• Beoordeling van de grondwatertoestand op basis van de Kaderrichtlijn Water

      Lieste R; Witte JPM; de Nijs ACM; Aggenbach CJS; Pieters BJ; Runhaar J; Verweij W; LER (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMKiwa Water Research, 2007-12-07)
      The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that all inland and coastal waters must reach a good chemical and ecological status by 2015. According to Annex V of the WFD, groundwater should not only meet its own environmental objectives, ensuring "sufficient water of good quality", but also the objectives for the ecosystems affected by groundwater seepage. Groundwater may not have a negative influence on associated surface waters and groundwater-dependent terrestrial ecosystems. This report presents an assessment system to determine when the status of the groundwater fails to meet the WFD objectives for the surface waters and terrestrial ecosystems which are directly associated with the groundwater body. In the assessment, the monitoring data available on the status of the groundwater and the associated surface water and terrestrial ecosystems are compared to the objectives which have been achieved for these systems. The environmental objectives for surface water and terrestrial ecosystems in a number of regions will most likely not be met due to groundwater drawdown and the drainage of, for example, nutrients, pesticides and heavy metals. Current polices on manure and fertilizer application, water drawdown and sanitation, including those of WFD, will improve the present groundwater situation. This report also presents an overview of the eco-hydrological relations of a large number of ecologically valuable Dutch landscapes as well as the potential threats to these landscapes when the groundwater system is adversely affected. This information is essential for the management of nature reserves in the Netherlands.
    • Drinkwaterkwaliteit in nieuwbouwwoningen

      Wuijts S; Slaats PGG; Versteegh JFM; Meerkerk MA; MEV; IMD (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMKiwa Water Research, 2008-04-24)
      Drinking water in newly constructed houses often contains increased amounts of lead, nickel and copper. Consequently, it does not meet the quality standards set by the Drinking Water Act of the Netherlands. It is possible that the drinking water quality is also inadequate at the completion of these houses. To date, no acute health risks have been associated with this deficiency. The established quality standards are based on long-term exposure of individuals to these metals, which most likely does not occur with residents of newly built houses. This problem can be rectified by regularly flushing the water in each tap for a considerable length of time during house construction and by flushing the taps each morning for several minutes during the first months of occupancy. Plumbers/installers and/or the water company should provide the occupants of newly built houses with better information on this subject. This is the conclusion drawn by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in the Netherlands after analysing the drinking water quality in nearly one hundred newly constructed houses. This project was carried out in collaboration with Kiwa Water Research and a number of laboratories run by water companies. Increased amounts of lead, nickel and copper were found in almost all of the newly constructed houses investigated. These metals originated from the materials used in the construction of the plumbing system, such as taps, meters, connectors and pipes. High counts of microorganisms were also found, but there no was no evidence of pathogenic microorganisms in the drinking water samples.
    • De microbiologische kwaliteit van het ingenomen en afgeleverde water van Waterwinningbedrijf Brabantse Biesbosch in 2001

      de Roda Husman AM; Ketelaars HAM; Lodder WJ; Medema GJ; Schets FM; MGB (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMEvidesRotterdamKiwa Water ResearchNieuwegein, 2006-06-09)
      Production of drinking water from the drinking water half-product produced by Water storage company Brabantse Biesbosch (WBB) to meet the requirements of the Dutch Drinking Water Act requires drinking water purification processes to reduce the number of Campylobacter by a minimum of 6.5 tot 7.3 log10-units and the number of culturable reo- and enteroviruses by a minimum of 2.8 tot 3.6 log10-units. Drinking water meeting these requirements is responsible for less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year. In 2001 the occurrence of noro- and rotaviruses in both the source and the water produced by WBB was studied, whereas the number of culturable reo- and enteroviruses in these waters was determined. Campylobacter numbers were determined in the produced water. The source water contained culturable reo- and enteroviruses in concentrations of 0.01 to 1 virus particle per litre. The water produced also contained culturable reo- and enteroviruses, with an average concentration was 0.001 to 0.007 culturable virus particles per litre. The decimal reduction caused by the WBB storage reservoirs was 1.4 log10-units for reoviruses and 2.1 log10-units for enteroviruses. Molecular methods did not detect rotavirus RNA in either the source water or the produced water. Norovirus RNA, however, was detected in several samples of source and produced water. The decimal reduction capacity of the WBB storage reservoirs for the norovirus RNA was 0.6 log10-units. Campylobacter was detected in 84 % of the samples of the produced water, the average most probable number was 6.9 per litre.
    • Nanodeeltjes in water

      Struijs J; van de Meent D; Peijnenburg WJGM; Heugens E; de Jong W; Hagens W; de Heer C; Hofman J; Roex E; LER (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMKiwa Water ResearchRijkswaterstaat Waterdienst, 2007-11-06)
      In the coming years we will become more aware of nanotechnology. Nanoparticles offer new possibilities because they are small. Nanotechnology is already used for example in car paint, car tyres, shoe spray and sun cream. Therefore the market for nanotechnology is growing at a terrific pace. Researchers and users are agreed: the importance of this new technology will be great. However with new technology comes uncertainty. No one can yet estimate what the exact advantages and disadvantages are. The increased use and growing (social) attention for the risks from nanotechnology provoked the need for an elaborate literature study into the possible uses and risks. This study is aimed specifically at the aquatic environment and drinking water. The report 'Nanoparticles in water' is a combined project by Rijkswaterstaat, Kiwa Water Research, Vewin and the RIVM, the latter being designated by the Government as 'observation point nanotechnology'. The study provides, from the available information, a summary of opportunities and threats from nanotechnology in relation to water. It covers the effects known up until now from nanoparticles on the aquatic environment and on humans. In addition it identifies areas where further research is necessary in order to gain a better understanding of risks. Finally the report covers the national and European legislation related to nanoparticles. There appear to be many loose ends as a result of which risks cannot be correctly estimated. In short: a summary report that provides insight into the scientific state of knowledge concerning nanotechnology in relation to water. Thereby it creates a start for further research and can be used as an aid for policy and legislation.