• Gallstone size and the risk of gallbladder cancer, a hospital based case-control study

      Moerman CJ; Lagerwaard FJ; Bueno de Mesquita HB; van Dalen A; van Leeuwen MS; Schrover PAHAM; Berns MPH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1992-03-31)
      The relation between gallstone size and gallbladder cancer was studied in a hospital based case-control study. Cases were selected on abdominal surgery. The selection criterion for controls was a cholecystectomy performed for a benign gallbladder disorder. Controls were matched with cases on sex, age, hospital and date of admission. A radiologist determined the size of the largest gallstone within the gallbladder by reviewing hard copies of sonographical examinations. Between 1983 and 1989 83 gallbladder cases were identified in the 18 participating hospitals. Of 43 cases and 98 matched controls a measurable stone size was obtained. No relation was found between size of the largest stone within the gallbladder and the occurrence of gallbladder cancer.<br>
    • Galvanische bewerkingen

      Mortier JW du; Ros JPM (1992-01-31)
      This document on galvanic treatment has been published within the the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licences.
    • Gamma-exposietempo metingen rondom het COVRA-terrein te Petten

      Dongen; R.van (1984-03-28)
      Abstract not available
    • Gammastralingsniveaumetingen aan de terreingrens van COVRA N.V. te Borsele in 2015 en 2016 met het MONET-meetnet

      Tanzi CP; ABI; VLH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-02-12)
      This report contains an erratum d.d. 08-10-2018 on page 41 Over the years 2015 and 2016, the radiation level caused by gamma radiation at the site boundary of the COVRA N.V., the Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste, was below the maximum permitted level. This is the conclusion of this report based on field measurements carried out by RIVM. Dutch legislation on the use of nuclear energy requires that the maximum dose rate at the site boundary of the COVRA N.V. does not exceed 40 microsievert annually. Control measurements of the gamma radiation level were therefore carried out with gamma radiation monitors placed at twelve locations at the site boundary. This is done within the framework of the MONET monitoring network, which falls under the administrative management of the RIVM. The measurements are processed by subtracting the natural background The result is then translated into the effective radiation dose for an individual by applying the so-called 'Actual Exposure Correction factor' (ABC-factor). ABC-factors are closely linked with the specific use of the site where the effective radiation dose is calculated. RIVM is tasked by the Authority of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (ANVS, formerly known as KFD) to annually report on whether COVRA N.V. meets the criterion set out in its license. Both the daily averages of the effective gamma dose around COVRA N.V. are shown and an explanation of how the background level for the MONET monitors is determined is provided in the report. Over the period 2015 to 2016 the highest gamma yearly dose, to which the ABC-factor is applied, is found to be 2,9 and 3,0 microsievert respectively. This is lower than the value of 40 microsievert per year which is stipulated in the permit.
    • Gammastralingsniveaumetingen aan de terreingrens van COVRA N.V. te Borsele in 2017 met het MONET-meetnet

      Tanzi CP; ABI; VLH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-11-01)
      In 2017, the radiation level in 2017 caused by gamma radiation at the site boundary of the COVRA N.V., the Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste, was below the maximum permitted level of 40 microsievert per year. The maximum measured gamma dose is 3,0 microsievert per year. This is the result of measurements carried out by RIVM. RIVM is tasked by the Authority of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (ANVS) to annually report on whether COVRA N.V. meets the criterion set out in its operating license. COVRA N.V. needs to ensure that the maximum effective dose received by persons outside the boundary of COVRA N.V. does not exceed 40 microsievert annually, as is stipulated in the operating license. In order to determine the maximum effective dose, the gamma radiation is measured at twelve locations along the site boundary. The measurements are carried out within the framework of the MONET monitoring network, which falls under the administrative management of the RIVM. The measurements are analyzed by subtracting the natural background value. The resulting measurement data are corrected with the so-called "Actuele Blootstelling Correctiefactor" (ABC-factor). An ABC-factor takes into account the specific use of the area where the gamma dose may be incurred. This translates into a maximum effective dose of 3.0 microsievert per year, which is far below the maximum permitted yearly gamma dose. In this report the daily averages of the radiation dose recorded by the MONET-monitors at the boundary of COVRA N.V. in 2017 are shown, and an explanation is given of how the background level at each measuring location was determined.
    • De gaschromatografische bepaling van 2-cyclohexeen-1-on en 2- cyclohexeen-1-ol in urine

      Doorn L; Dorlijn WL; van Leeuwen FXR (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1984-12-31)
      In het kader van het onderzoek naar de aard van de positieve ketonreactie in de urine van ratten die met cyclohexeen zijn behandeld, is een gaschromatografische bepaling van de metabolieten 2- cyclohexeen-1-on en 2-cyclohexeen-1-ol uitgewerkt. Een aantal extractiemiddelen is op hun bruikbaarheid onderzocht en vergeleken met een in de literatuur beschreven methode. Ethylacetaat blijkt een veel hogere recovery op te leveren (ca. 90%) dan het in de literatuur beschreven ether (ca 40%). De lineariteit van de hier beschreven methode is goed.<br>
    • De gaschromatografische bepaling van cholesterol in serum: een kandidaat-referentie methode

      Derks; H.J.G.M.; Heiningen; A.van; Koedam; J.C. (1985-09-30)
      Abstract not available
    • Gasmetingen in importcontainers

      Knol-de Vos T; IMD (2003-11-07)
      A study was carried out to gain insight into the total number of containers being imported into the Netherlands via Rotterdam harbour, that still contain remnants of gaseous pesticides. The study also checked to see if a 'risk profile' could be drawn up for certain containers due to remnants of gaseous pesticides, depending on the country of origin, cargo or labelling.The study concluded that - - the pesticides methyl bromide, formaldehyde and phosphine were found in 21% of the random sample of 303 containers - sulfuryl fluoride was not found in any of the containers - 15% of the containers represented a risk due to low oxygen levels, risk of explosion or carbon dioxide/carbon monoxide levels higher than the accepted MAC values (a well-known standard in the Netherlands for maximum concentrations of substances) for these compounds - 20% of the containers formed a risk, either due to the presence of pesticides, or as a result of other parameters - a sample profile focusing on containers of foodstuffs could result in double the number of containers being found to include gaseous pesticides
    • Gasmetingen in importcontainers

      Knol-de Vos T; IMD (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2003-11-07)
      Er is onderzoek verricht naar de aanwezigheid van gasvormige bestrijdingsmiddelen in containers die via de Rotterdamse haven in Nederland worden ingevoerd. Tevens is onderzocht of een risicoprofiel op grond van herkomst, lading of etikettering kon worden gemaakt, van de containers die onder andere in verband met restanten gasvormige Uit het onderzoek is gebleken dat - in eenentwintig procent van de onderzochte steekproef van driehonderddrie containers de bestrijdingsmiddelen methylbromide, formaldehyde of fosfine zijn aangetoond-in geen van de onderzochte containers sulfurylfluoride is aangetoond - in vijftien procent van de onderzochte containers sprake is van een risico ten gevolge van een te laag zuurstofgehalte, explosiegevaar of een kooldioxide- of koolmonoxidegehalte hoger dan de MAC-waarden voor deze verbindingen - in totaal twintig procent van de onderzochte containers een risico vormde, ofwel als gevolg van aanwezigheid van bestrijdingsmiddelen, ofwel als gevolg van overige parameters - een monsternameprofiel gericht op containers met voedingsmiddelen een verdubbeling van het percentage aangetroffen containers met gasvormige bestrijdingsmiddelen tot gevolg kan hebben.
    • Geaggregeerd model voor volume-ontwikkelingen in de luchtvaart. Beschrijving en toepassing van het model PROLIN, een aggregatie van het IEE-model

      Boose JJEC; Gommers FMC; Geurs KT; Wee GP van; LAE (1998-01-31)
      This report describes the PROLIN model, an aviation forecasting model for passenger and freight transport to and from Amsterdam Airport. Using the PROLIN model, an aggregation of the Civil Aviation Authority's IEE model, the effects of economic and pricing developments on aviation to and from Amsterdam Airport can be calculated. The same applies to substitution of air passengers with rail passengers. PROLIN forecasts were shown to be reliable on an aggregated level, while on the desaggregated level of individual origins/destinations (i.e. London, Paris and Frankfurt) the forecasts were shown to be less reliable.
    • Geaggregeerd model voor volume-ontwikkelingen in de zeescheepvaart. Aggregatie van de modellen GSM6 en Progtot3

      Boose JJEC; Saitua R; Schuylenburg M van; Wee GP van; MTV; Gemeentelijk Havenbedrijf Rotterdam (1994-11-30)
      GSM6 is a complex model for predicting seaborne shipping to and from the harbour of Rotterdam. This model is simplified and combined with a model to forecast ship movements in the harbour of Rotterdam. This report describes both the simplified model and the model to forecast ship movements. This simplified model is called PROZIN. Simulations show that the simplified model performs quite well: the differences between the simplified model and GSM6 are less than 10 percent. This report also describes a model to forecast seaborne shipping from and to the Netherlands, based on the forecasts for the harbour of Rotterdam.
    • Geaggregeerde blootstelling. Gebruik in verschillende kaders en mogelijkheden

      Schuur AG; van Engelen JGM; Delmaar JE; SIR (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2009-12-07)
    • Een geautomatiseerd optisch veelkanaals-analysatoropstelling voor het meten van NO2 in de atmosfeer

      Bergwerff JB; Budding RW; Onderdelinden D; van Putten ARTh; Strackee L; fys. lab (Rijksinstituut voor de Volksgezondheid, 1978-03-31)
    • Geautomatiseerde distributiesystemen voor geneesmiddelen

      de Rooij-Lamme EK; Groot DW; de Kaste D; KCF (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2008-04-23)
      This study highlights some shortcomings in the maintenance and medicine selection of automated medication dispensing systems (AMDS). Incorrect medicines were found in 2% of the inspected dispensing systems. There was no evidence of cross-contamination between the bags intended for the various patients. There were also no problems with the shelf-life of the products examined. Automated medication dispensing systems are increasingly being used for the distribution of medicines. medication date/time directly into a bag. The AMDS is seen as a time-saving machine which simultaneously provides an improvement in quality. Although, in principle, there are sufficient safety precautions in place to ensure reliability when using the AMDS, it appears that the quality regulations for the production process are insufficiently adhered to in practice.
    • Geautomatiseerde ionchromatografische methode voor chloride, nitraat en sulfaat

      Neele J; Beld WA van den; Cleven RFMJ (1994-02-28)
      The modification of an ionchromatographic system to increase the sensitivity and selectivity is reported. The chromatographic system was equipped with a UV-detector, modified by thermostatting the separatorcolumn and the regenerant supply and isolating an autoregenerant suppressor and detector cells. Connections between the separating modules were shortened. A method for the determination chloride, nitrate and sulphate in rainwater, drinking water, surface water and groundwater over a range of more than four decades has been developed. A good resolution and selectivity between the peaks is obtained. Identification of peaks is possible by retention time, area/height ratio and confirmed by the ratio between the conductivity area and UV-detection area. Determinations of nitrite, bromide, phosphate and sulphite are also possible with the method.
    • Geautomatiseerde ionchromatografische methode voor de bepalingen van halogeniden en halogeenoxiden in drink- en oppervlaktewater

      Neele J; Cleven RFMJ; Versteegh JFM; LAC; LWD (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-05-31)
      An automated ionchromatographic gradient separation method with conductivity and UV detection has been developed for the simultaneous determination of trace amounts halogenides and oxyhalides in drinking water and surface water. Ion solute specific retention is affected by the presence of large concentrations of anions in a sample. Confirmation of the identification of bromate and the other anions of interest is possible by comparing the retention as well as the conductivity/UV-ratio response of the component peaks in the sample and in the standards. The lower limit of detection of bromate is 0,0097 mumol/l (1,2 mug/l). Data on column efficiency, peak asymmetry, selectivity and resolution are reported. Recoveries of bromate were affected by the chloride concentration in the sample. Sample preparation with silver cartridges to remove excess of halogenide has found to yield quantitative results with a mean recovery of 100%.<br>
    • Geautomatiseerde monsterzuivering door kolomschakeling bij de bepaling van lorazepam in ratteserum met hoge-prestatie vloeistofchromatografie

      Koops R; Groot G de (1990-01-31)
      In this report a study is described on the application of automated sample clean up by column switching in the quantitative determination of lorazepam in rat serum. Extraction of lorazepam from serum is by using a solid-phase extraction procedure with an "High-Hydrophobic" octadecylsilane sorbent. Determination of lorazepam is with high- performance liquid chromatography. The solid-phase extract is separated over a precolumn from serum components by "on line" column switching. Detection is by UV-detection at 230 nm. The extraction recovery (+- standard deviation) is (91 +- 0.7)%. The precision is 2.4% at 1.12 mug/l. The method is adapted to a concentration range from 0.05 to 4.2 mug/l.