• Jaarrapportage surveillance respiratoire infectieziekten 2010 : Projectgroep respiratoire infecties

      Brandsema PS; Dijkstra F; van Gageldonk-Lafeber AB; Snijders BEP; Meijer A; van der Hoek W; EPI ; EMI ; LIS; cib (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNIVELBronopsporings eenheid Legionella pneunomie (CIb/BEL)Streeklaboratorium HaarlemErasmus MCafdeling virologieRotterdamKNCV TuberculosefondsDen Haag, 2011-10-18)
      Respiratory infections and community acquired pneumonia are an important reason for general practitioner consultation, hospital and intensive care unit admission, and death. This report gives the results of surveillance of a number of respiratory infectious diseases in the Netherlands for the year 2010. The year 2010 was uneventful with respect to the respiratory infectious diseases compared with 2009 when the world faced an influenza pandemic, which coincided in the Netherlands with an exceptionally large Q-fever outbreak. The end of the influenza pandemic was officially declared in 2010. The first influenza season after the pandemic was relatively mild with a peak in incidence of influenza-like illness in the first weeks of 2011. The number of notifications for acute Q-fever went down sharply in 2010. However, the Q-fever problem is not over as an increasing number of chronic Q-fever cases is expected in the coming years. Chronic Q-fever is a relatively rare but serious long-term effect of acute Q-fever infection. The increase in number of new tuberculosis cases that was observed in 2009 was not sustained in 2010. The number of cases with legionellapneumonia in 2010 was the highest ever notified in the Netherlands. There was an increase of domestic legionellapneumonia in the summer of which the causes are yet unknown but are further investigated.
    • Jaarrapportage surveillance respiratoire infectieziekten 2011 : projectgroep respiratoire infecties

      Brandsema PS; Dijkstra F; Euser SM; van Gageldonk-Lafeber AB; de Lange MMA; Meijer A; Slump E; Snijders BEP; van der Hoek W; EPI; cib (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMStreeklaboratorium HaarlemKNCV Tuberculosefonds, 2012-10-19)
      Respiratory infections and community acquired pneumonia are an important reason for general practitioner consultation, hospital and intensive care unit admission, and death. This report gives the results of surveillance of a number of respiratory infectious diseases in the Netherlands for the year 2011. The years 2010 and 2011 were uneventful with respect to the respiratory infectious diseases compared with 2009 when the world faced an influenza pandemic, which coincided in the Netherlands with the peak of an exceptionally large Qfever outbreak. The 2011/2012 influenza season was relatively mild. However, weekly all-cause mortality monitoring showed increased mortality among the elderly. This was also reported by other European countries and could partly have been related to influenza. Unfortunately, a system for surveillance of severe acute respiratory infections, such as recommended by WHO and ECDC is still not in place in the Netherlands. The Q-fever epidemic is over but chronic Qfever will remain a problem for the years to come. In the Netherlands, as in other European countries an increase in number of infections with Mycoplasma pneumoniae was observed. This pathogen shows a cyclical pattern with an elevation every 4-7 years. There was a small decline in number of new tuberculosis cases compared to 2010 but a slight increase in proportion multidrug resistant tuberculosis. The majority of tuberculosis patients is born outside the Netherlands, with immigrants from Somalia as the largest group. After an increase in 2010, the number of cases with legionella pneumonia in 2011 was back at earlier levels.
    • Nationaal Plan Tuberculosebestrijding 2016-2020 : Op weg naar eliminatie

      de Vries G; Riesmeijer R; RGI; I&V (Rijkinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMKNCV Tuberculosefonds, 2016-03-10)
      The National Tuberculosis Control Plan 2016-2020 describes the changes required to optimise tuberculosis control in the Netherlands. The plan has been developed by the RIVM Centre for Infectious Disease Control together with the KNCV Tuberculosis Foundation and other organisations involved in tuberculosis control. In 2014, the Netherlands endorsed the World Health Organization's Global End TB Strategy, which includes the objective to reduce tuberculosis incidence with 90 per cent by 2035. The National Tuberculosis Control Plan 2016-2020 sets out the interventions that are needed to achieve the interim-objectives of reducing tuberculosis transmission and case numbers in the Netherlands with 25 per cent over the next 5 years. The main new intervention to reach these targets is to screen new immigrants and asylum-seekers for latent tuberculosis infections and providing preventive treatment to those infected.
    • Tuberculose in Nederland 2012

      Slump E; Erkens CGM; van Hunen R; van Rest JF; Schimmel HJ; van Soolingen D; RES; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMKNCV Tuberculosefonds, 2014-06-05)
      In 2012 958 cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported to the Netherlands Tuberculosis Register (NTR). The incidence rate was 5.7 per 100,000 population. Since 2002 the number of TB patients in the Netherlands declined with 32%. In 2012 53% of the notified cases was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. Over the years the number of patients with extrapulmonary TB declined less than the number with pulmonary TB. The percentage extrapulmonary cases is highest among foreign-born TB patients. Tuberculosis of the extra thoracic lymph nodes is the most common site of disease in extrapulmonary cases. 18% (177) of all TB cases in 2012 was sputum-smear positive. The incidence rate of smear-positive pulmonary TB was 1.1 per 100,000 population. The majority of TB patients in the Netherlands was foreign-born (73%). As in previous years the largest population group with TB in 2012 was Somalian (170). The percentage of TB patients born in Somalia is in 2012 the same as the percentage native Dutch TB patients (18%). The incidence rate among people coming from Somalia is almost 500 times higher than the incidence rate of the native Dutch population (respectively 691 and 1.3 per 100,000 population). Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis In the last five years the number of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the Netherlands varies between ten and twenty patients, 1-2% of the total number of TB patients. In 2012 eleven patients with MDR-TB were registered; ten were foreign-born. Treatment Outcome In 2011 87% of all TB patients completed treatment successfully. Of new cases with pulmonary TB 85% completed treatment successfully. Patients with MDR-TB completed treatment less often. Seven (64%) out of eleven MDR-TB-patients diagnosed in 2010 completed treatment successfully, one patient (9%) interrupted treatment, one patient continued treatment abroad, one patient died due to another cause than tuberculosis and of one patient treatment outcome is (still) unknown. TB-patients with co-morbidity or immune disorders The percentage of hiv-infected TB patients was 3% in 2012. The percentage TB patients tested for hiv increased from 28% in 2008 to 49% in 2011, but did not increase in 2012 (47%). Hiv-status was known in 59% of TB patients coming from sub-Saharan Africa, a hiv endemic area. The number of TB patients associated with TNF-alfa inhibitors treatment increases. In 2012 18 patients were registered (1.9%). Tuberculosis deaths Respectively 18 (1.8%) and 6 (0.6%) TB patients in 2011 and 2012 died due to tuberculosis. TB patients with serious co-morbidity have a higher risk of dying. In 2012 one person with diabetes, two persons with cancer and one person with renal insufficiency died due to tuberculosis. Respectively 20 (2.0%) and 20 (2.1%) TB patients in 2011 and 2012 died of other causes. Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) In 2012 1,293 new cases of LTBI were reported. 855 of these cases were detected through contact investigation. In 2011 1,027 of 1,297 cases (79%) started preventive treatment. Eighty-four percent of all persons with LTBI who received preventive treatment completed treatment successfully. Delay The mean length of the diagnostic delay over the years 2005-2012 did not increase, although undocumented TB patients, homeless TB patients, and drug and alcohol addicts with TB are associated with a longer patient delay. In more than a quarter of the passively detected cases a too long or 'unfavorable' patient delay was registered. This also applies to doctor delay; in more than a quarter of the passively detected cases a too long or 'unfavorable' delay was registered. Case finding Fifteen percent of all TB patients was detected by active case finding by the TB department of the Municipal Health Services. The percentage TB patients detected through screening of risk groups such as new immigrants, asylum seekers, drug addicts and homeless people has been decreasing for some time; in the years 1993-1998 14% of all TB patients was detected through screening, in 2012 only 8%. The number and percentage of cases found through contact investigation stayed more or less the same (7%). Transmission and cluster surveillance In 2012 50% of the cases with a positive culture belonged to a cluster. In one third of these cases recent clustering was registered, possibly as a result of recent transmission in the Netherlands. In 2012 four existing clusters showed growth of more than five patients. In the last few years there were no large outbreaks registered in the Netherlands.
    • Tuberculose in Nederland 2012

      Slump E; Erkens CGM; van Hunen R; van Rest JF; Schimmel HJ; van Soolingen D; RES; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMKNCV Tuberculosefonds, 2014-06-05)
      In 2012 958 cases of tuberculosis (TB) were reported to the Netherlands Tuberculosis Register (NTR). The incidence rate was 5.7 per 100,000 population. Since 2002 the number of TB patients in the Netherlands declined with 32%. In 2012 53% of the notified cases was diagnosed with pulmonary tuberculosis. Over the years the number of patients with extrapulmonary TB declined less than the number with pulmonary TB. The percentage extrapulmonary cases is highest among foreign-born TB patients. Tuberculosis of the extra thoracic lymph nodes is the most common site of disease in extrapulmonary cases. 18% (177) of all TB cases in 2012 was sputum-smear positive. The incidence rate of smear-positive pulmonary TB was 1.1 per 100,000 population. The majority of TB patients in the Netherlands was foreign-born (73%). As in previous years the largest population group with TB in 2012 was Somalian (170). The percentage of TB patients born in Somalia is in 2012 the same as the percentage native Dutch TB patients (18%). The incidence rate among people coming from Somalia is almost 500 times higher than the incidence rate of the native Dutch population (respectively 691 and 1.3 per 100,000 population). Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis In the last five years the number of patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the Netherlands varies between ten and twenty patients, 1-2% of the total number of TB patients. In 2012 eleven patients with MDR-TB were registered; ten were foreign-born. Treatment Outcome In 2011 87% of all TB patients completed treatment successfully. Of new cases with pulmonary TB 85% completed treatment successfully. Patients with MDR-TB completed treatment less often. Seven (64%) out of eleven MDR-TB-patients diagnosed in 2010 completed treatment successfully, one patient (9%) interrupted treatment, one patient continued treatment abroad, one patient died due to another cause than tuberculosis and of one patient treatment outcome is (still) unknown. TB-patients with co-morbidity or immune disorders The percentage of hiv-infected TB patients was 3% in 2012. The percentage TB patients tested for hiv increased from 28% in 2008 to 49% in 2011, but did not increase in 2012 (47%). Hiv-status was known in 59% of TB patients coming from sub-Saharan Africa, a hiv endemic area. The number of TB patients associated with TNF-alfa inhibitors treatment increases. In 2012 18 patients were registered (1.9%). Tuberculosis deaths Respectively 18 (1.8%) and 6 (0.6%) TB patients in 2011 and 2012 died due to tuberculosis. TB patients with serious co-morbidity have a higher risk of dying. In 2012 one person with diabetes, two persons with cancer and one person with renal insufficiency died due to tuberculosis. Respectively 20 (2.0%) and 20 (2.1%) TB patients in 2011 and 2012 died of other causes. Latent Tuberculosis Infection (LTBI) In 2012 1,293 new cases of LTBI were reported. 855 of these cases were detected through contact investigation. In 2011 1,027 of 1,297 cases (79%) started preventive treatment. Eighty-four percent of all persons with LTBI who received preventive treatment completed treatment successfully. Delay The mean length of the diagnostic delay over the years 2005-2012 did not increase, although undocumented TB patients, homeless TB patients, and drug and alcohol addicts with TB are associated with a longer patient delay. In more than a quarter of the passively detected cases a too long or 'unfavorable' patient delay was registered. This also applies to doctor delay; in more than a quarter of the passively detected cases a too long or 'unfavorable' delay was registered. Case finding Fifteen percent of all TB patients was detected by active case finding by the TB department of the Municipal Health Services. The percentage TB patients detected through screening of risk groups such as new immigrants, asylum seekers, drug addicts and homeless people has been decreasing for some time; in the years 1993-1998 14% of all TB patients was detected through screening, in 2012 only 8%. The number and percentage of cases found through contact investigation stayed more or less the same (7%). Transmission and cluster surveillance In 2012 50% of the cases with a positive culture belonged to a cluster. In one third of these cases recent clustering was registered, possibly as a result of recent transmission in the Netherlands. In 2012 four existing clusters showed growth of more than five patients. In the last few years there were no large outbreaks registered in the Netherlands.