• Achtergronden bij: Milieubalans 96

      Braat LC (eds); S-V (AVVCBSDWWECNHIMHIKC-NKNMILEI-DLONLRRIKZRIZASC-DLO; SCP, 1996-10-01)
      An Environmental Balance for the Netherlands is drawn up yearly in accordance with the Environmental Management Act to describe the quality of the environment related to the environmental policy realised. Developments related to target sectors like agriculture, industry, energy and transport sectors, and consumers are assessed with respect to the change in emission levels of various substances. The state of environment for themes like climate change, acidification, air, water, soil, and groundwater quality is assessed, and the effects of environmental pressures on humans and the environment are presented. The results show that for most of the substances, emission levels decreased in the period 1985-1995, in spite of economic growth in the same period. Policy aimed at technical measures was successful. Energy intensity of the economy increased in 1995. Energy savings were eliminated by developing the volume of production and the use of more energy-intensive constituents of production and consumption. As a consequence of energy use CO2 emission increased in 1995. In spite of emission reductions realised, quality standards are still being exceeded for several substances. The level of air pollution in the Netherlands is coupled to demonstrable health effects. In cities, health effects and hindrance are increasing as a consequence of cumulation of stress factors like noise, bad odours, local air pollution and lack of space. This scientific background documentation on the conclusions described in the Environmental Balance 96 is particularly geared to experts and readers with an interest in science.
    • Achtergronden bij: Milieubalans 97

      S-V (AVVCBSDWWECNHIMHIKC-NKNMILEI-DLONLRRIKZRIZASC-DLO; SCP, 1997-04-16)
      An Environmental Balance for the Netherlands is drawn up yearly in accordance with the Environmental Management Act to describe the quality of the environment related to the environmental policy realised.
    • Achtergronden bij: Milieubalans 95

      Kohsiek LHM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMAVVCBSECNHIMHIKC-NLEI-DLORIKZRIZASC-DLOSCP, 1995-12-31)
      The Environmental Balance is meant to report annually, in line with the Act on RIVM, on the current developments in environmental quality as related to policy implemented and the different activities in development in society. Such a document will make it possible to steer environmental policy, if necessary, back on to the course intended in the policy objectives. This background report, functioning as part of the Environmental Balance, is meant then to reflect the scientific underpinning of the conclusions drawn in the 1995 Environmental Balance.<br>
    • Milieubalans 96. Het Nederlandse milieu verklaard

      Braat LC (eds); S-V (AVVCBSDWWECNHIMHIKC-NKNMILEI-DLONLRRIKZRIZASC-DLO; SCP, 1996-09-30)
      An Environmental Balance for the Netherlands is drawn up yearly in accordance with the Environmental Management Act to describe the quality of the environment related to the environmental policy realised. Developments related to target sectors like agriculture, industry, energy and transport sectors, and consumers are assessed with respect to the change in emission levels of various substances. The state of environment for themes like climate change, acidification, air, water, soil, and groundwater quality is assessed, and the effects of environmental pressures on humans and the environment are presented. The results show that for most of the substances, emission levels decreased in the period 1985-1995, in spite of economic growth in the same period. Policy aimed at technical measures was successful. Energy intensity of the economy increased in 1995. Energy savings were eliminated by developing the volume of production and the use of more energy-intensive constituents of production and consumption. As a consequence of energy use CO2 emission increased in 1995. In spite of emission reductions realised, quality standards are still being exceeded for several substances. The level of air pollution in the Netherlands is coupled to demonstrable health effects. In cities, health effects and hindrance are increasing as a consequence of cumulation of stress factors like noise, bad odours, local air pollution and lack of space.
    • Nationale Milieuverkenning 4, 1997-2020

      Albers RAW (eds); MNV (AVVCBSCPBECNIKC-NKNMILEI-DLONLRRIKZRIZARPDSC-DLOSCP, 1997-07-31)
      Thanks to the Netherlands environmental policy, environmental pressure has declined in the last few years. The present proposed and intended policy efforts are, however, insufficient if the decline in emissions is to be retained in the decades after 2000. Production and consumption are increasing; transport and distribution functions, as well as the intensification in agriculture/factory farming, continue to play a substantial role. In the light of these developments great efforts will be necessary to bring about decreased CO2 levels. The NOx, NH3, phosphate and nitrogen emission levels also remain higher than intended. In view of the expected growth in the economy up to 2020, technological breakthroughs will be needed to realise the anticipated emission reductions. The target reductions for CO2 and NH3 can only be accomplished through considerable efforts in the areas of regulation, price measures and/or government investments. International coordination will be essential to achieving reductions in CO2 and NOx. The major concerns for the coming decades are climate change, conservation of natural areas, noise nuisance, air pollution in towns and cities, and drinking-water quality. Eutrophication , desiccation and use of pesticides keep the sectors for agriculture, nature conservation and groundwater catchment in a mutual state of conflict. Traffic in the cities continues to threaten desired environmental quality in the residential areas, for instance, due to emission of harmful chemical compounds and noise pollution. Another kind of spatial planning of activities to supplement technical measures may be the answer to further improving local environmental quality.
    • Nationale Milieuverkenning 5, 2000-2030

      MNV (AVVCBSCPBECNIKC-NKNMILEI-DLONLRRIKZRIZARPDSC-DLOSCP, 2000-09-11)
      Abstract not available
    • Natuurverkenning 97

      Maas RJM; MNV; IKC-N; IBN-DLO; SC-DLO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMIKC-NIBN-DLOSC-DLO, 1997-07-31)
      Natural areas in the Netherlands are - at least in terms of total acreage - increasing again. However, as far as the quality of the areas is concerned, the biodiversity is still decreasing. The Netherlands landscape charcteristics are becoming increasingly similar; large-scale open areas and regional characteristics are disappearing. The future quality of the Netherlands' natural areas will be highly determined by the feasibility of connecting large units of natural areas, by ensuring their environmental quality and by supplementing conservation measures. The national Ecological Network is expected do its work in increasing the species diversity (biodiversity). In carrying out these plans, the high-level ambitions of attaining a coherent network of large natural area units has not proven fully realisable. However, continuing to strive for more concentrated and larger units can ultimately still raise the quality of natural areas. The regional developments in agriculture (scaling-up and intensification), and the decreasing but still large urbanisation and great environmental pressure remain important risk factors, especially in the south and east of the Netherlands, where environmental quality is not yet high enough to meet nature conservation targets. Meeting these targets will therefore demand reductions, especially in ammonia deposition, attunement of the geographical locations of natural areas to emission areas and compensation of the unavoidable decline in quality in the natural areas by quantitative (increased acreage) or qualitative improvements in other areas.<br>