• Air Quality in Major European Cities. Part I: Scientific Background Document to Europe's Environment

      Sluyter RJCF (ed); Larssen S; Eerens HC; Zantvoort EDG van; Velze K van; Burn J; Gronskei K; Bezuglaya E; Smeets W; Henriksen JF; Lubkert-Alcamo B; LLO; NILU; MGO (National Institute of Public Health and the EnvironmentNorwegian Institute for Air ResearchKjellerNorway NILO, 1995-05-31)
      This reports documents the research that RIVM, NILU and MGO have conducted into urban and local air pollution in Europe. The research was carried out in the framework of the Europe's Environment programme, commissioned by EU. Only cities with more than 500 000 inhabitants (105 in total) were described. Approximately 148 million people live in these cities (22% of the total European population). An inventory of man-made and natural environmental characteristics determining the air quality situation in cities was made. Ambient urban air pollutant concentrations were compared to their WHO Air Quality Guidelines. The number of people exposed to exceedances of WHO Air Quality Guidelines were estimated. The damage to buildings and cultural heritage caused by air pollution was estimated. An inventory was made of areas with acute local air pollution problems ("hot spots" outside the selected cities).