• Registratie voedselgerelateerde uitbraken : in Nederland, 2016

      Friesema IHM; Tijsma ASL; Slegers-Fitz-James IA; Franz E; GEZ; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2017-09-27)
      More outbreaks of food-related infections and food poisoning were recorded in 2016 than in 2015. This is thought to be caused by a genuine rise in food-related outbreaks in the Netherlands and/or a higher report rate of outbreaks to the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority. A total of 594 outbreaks affecting 2731 people were reported in 2016, as compared to 406 reported outbreaks and 1850 cases the year before. This is revealed by an analysis of the reported figures in 2016 for food infections and food poisoning. As in previous years, norovirus remains the key pathogen causing food-related outbreaks, followed by Salmonella and Campylobacter. The figures come from the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority and the regional and municipal health services. They record and investigate food infections and food poisoning to prevent more cases and outbreaks. To do so, they try to get a clear picture within their own field of the contaminated sources and the nature of the pathogens. The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority examines food and the places it is prepared. The regional and municipal health services focus on people who have been exposed to contaminated food, working back from them to the possible sources. The reports received by both bodies are combined and analysed as a single whole by the Centre for Infectious Disease Control at RIVM (the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment). This integral approach provides a picture of the causal factors of food-related outbreaks in the Netherlands, the extent to which they occur and any changes and trends over the years. The figures stated however, are bound to be an understatement of the actual number of food-related outbreaks and the numbers of people affected. This is because not everyone who is ill goes to their GP or informs the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority.
    • Registratie voedselgerelateerde uitbraken in Nederland, 2015

      Friesema IHM; Tijsma ASL; Wit B; van Pelt W; GEZ; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNVWA, 2016-09-26)
      In 2015 zijn meer uitbraken van voedselinfecties en vergiftigingen geregistreerd dan in voorgaande jaren. Dit komt grotendeels doordat dit jaar alle niet-anonieme meldingen bij de NVWA van uitbraken (van twee of meer zieken) zijn geregistreerd. In voorgaande jaren zijn alleen meldingen gerapporteerd als daarna bij de desbetreffende locaties onderzoek werd gedaan naar ziekteverwekkers. In 2015 zijn in totaal 406 uitbraken gemeld met 1850 zieken, ten opzichte van 207 gemelde uitbraken met 1655 zieken in het jaar ervoor. Dit blijkt uit een analyse van de registratiecijfers in 2015 van voedselinfecties en -vergiftigingen. Daaruit blijkt ook dat het norovirus de belangrijkste veroorzaker van voedselgerelateerde uitbraken blijft, gevolgd door Salmonella en Campylobacter. De cijfers zijn afkomstig van de NVWA en de GGD'en. De meldingen van beide instanties worden samengevoegd en als een geheel geanalyseerd door het Centrum Infectieziektebestrijding van het RIVM. Deze geïntegreerde aanpak geeft een duidelijker beeld van de mate waarin uitbraken van voedselinfecties en -vergiftigingen in Nederland voorkomen en de trend daarin door de jaren heen. De genoemde getallen zijn evenwel een onderschatting van het werkelijke aantal voedselgerelateerde uitbraken en het aantal zieken. Dit komt doordat niet iedere zieke naar de huisarts gaat of de NVWA informeert. Naar schatting worden jaarlijks 680.000 mensen in Nederland ziek door het eten van besmet voedsel. De NVWA en GGD'en registreren en onderzoeken voedselinfecties en vergiftigingen om meer zieken en uitbraken te voorkomen. Daartoe proberen ze vanuit hun eigen werkveld inzicht te krijgen in de besmette bronnen en de aard van de ziekteverwekkers. De NVWA onderzoekt het voedsel en de plaats waar het wordt bereid. De GGD richt zich op de personen die hebben blootgestaan aan besmet voedsel en probeert via hen de mogelijke bronnen te herleiden.
    • Registratie voedselgerelateerde uitbraken in Nederland, 2017

      Friesema IHM; Slegers-Fitz-James IA; Wit B; Franz E; GEZ; EPI (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-10-02)
      Mensen kunnen ziek worden van voedsel. Als twee of meer mensen tegelijk ziek worden na het eten van hetzelfde voedsel, wordt dat een uitbraak door een voedselgerelateerde infectie genoemd. In 2017 waren er, evenals in 2016, meer voedselgerelateerde uitbraken bekend dan in 2015. In 2017 zijn in totaal 666 uitbraken met 2995 zieken gemeld, ten opzichte van 594 uitbraken met 2731 zieken in 2016 en 406 uitbraken en 1850 zieken in 2015. Het is niet duidelijk of het aantal uitbraken daadwerkelijk toeneemt of dat er steeds meer uitbraken worden gemeld. Net als in voorgaande jaren blijft norovirus de belangrijkste veroorzaker van geregistreerde voedselgerelateerde uitbraken, gevolgd door de bacteriën Salmonella en Campylobacter. De cijfers zijn afkomstig van de Nederlandse Voedsel- en Warenautoriteit (NVWA) en de GGD'en. Zij registreren en onderzoeken voedselgerelateerde infecties en vergiftigingen om meer zieken en uitbraken te voorkomen. Daartoe proberen ze vanuit hun eigen werkveld te achterhalen wat de besmettingsbronnen waren en de aard van de ziekteverwekkers. De NVWA onderzoekt het voedsel op ziekteverwekkers en de herkomst en plaats waar het wordt bereid of is verkocht. De GGD richt zich op de personen die hebben blootgestaan aan besmet voedsel en probeert via hen de mogelijke bronnen te herleiden. De meldingen van beide instanties worden samengevoegd en als één geheel geanalyseerd door het RIVM. Deze geïntegreerde aanpak levert inzichten op in oorzaken van voedselgerelateerde uitbraken in Nederland, de mate waarin ze voorkomen en mogelijke veranderingen hierin door de jaren heen. De genoemde getallen zijn evenwel een onderschatting van het werkelijke aantal voedselgerelateerde uitbraken en het aantal zieken. Dit komt onder andere doordat niet iedere zieke naar de huisarts gaat of de NVWA informeert. Ook is niet altijd duidelijk dat besmet voedsel de oorzaak van ziekte is.
    • Registratie voedselinfecties en -vergiftigingen bij de NVWA en het CIb, 2012

      Friesema IHM; de Jong AEI; Boxman ILA; van Pelt W; GEZ; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNVWA, 2013-10-30)
      In 2012, the number of cases with a foodborne infection was higher compared to previous years. A total of 276 outbreaks with 2607 patients and 273 single cases of foodborne infections and intoxications were registered from the the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) and the regional health services. The increase was caused by several large outbreaks of foodborne infections in 2012. The largest outbreak that came to the attention of the public was the Salmonella Thompson (1149 reported cases) caused by contaminated smoked salmon. These are the main conclusions of an analysis made by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) based on the 2012 registration data from the NVWA and the Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb). Both institutes register foodborne infections and intoxications to gain insight in sources of contamination and pathogens; the figures partially overlap. However, these figures are probably an underestimation, as not all infected patients visit their GP or inform the NVWA. In the Netherlands, an estimated 680,000 patients occur as a result of contaminated food. Just as in previous years, Campylobacter, Salmonella and norovirus were the most commonly occurring causative agents of foodborne outbreaks. However, the impact of Salmonella outbreaks and norovirus outbreaks is bigger than that of Campylobacter, as these pathogens cause more cases per outbreak. Furthermore, cases of a Salmonella infection are also more likely to be severe; almost all hospitalizations related to foodborne infections (in 2012: 79 of 82) and all four reported deaths were found to be caused by Salmonella infections. Examples of crucial steps in the prevention of foodborne infections are good hygiene and proper handling during food production and preparation. Adequate heating of risky products and preventing cross-contamination are instances of this. Therefore, continuous attention should be paid to food safety issues by the government, producers, suppliers, food handlers, and consumers. In 2012, the NVWA received 527 reports about foodborne infections compared with 363 reports in 2011. After a decrease in the intervening years, it increased to the level it had been in 2008-2009. The number of cases reported to the NVWA was 2776 patients compared with 889 in 2011. The number of reports made by the regional health services has remained fairly stable: 43 reports, involving 1652 patients.
    • Registratie voedselinfecties en -vergiftigingen in Nederland, 2013

      Friesema IHM; de Jong AEI; Wit B; van Pelt W; GEZ; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2015-01-06)
      Compared to 2012, in 2013 there were an increased number of smaller outbreaks of food-borne infections and intoxications registered; a total of 290, 14 more than in the previous year. This resulted in 1460 cases of illness, many less than in 2012 (2607). This is due to the fact that the 2013 outbreaks were less extensive than those in 2012. In 2013, the NVWA registered an additional 265 cases of food-borne infections and intoxications. These are the results of the 2013 registry data of food-borne infections and intoxications as determined by the NVWA (Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety), the GGDs (Public Health Service), and the CIb (Centre of Infectious Disease Control) of the RIVM (National Institute of Public Health and the Environment). The NVWA and GGDs investigate the cause of both foodborne infections and intoxications (the source of infection and the pathogen) each from their own expertise. Given that these data are complementary, this is the first time that notifications from both registries have been combined and reported as a whole: they were previously reported separately. As in previous years, Campylobacter and norovirus were the most frequent causes of food-borne outbreaks. Although both caused the same number of outbreaks, those caused by norovirus led to the most cases of illness. There were considerably fewer Salmonella outbreaks than in previous years; this is also true for the related number of patients. Both agencies record the reported outbreaks. The NVWA analyses the food and its preparation, whereas the GGD interviews people who have been exposed to contaminated food. The new, integrated approach gives a clearer picture of the extent of the occurrence of outbreaks of food-borne infections and intoxications in the Netherlands as well as trends over time. The above numbers underestimate the actual number of foodborne infections and intoxications, as not every patient visits the GP or informs the NVWA. It is estimated that annually, 680,000 people in the Netherlands become ill from eating contaminated food.
    • Registratie voedselinfecties en -vergiftigingen in Nederland, 2014

      Friesema IHM; Tijsma ASL; Wit B; van Pelt W; GEZ; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNVWA, 2015-11-05)
      In 2014 there were fewer outbreaks of food-borne infections and food poisoning in the Netherlands than in previous years. However, due to a rise in the number of affected individuals per reported outbreak, the total number of sick persons increased by 13 percent compared to 2013. A total of 207 outbreaks with 1655 affected individuals were reported in 2014, compared to 290 reported outbreaks with 1460 affected individuals in 2013. In addition, 242 individual cases of food-borne infection or food poisoning were reported to the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) in 2014. These are some of the conclusions from an analysis of the 2014 registry data of food-borne infections and food poisoning in the Netherlands. The figures also show a relatively large number of norovirus outbreaks and a relatively small number of Campylobacter outbreaks compared to previous years. The number of Salmonella outbreaks increased in 2014 compared to 2013, but was still lower than in the years preceding 2013. The relevant data are supplied by the NVWA and the regional and municipal health authorities. Since 2014, all reports are combined and analyzed as a single data set by the Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb) at the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). This new, integrated approach provides a clearer picture of the incidence of food-borne infections and food poisoning in the Netherlands, as well as trends over time. However, the figures included in this report represent an underestimation of the actual number of food-borne infections and cases of food poisoning. This is due to the fact that many affected individuals do not visit their GP or inform the NVWA. Experts estimate that approximately 680,000 people in the Netherlands fall ill every year as a result of consuming contaminated food. The NVWA and the regional and municipal health authorities register and investigate cases of food-borne infection and food poisoning in order to prevent further outbreaks and safeguard public health. Based on their specific expertise, these organizations try to gain insight into the possible sources of contamination and the nature of the pathogens involved. The NVWA investigates food products and the facilities where they are prepared, while the regional and municipal health authorities attempt to trace potential sources of contamination by interviewing persons who were exposed to contaminated food.
    • Studie 'Seoulvirus in bruine ratten' : Seroprevalentie van hantavirus- en Leptospira-infecties bij muskus- en beverratbestrijders in Nederland en resultaten van gerelateerd onderzoek in bruine ratten

      Friesema IHM; Bakker J; Maas M; van der Giessen JWB; Rockx B; GEZ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2017-03-03)
      In February 2015, the Seoul virus (SEOV) was detected for the first time in the Netherlands in three captured brown rats. Water board staff may encounter brown rats as a 'bycatch' of muskrat and coypu control. However, the risk of them being infected with SEOV is small, because very few brown rats in the Netherlands carry the virus. These are the findings of a study by RIVM. SEOV is what is known as a hantavirus. Most types of hantavirus are principally found in mouse species, but muskrat and coypu controllers come into contact with them less often. The risk of the pest controllers being exposed to other hantaviruses is therefore small. The risk of muskrat and coypu controllers being exposed to Leptospira bacteria is greater. Approximately half the brown rats in the Netherlands carry this bacterium, which can also contaminate the surface waters in the surroundings. However, only a small number of the muskrat and coypu controllers has turned out to be infected by Leptospira bacteria. This is probably because they wear protective clothing during their work, such as gloves, goggles and suits with boots. Hantaviruses and Leptospira bacteria generally cause mild flu-like complaints that are difficult to distinguish from each other. In more severe forms, both microorganisms can cause kidney problems (inflammation, poor functioning), but this is rare. For this study, 260 muskrat and coypu controllers completed an online questionnaire (65% of the 402 people contacted). In addition, blood samples were taken from 246 people (61%), which were tested for antibodies against six hantaviruses. One blood sample contained a hantavirus variant (the Puumala virus). Sufficient blood was available from 162 participants to test for Leptospira as well. Two of them were infected with this bacterium. This study was not able to show whether they had also been made ill by the Leptospira bacterium.