• Drugs of abuse and tranquilizers in Dutch surface waters, drinking water and wastewater : Results of screening monitoring 2009

      van der Aa NGFM; Dijkman E; Bijlsma L; Emke E; van de Ven BM; van Nuijs ALN; de Voogt P; IMG; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMKWR Watercycle Research InstituteResearch Institute for Pesticides and WaterUniversity Jaume ISpainUniversity of AntwerpBelgium, 2011-05-09)
      In the surface waters of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, twelve drugs that are listed in the Dutch Opium act were detected at low concentrations. They are from the groups amphetamines, tranquilizers (barbiturates and benzodiazepines) opiates and cocaine. During drinking water production, most compounds are removed or concentrations are substantially lowered. In finished drinking water, three barbiturates were still detected in very low concentrations (up to 12 ng/L). The amounts are below health based provisional drinking water limits. Ongoing monitoring of the presence of these compounds in water and possible long-term effects on human health are a point of interest. It is recommended to investigate possible ecotoxicological effects. These findings are the results of a RIVM investigation performed under the authority of the VROM-Inspectorate of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment. This investigation was carried out in cooperation with KWR Watercycle Research Institute and the Research Institute for Pesticides and Water of the University Jaume I (Spain). A total of 65 water samples were analysed for 37 different drugs of abuse and metabolites. In addition to surface waters and drinking water, sewage waters were also analysed. The compounds can be detected due to the increased sensitivity of analytical methods nowadays available. However, drugs have probably been present in the aquatic environment since they have been used by humans. Substantial fractions of the total load of drugs in the Rhine and Meuse rivers enter the Netherlands from abroad. There is also a contribution through effluents from sewage water treatment plants in the Netherlands. The concentrations found in Dutch sewage water are in the same range as concentrations found in other Western European countries. Based on the measured concentrations, cocaine consumption in some Dutch cities could be estimated and compared.
    • Ecological risk assessment of contaminated land - Decision support for site specific investigations

      Jensen J; Mesman M; Bierkens J; Loibner A; Rutgers M; Bogolte T; Celis R; Dirven-van Breemen EM; Erlacher E; Ehlers C; Hartnik T; Sorokin N; ter Laak T; Jensen J; Mesman M; LER (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNational Environmental Research Institute (NERI)SilkeborgDenmarkFlemish Institute for Technological Research (VITO)Centre of Expertise Integrated Environmental SolutionsMolBelgiumUniversity of Natural Resources and Applied Life SciencesViennaDepartment for Agrobiotechnology(IFA-Tulln)Institute for Environmental BiotechnologyTullnAustriaInstitute for Natural Resources and Agrobiology of Seville (CSIC)SevillaSpainNorwegian Institute for Agricultural and Environmental ResearchSoil and Environment Division4sNorwayWRc plcNational Centre for Environmental Toxicology (NCET)SwindonUnited KingdomUtrecht UniversityInstitute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)UtrechtThe Netherlands, 2006-05-31)
      This book documents the outcome of the EU-funded research project 'LIBERATION', aimed at the development of a decision support system (DSS) for sustainable management of contaminated land with special focus on organic contaminants. The book is geared to providing guidance to risk assessors and stakeholders of contaminated land in their decision-making process. The DSS, which follows a stepwise approach, is divided into three different stages: - Stage I: Site characterisation and description of land use; - Stage II: Determination of ecological aspects and - Stage III: Site-specific assessment (The Triad) consisting of four tiers: 1. Simple screening; 2. Refined screening; 3. Detailed assessment and 4. Final assessment. Each of the tiers is based on a weight of evidence approach combining three lines of evidence (LoEs), Chemistry, Toxicology and Ecology. The book also contains useful lists of techniques and tools dedicated to each tier within the three LoEs. In this book it is shown how measures of bioavailability are systematically incorporated into a framework for ecological risk assessment of contaminated soil. However, most techniques for assessing bioavailability are relatively novel and hence not yet fully validated; the challenge to fully understand the underlying processes controlling bioavailability is still immense. Nevertheless, this book will hopefully generate a discussion, encourage further development of tools and, most important of all, promote more practical experience in site-specific evaluation of ecological risk.