• Lab-on-a-chip devices for clinical diagnostics : Measuring into a new dimension

      Hermsen SAB; Roszek BR; van Drongelen AW; Geertsma RE; PRV; V&Z (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2014-01-21)
      A lab-on-a-chip (LOC) is an automated miniaturized laboratory system used for different clinical applications inside and outside the hospital. Examples of applications include measurements of blood gases, blood glucose, and cholesterol or counting the number of HIV cells. The RIVM has described the current state of the art with respect to LOCs for clinical applications, including an overview of products currently on the market or expected to enter the market soon. Research has shown that LOC-based applications are developing rapidly and that their number will increase in the near future. This investigation was performed at the request of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate. It is foreseen that the use of LOC will have several advantages compared to the current test methods. Most important ones concern fast diagnostics at the location where diagnosis is needed (point of care) and small amounts of samples and materials required to perform tests. However, attention for quality management aspects regarding calibration and maintenance of the device, and training and education of the user is necessary. This way, the benefits of LOC applications will not compromise quality of health care and patient safety. The use of LOC applications will contribute to the current trend of more selfreliance in health care, because general practitioners can perform tests immediately or even the patients themselves can do the test. Furthermore, LOC technology will contribute to the development of treatments specified to the patient's needs (personalized medicine). The use of LOC applications by health care professionals will increase if they are involved in the design and development of new devices that meet their needs. This report presents also the technology used in LOC applications, microfluidics. This technology provides the possibility to manipulate and handle fluids on microscale.
    • Laboratorium Surveillance Infectieziekten - 1989-1995

      Esveld MI; van Pelt W; van Leeuwen WJ; Banffer JRJ; CIE; LIS (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-06-30)
      To make rational decisions about priorities in the control of infectious diseases, a quantitative basis is necessary. Therefore, the Department of Infectious Diseases Epidemiology of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has started in 1987 a sentinel based laboratory surveillance on bacterial pathogens. Sixteen out of seventeen Dutch public health laboratories participate in the system. Each first isolate of Salmonella, Shigella, Bordetella, Yersinia, Listeria, Legionella, invasive Haemophilus influenzae and Streptoccus pyogenes must be reported by a form on which some basic information on the patient is collected. Weekly, the laboratories also report totals of reported pathogens including Campylobacter, and the total number of examined faeces samples, to check the completeness of reporting and to obtain information on the denominator. Salmonella, Bordetella and Streptococcus pyogenes isolates should be sent to the Laboratory of Bacteriology (RIVM) for serotyping and phage typing. Haemophilus influenza isolates should be sent to the Reference Laboratory on Bacterial Meningitis. Besides monitoring of bacterial infections in the Netherlands, this project gives a better view on the technical and management aspects of national surveillance. This report describes the results of 7 years registration, in the period 1989 until 1995.<br>
    • Laboratorium surveillance van HIV-infecties, regio Arnhem, 1989-1994

      van Duynhoven YTHP; Wiessing LG; Katchaki JN; Nieste HLJ; Esveld MI; Houweling H; CIE; Streeklaboratorium Arnhem (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-03-31)
      From april 1989, surveillance-activities of HIV infections are carried out in the Arnhem area. This report presents five years of monitoring of laboratory diagnostics of HIV infections, in addition to a continuous questionnaire on the indication for testing sent to the requesting physicians. Between April 1989 and June 1994 16,411 HIV tests were performed in 14,715 individuals living in the service area of the Arnhem Regional Public Health Laboratory (RPHL). The percentage of positive tests (1.8%, n=303) was almost twice the percentage of positive persons (1.0%, n=140). No increase in number of new infections was observed over time, although the number of requested tests dramatically increased. This was mainly caused by a sharp increase in the number of tests for "changing heterosexual contacts". Since the start of the questionnaire in January 1990, 13,002 individuals were tested, of which 114 were HIV-positive. Information about the indication for testing was available for 88% of these individuals. The non-reponse on the questionnaire increased till the second half of 1993, but subsequenltly decreased again. Of individuals, 38.3% were tested due to third party requests, mainly for taking out a life insurance. HIV was demonstrated twice (0.05%). Tests at medical indications were performed for 3835 men and 3220 women, 1.3% of these tests were positive. Most infections in men occurred among homo/bisexuals: 9.7% seropositive. This percentage fluctuated between 6 and 10% in separate calendar years. Among injecting drug users 4.2% and 5.8% of male and female drug users resp. tested positive. About 44% of males and 59% of females tested for medical indications were tested due to heterosexual risk behaviour. However, the number of infections was low: 0.2% and 0.3% of resp. males and females was HIV-positive. No trend in heterosexually acquired infections could be observed over the five years. It appears that the spread of HIV is still restricted to known risk groups: signs for considerable spread in the general population could not be found.<br>
    • Laboratoriumsurveillance van HIV-infecties, Regio Arnhem, 1989-1998

      Beuker RJ; Snijders BM; Bosboom RW; Houweling H; Laar MJW van de; CIE (Streeklaboratorium voor de Volksgezondheid Arnhem, 1999-12-31)
      Between April 1989 and December 1998 33,003 HIV-tests were performed in 31,682 individuals living in the service area of the Regional Public Health Laboratory Arnhem/Rijnstate Hospital. By means of a questionnaire among requesting physicians information was gathered on the indication for the test. No increase in number of new infections was observed over time, although the number of requested tests increased (1990: n=2761, 1998: n=3923). The increase was mainly caused by a sharp increase in the number of tests for "changing heterosexual contacts". Most infections occurred among homo/bisexuals (6.9%), followed by drug users (4.2%). In individuals tested in connection with heterosexual risk behavior the prevalence was low: 0.2%. It appears that the spread of HIV is still restricted to known risk groups; signs for considerable spread in the general population could not be found. Remarkably the test behavior of individuals in certain (risk)groups does not match their risk of a HIV-infection. The subgroup of tests for heterosexual risk behavior constitutes a considerable amount of the HIV-testing population, while their risk on a HIV-infection is low. While homo-/bisexuals and drugusers are most at risk for a HIV-infection, they make up only a small part of the HIV-testing population. All in all we may conclude that with these features the laboratorysurveillance in the Arnhem area is a valuable supplement to the HIV-surveillance in the Netherlands.
    • Laboratoriumsurveillance van HIV-infecties, regio Arnhem, 1989-1995

      Esveld MI; Pelt W van; Duynhoven YTHP van; Nohlmans MKE; Houweling H; CIE (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-11-30)
      In de regio Arnhem loopt sinds april 1989 een surveillance-project voor HIV-infecties. Dit project is door het RIVM opgezet, in nauwe samenwerking met het Streeklaboratorium voor de Volksgezondheid/Rijnstate Ziekenhuis (SLA). Dit rapport presenteert de resultaten tot en met 1995 van ruim zes jaar monitoring van laboratoriumdiagnostiek van HIV-infecties aangevuld met een continue enquete naar de indicatiestelling voor de test bij alle aanvragers van deze diagnostiek. Het percentage geinfecteerde personen (1.0%, n=186) was bijna twee keer zo klein als het percentage positieve testen (1.8%, n=386). Het jaarlijks aantal nieuw positieve personen nam niet toe in de tijd, alhoewel er tot 1994 een sterke stijging was in het het aantal aangevraagde testen. De meeste testen worden verricht vanwege 'wisselende heteroseksuele contacten'. Bij mannen werden de meeste infecties waargenomen onder homo/biseksuelen. Dit was gemiddeld 8-9% tot 1994, maar lijkt in 1995 sterk afgenomen tot 3.2%. Ook onder de intraveneuze druggebruikers werden relatief veel infecties aangetoond. Bij de vrouwen ligt dit gemiddeld op 4.4% ; bij de mannelijke druggebruikers neemt het percentage toe van 3.9 in 1991 tot 12% in 1995. Er was geen trend zichtbaar in de heteroseksuele verspreiding over de afgelopen 6 jaar. Dit alles wijst erop dat de verspreiding van HIV-infecties zich nog steeds met name in de bekende risicogroepen voordoet. Opvallend is dat het percentage nieuw-positieven in stedelijke gebieden de laatste jaren lijkt af te nemen, terwijl dit op het platteland nog toeneemt. Ook neemt het aantal geteste personen afkomstig uit Afrika en Latijns-Amerika toe, evenals het percentage positieven in die groep. Seroprevalenties die worden waargenomen in groepen van vrijwillig geteste personen, kunnen i.v.m. onbekende selectiemechanismen, niet zonder meer worden geextrapoleerd naar diezelfde groepen in het verzorgingsgebied van het laboratorium. Desalniettemin wordt de HIV-surveillance vanuit het laboratorium als zeer nuttig beschouwd als indicatie voor de omvang van de problematiek en voor het volgen van trends. Het RIVM werkt aan het opzetten van een landelijk surveillancesysteem voor infectieziekten (ISIS) waarin het concept van de HIV-surveillance wordt gebruikt, ook voor andere infectieziekten. De regio Arnhem fungeert reeds als proefregio voor deze laboratoriumsurveillance.
    • Laboratoriumsurveillance van HIV-infecties, regio Arnhem, 1989-1995

      Esveld MI; van Pelt W; van Duynhoven YTHP; Nohlmans MKE; Houweling H; CIE (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-11-30)
      As from April 1989, surveillance-activities of HIV infections are carried out in the Arnhem area. These programmes are executed in collaboration of the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) with the Regional Public Health Laboratory Arnhem (RPHL)/Rijnstate hospital. This report presents results up to the end of 1995 of monitoring laboratory diagnostics of HIV infections, in addition to a continuous questionnaire on the indication for testing sent to the requesting physicians. Between April 1989 and December 1995 21,825 HIV tests were performed in 19,216 individuals living in the service area. The percentage of positive tests (1.8%, n=386) was almost twice the percentage of positive persons (1.0%, n=186). No increase in number of new infections was observed over time, although the number of requested tests increased up until 1994. Most test requests concerned tests for 'changing heterosexual contacts'. In men, most infections occurred among homo/bisexuals. This was 8-9% up until 1994 but decreased to 3.4% in 1995. 4.4% of the tested female drug users was seropositive ; among males it increased from 3.9% in 1991 to 12% in 1995. No trend in heterosexually acquired infections could be seen over the observed six years. It appears that the spread of HIV is still restricted to the known risk groups: signs for considerable spread in the general population could not be found. Remarkably the percentage of new seropositives seems to decrease in the urban areas whilst it still increases in the rural areas. Furthermore requests for tests of persons originating from Africa and Latin-America increased as does the percentage seropositive tests. Laboratory-based surveillance is thought to be very useful as an indicator of the extent of the problem and monitoring of trends. The methodology used in this surveillance will be used for other regions and infectious diseases.<br>
    • Laboratory analysis of environmental samples taken following the reported release of live poliovirus

      Duizer E; REV; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2015-03-04)
      Analysis of poliosamples after accidental release September 2nd, 2014, the vaccine production facility of GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), Rixensart, Belgium, accidentally released 45 liters concentrated poliovirus into the sewage system. After the sewage treatment plant (STP) this water was released into the river Lasne, and subsequently into the Westerschelde. No poliovirus was detected in the samples available and no poliovirus spreading was found in two communities in Zeeland with low vaccination coverage. This was shown a study by the WHO accredited reference laboratory for polio at the RIVM. This research was conducted in The Netherlands as required by the WHO since Belgium does not have a WHO accredited laboratory for the analysis of poliovirus in environmental samples. WHO aims to eradicate polio. The research is motivated by the impending oyster season (early October) and the high number of unvaccinated residents of some municipalities in Zeeland. Between 2 and 18 September samples at the sewage treatment (STP) in Rosières collected by staff from GSK and KU Leuven. Also, samples of sediment from the settler of the STP and sludge samples from the river Lasne were analyzed. Furthermore, community sewage samples were collected in some municipalities with low vaccination coverage between 30 September and 7 November. In addition, it is calculated that from 20 September the discharge could flow in the Westerschelde. Since shellfish feed by filtering water, the presence of impurities such as polio viruses, can accumulate in their gastrointestinal tract. On 24 September and 3 and 28 October, mussels collected in the eastern part of the Westerschelde, where the expected concentration polioviruses was highest, were collected and analyzed.
    • Laboratory maintenance, topographical anatomy and histology of flounder, Platichthys flesus

      Grinwis GCM; Wester PW; Kamstra A; van den Brandhof EJ; van Dijk JE; Leewis RJ; Vaal MA; Vethaak AD; Vos JG; PAT; UU/VF; RIVO/DLO; ECO; LWD; RIKZ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-05-31)
      Several field survey's suggest a relation between marine/estuarine pollution and some diseases (e.g. skin ulcer, fin rot, lymphocystis disease and liver tumours in fish. Studies with flounder (Platichthys flesus) kept under semi-field (mesocosm) conditions indicate a causal link between aquatic contamination, hepatic tumour induction and lymphocystis virus infection. Research under controlled laboratory conditions is necessary in order to establish causal links between pollution with specific xenobiotics and disease induction. For laboratory investigations flounder has been kept and raised successfully for 1.5 years without major problems. A short description is given of the maintenance of flounder under laboratory conditions. They are used in a multi-stress project (chemical- and microbiological stress) evaluating the carcinogenic- and immunotoxic effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In order to be able to interpret pathological lesions, the normal anatomy and histology of flounder is described in this report. The emphasis is put on the organs involved in the immunological response (thymus, kidney, spleen, melanomacrophage centres and the blood), the liver, skin and gills. Differences in anatomy and histology between flounder, other teleost fish and mammals are discussed, using data from literature and our own findings.<br>
    • Laboratory study in five methods for measuring ammonium aerosol

      Putten EM van; Mennen MG; LLO (1998-11-09)
      Five methods for measuring ambient ammonium aerosol were studied in a laboratory set-up. The five methods are the standard Low Volume Sampler (LVS) as used in the National Air Quality Monitoring Network, tow Modified Low Volume Samplers, A Filter Pack and an Annular Denuder System (ADS). Generated ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate aerosol was supplied in added gaseous ammonia. The ADS showed the best performance but is too labourintensive. In the laboratory, the LVS measured about 10-25% less ammonium than the ADS. However, ambient air measurement might yield differen results.
    • Lactaatdehydrogenase lekkage als parameter voor de bepaling van de biocompatibiliteit van medische hulpmiddelen

      Machielsen JCA; Orzechowski TJH; Geffen MF van (1993-08-31)
      In the laboratory of medicines and medical devices a project "Biocompatibility" was initiated. The aim of the project is to develop assays to evaluate (cyto)toxicity of medical devices and biomaterials. In this paper the development and validation of the LDH enzyme release test is described. This enzyme release assay was designed to determine quantitatively the effects of extracts from medical devices and biomaterials on cellular membrane integrity. The tissue culture agar overlay test is still widely used and accepted as a test to measure cytotoxicity of solid materials. The enzyme release test has been validated with extracts of surgical gloves and non-wovens wrapping tissues used for sterilisation. The sensitivity of the test was analysed with limiting dilutions of cytotoxic compounds. The results were compared with the Tissue Culture Agar Overlay test. These results were also described in this report. Conclusion: the LDH enzyme release test is a sensitive, reproducible and quantitative test for cytotoxicity.
    • Het LAE informatieplan ; het resultaat van de eerste fase

      Hettelingh JP; Carsjens GJ; van Weenen R; van Beurden AUCJ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1990-02-28)
      This report is the result of the first stage of a project to develop an information-plan for the Laboratory for Waste Materials and Emissions (LAE). A structured information-policy is a necessary condition for an organisation to deal with information-flows, and its needs for hard- and software. An information-policy is formulated on the basis of an information-plan, which registers the development and structuring of information in the organisation. The report shows the existing and wanted relations between different parts of information of the LAE-departments, and also gives a complete inventory of all information which is used at the LAE. Conclusions of the report are that most information is used isolated within the LAE-departments and that it is necessary to create a system which links the information between different LAE-departments and routes the LAE-information to other laboratories, BMTV and MILGIS.<br>
    • Een Lagrangiaans lange-afstand transportmodel met niet-lineaire atmosferische chemie: MPA-model

      de Leeuw FAAM; van Rheineck Leyssius HJ; van den Hout KD; Diederen HSMA; Berens M; Asman WAH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1987-12-31)
      In het kader van het Meetplan Aerosolen is door TNO en RIVM in samenwerking met KNMI en IMOU een tweelaags, receptor georienteerd, trajectorie model ontwikkeld. Het model beschrijft transport, omzetting en verwijdering van luchtverontreinigende componenten gedurende 72 uur. De omzetting wordt beschreven met een gedetailleerd niet-lineair chemisch mechanisme, waardoor een schatting gegeven kan worden van de niveaus van secundaire luchtverontreiniging (aerosolen, ozon).<br>
    • Lakken en moffelen van metalen

      Hulskotte JHJ; Ros JPM (1992-06-30)
      This document on metal enamelling has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licences.
    • Land use and cover change as an overarching topic in the Dutch national research programme on global air pollution and climate change. Issues for implementation

      Fresco LO; Berg MM van den; Zeijl-Rozema AE van; PB-NOP; LUW (Landbouw Universiteit Wageningen, 1996-12-31)
      The integration study 'Land Use and Cover Change as an overarching topic in the Dutch National Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP)' aims at identifying research fields in which the NRP can contribute most effectively to the international scientific know-how of the interactions between land use/cover and global change. Goals of the study were: the initiation of integration of NRP land use/cover projects; the formulation of Dutch views on national and international research on land use and cover change (LUCC); and the preparation of an NRP agenda for research on land use/cover in relation to climate change. Land use/cover change is a very broad field of research and it is impossible to cover the whole subject within the NRP. Important Dutch land use/cover research topics are at present: the influence of the land cover on biogeochemical cycles; land cover distribution; the influence of climate change on crop growth; the use of biomass for energy supply; and land use/cover modelling. Tropical areas as well as the Netherlands, Europe and the global perspective are studied. Within the NRP, the biophysical side of land use/cover change has received most attention. A concerted effort is required to focus Dutch Land Use/Cover research more effectively in order to: optimise the Dutch inputs into the international arena (IGBP, IHDP, etc.). Define areas of complementarity in which Dutch research and policy can best benefit directly or indirectly from international research efforts.
    • Land Use, Climate and Biogeochemical Cycles: Feedbacks and Options for Emission Reduction

      Hutjes RWA; Dolman AJ; Nabuurs GJ; Schelhaas MJ; Maat HW ter; Kabat P; Moors E; Huygen J; Haarsma R; Ronda R; Schaeffer M; Opsteegh JD; Leemans R; Bouwman L; Busch G; Eickhout B; Kreileman E; Schaeffer M; Strengers B; Vries B de; Verhagen A; Vleeshouwers; Corre WJ; Jongschaap REE; Kruseman G; Ierland E van; Holtslag AAM; Ronda R; Willemsen F; Dorland C; Tol RSJ van; NOP (AlterraKNMIWageningen UniversityPlant Research InternationalIVM, 2002-03-01)
      This report describes a study that has tried to understand the coupling between the main driving forces of land use change and the emission of greenhouse gasses in the context of coupled land surface climate models. Studies related to investigating the main driving forces of land use change in Europe and assessing the budgets of the main greenhouse gasses in Europe were combined with sensitivity studies of land use change and climate at regional and global scale. These were linked to an integrated assessment model and selected economic analysis. Full integration of the parallel studies proved difficult in the timeframe of the project. The individual studies yield insight into the main driving forces of land use in Europe, the size of the biospheric GHG budget, the sensitivity of regional and global climate to land use change, and the global effects of trade in GHG mitigation control.
    • LAND-USE-RELATED SOURCES of CO2, CH4 and N2O. Current global emissions and projections for the period 1990-2100

      Bouwman AF; Born GJ Van Den; Swart RJ (1992-05-31)
      This report presents an inventory of the current land-use related emissions of Co2, CH4 and N2O for the 12 EC member countries and 10 regions covering the rest of the world. Most of the CO2 emissions caused by land use changes stem from deforestation. The sources of CH4 analyzed are natural wetlands, wetland rice fields, animals and animal waste, landfills. Biomass burning is also discussed, since it is an important source of CH4 and many other species. The major sources of N2O are natural soils and soils used for agricultural production. For each species possible future trends have been analyzed and options for reduction of emissions have been included in policy scenarios. future emissions from land-use related sources are dependent on the development of the demand for agricultural land. For future developments in land-use existing scenarios and historical data have been used. The results of this study form the basis for the development of a land-use model to assess future land-use related emissions. This model, which is still in development at present, is described in a separate report.
    • Het landbouw scenario in de Nationale Milieuverkenning 2; uitgangspunten en berekeningen

      Hoogervorst NJP (1991-11-30)
      This report describes the implementation of the set environmental policy with regard to nutrients (as developed until 1991) in the agricultural sector of the Dutch economy and its effects on eutrofication, ammonia-emissions, and heavy metals supply to soils. Part one describes the assumptions made on key variables, necessary to calculate the amount of manure produced and its accompanying emissions. Each of these variables require quantification of its development over time, up until 2010. Such variables include; livestock numbers, composition of excreta, penetration of techniques that reduce ammonia-volatilization. Part two gives an overview of (intermediate and final) results of the calculations and presents data on ammonia emissions from manure, N-, and P-content of manure produced, application rates of N and P, K, As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn (both from manure and chemical fertilizer) on crop-soil-combinations. It also contains material balances for nitrogen, phosporus and potassium for the Dutch agricultural system in the years 1986, 1989, 2000 and 2010.
    • Landbouwpraktijk en waterkwaliteit in Nederland, periode 1992-2006

      Zwart MH; Hooijboer AEJ; Fraters B; Kotte M; Duin RNM; Daatselaar CHG; Olsthoorn CSM; Bosma JN; LVM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2009-03-10)
      As a result of the European Nitrate Directive, the nitrogen surplus in Dutch agriculture decreased by almost 40 percent between 1992 and 2007. This is one of the conclusions. This report provides a summary of developments in water quality as far as measures taken in Dutch agriculture to improve the quality of groundwater and surface water are concerned. The nitrate content in groundwater below agricultural land showed a strong decrease during the 1992 to 2007 period, in sandy areas especially, where the average concentration decreased from 140 mg/l to 75 mg/l. Nitrate content also decreased in clay areas, and was well below the standard of 50 mg/l for this period. There has always been very little nitrate present in groundwater in peat regions. The chlorophyll-a concentration (an indicator for the extent of water eutrophication) in agriculturally-influenced regional surface waters showed a constant decrease following 1992. The average nitrate concentration during the winter period in fresh surface waters has been decreasing since 1998. Both nitrate content and eutrophication are decreasing. However, it takes several years before the effects of policy measures taken by farmers are seen in the water quality. It is therefore expected that it will be some years before the effects of recent policy measures from the current action programme (2004-2009) are seen in the water quality and that water quality will therefore only show further improvement in the 2010-2015 period.
    • Landbouwpraktijk en waterkwaliteit in Nederland, periode 1992-2010

      Baumann RA; Hooijboer AEJ; Vrijhoef A; Fraters B; Kotte M; Daatselaar CHG; Olsthoorn CSM; Bosma JN; CMM; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMWaterdienstLEI Wageningen URCBSEconomische ZakenLandbouw en InnovatieDienst Regelingen, 2012-10-05)
      The nitrogen surplus in Dutch agriculture decreased by almost 50 per cent between 1992 and 2010. This decrease is the result of measures taken in Dutch agriculture as laid down in the European Nitrate Directive, such as applying less manure in a shorter time period during a year. An inventory of developments in groundwater and surface water quality and agricultural practice clearly shows this trend. The inventory is a four-yearly European obligation. The RIVM carried out this inventory in cooperation with Statistics Netherlands, The Waterdienst, LEI (part of Wageningen UR) and Dienst Regelingen of the ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation. Decreasing nitrate content As a result of the measures originating from the European Nitrate Directive, the nitrate content in upper groundwater below agricultural land showed a strong decrease during the 1992 to 2010 period. Especially in sandy areas this is observed, the average concentration in sandy areas decreased from 140 mg/l to 60 mg/l. Nitrate content also decreased in clay areas, the average nitrate content was 29 mg/l. There has always been very little nitrate present in groundwater in peat regions (less than 10 mg/l) due to the degradation of nitrate in these regions. Fresh surface water The average nitrate concentration during the winter period in fresh surface waters has not shown a clear trend since 2002 (15 mg/l in 2008-2010). Despite this absence of trend the chlorophyll-a concentration (an indicator for the extent of water eutrophication) in agriculturally-influenced regional fresh surface waters increased slightly during the 2004 to 2010 period. Improving water quality In the coming years it is to be expected that the water quality in The Netherlands will improve. It takes several years before the effects of policy measures from the current action programme (2010-2013), such as more stringent application limits for fertilizer (expressed as nitrogen) will lead to the further improvement of water quality.
    • Landbouwpraktijk en waterkwaliteit in Nederland. Achtergrondinformatie periode 1992-1997 voor de landenrapportage EU-Nitraatrichtlijn

      Fraters B; Eerdt MM van; Hoop DW de; Latour P; Olsthoorn CSM; Swertz OC; Verstraten F; Willens WJ; Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek; Rijksinstituut voor Integraal Zoetwaterbeheer en Afvalwaterbehandeling (RIZA); Rijksinstituut voor Kust en Zee (RIKZ); Expertisecentrum LNV; LBG (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-08-01)
      Het rapport geeft een overzicht van de landbouwpraktijk en de grond- en oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit in Nederland in met name de periode 1992-1997. Het levert het basismateriaal voor het onderdeel 'resultaten controleprogramma's' in de rapportage die de Nederlandse overheid medio 2000 aan de Europese Commissie dient toe te sturen in het kader van de Nitraatrichtlijn. De resultaten van de controleprogramma's moeten een indruk geven van de effectiviteit van het Nederlandse actieprogramma ter uitvoering van de EU-nitraatrichtlijn. de invoering van de in de code voor Goede Landbouwpraktijk uit 1993 genoemde maatregelen. Deels betreft het hier een gefaseerde aanscherping van maatregelen die reeds in 1987 een aanvang hebben genomen. De stikstofaanvoer naar de bodem via meststoffen in de landbouw is in de verslagperiode licht afgenomen. Het stikstofoverschot van de Nederlandse landbouw is niet verminderd als gevolg van lagere gewasopbrengsten. De nitraatconcentratie in het grondwater onder landbouwgrond laat geen trendmatige verandering zijn in de verslagperiode als gecorrigeerd wordt voor weersinvloeden. Het effect van droge en natte jaren is met name in het bovenste grondwater groot. De gemeten nitraatconcentratie in het grondwater is m.n. afhankelijk van de hydrologische omstandigheden, het bodemtype en de diepte van bemonsteren. De jaargemiddelde nitraatconcentraties in de zoete oppervlaktewateren nemen in de verslagperiode af. De maximum nitraatconcentraties daarentegen vertonen geen duidelijke trend. De nitraatconcentraties in de zoute wateren blijven gelijk of dalen, dit geldt voor zowel de gemiddelde als de maximale waarden. De eutrofiering uitgedrukt als de concentratie aan chlorofyl-a vertoont in de periode 1992-1997 in de zoete oppervlaktewateren en in het kustwater geen duidelijke trend. Over een langere periode gezien (vanaf 1986), is in de rijkswateren en de regionale wateren wel sprake van een daling. Het is nog te vroeg om effecten van het Nederlandse actieprogramma, dat vanaf 1996 van start is gegaan, te kunnen vaststellen, met name als het gaat om de grond- en oppervlaktewaterkwaliteit.