sites.
    • Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

      Geurs KT; LAE (2000-07-31)
      This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the functioning of the land-use-transport system; (2) a literature study on methodologies for the evaluation of transport scenarios; (3) a review of evaluation methodologies used in recent transport scenarios; (4) the development of a methodology for the ecological, economic and social assessment of transport scenarios; (5) the application of the methodology in case studies.
    • Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

      Geurs KT; LAE (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-07-31)
      Dit rapport beschrijft een onderzoeksprogramma voor de ontwikkeling van een methodiek voor de integrale beoordeling van milieu-, economische en sociale consequenties van verkeers- en vervoerscenario's. De geplande onderzoeksactiviteiten omvatten onder meer: (1) een literatuurstudie naar conceptuele modellen voor de verklaring van de samenhangen tussen het verkeerssysteem en het ecologische, economische, ruimtelijke en sociale systeem, (2) een literatuurstudie naar methodologieen voor de beoordeling van verkeers- en vervoerscenario's, (3) een review van de methodologieen die gebruikt zijn bij de ontwikkeling en evaluatie van verkeers- en vervoerscenario's in binnen- en buitenland, (4) de ontwikkeling van een beoordelingsmethodiek voor een integrale beoordeling van milieu-, economische en sociale consequenties van verkeers- en vervoerscenario's, (5) de toepassing van de beoordelingsmethodiek in enkele case studies.