• Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2012

      Knetsch GJ; M&M; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMMinisterie van Infrastructuur en MilieuNVWARIKILTElectriciteit-Productiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland EPZ, 2014-08-03)
      In 2012 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. All Member States of the European Union are required to perform these measurements each year under the terms of the Euratom Treaty of 1957. Moreover, the Netherlands complied with the guidelines (as established in 2000) for performing the measurements on a uniform basis for every Member State. The measurements provide background values of radioactivity which are present under normal circumstances. These can be used as reference values, for instance, during a nuclear emergency. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) reports to the European Union about radioactivity in the environment on behalf of the Netherlands. Radioactivity in air, food, and milk In 2012 a radiological incident occurred, the consequences of which could be detected in the Netherlands. A radionuclide originating from an accidental release at a facility in Budapest (Hungary) was detected in air dust from 27 January until 2 February. The level of the radionuclide measured in the Netherlands as a result of this incident was very low and did not pose a threat to public health. Except for measurements performed during this radiological incident, levels in the air were normal and within the range of previous years. Radioactivity levels in food and milk were well below the export and consumption limits set by the European Union. Radioactivity in surface water In some locations, the radioactivity levels in surface water were above the target values set by the Vierde Nota Waterhuishouding (1998). Target values should preferably not be exceeded, but they are not set limits as such. The measured levels do not, however, pose a threat to public health.
    • Registratie voedselgerelateerde uitbraken in Nederland, 2015

      Friesema IHM; Tijsma ASL; Wit B; van Pelt W; GEZ; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNVWA, 2016-09-26)
      In 2015 zijn meer uitbraken van voedselinfecties en vergiftigingen geregistreerd dan in voorgaande jaren. Dit komt grotendeels doordat dit jaar alle niet-anonieme meldingen bij de NVWA van uitbraken (van twee of meer zieken) zijn geregistreerd. In voorgaande jaren zijn alleen meldingen gerapporteerd als daarna bij de desbetreffende locaties onderzoek werd gedaan naar ziekteverwekkers. In 2015 zijn in totaal 406 uitbraken gemeld met 1850 zieken, ten opzichte van 207 gemelde uitbraken met 1655 zieken in het jaar ervoor. Dit blijkt uit een analyse van de registratiecijfers in 2015 van voedselinfecties en -vergiftigingen. Daaruit blijkt ook dat het norovirus de belangrijkste veroorzaker van voedselgerelateerde uitbraken blijft, gevolgd door Salmonella en Campylobacter. De cijfers zijn afkomstig van de NVWA en de GGD'en. De meldingen van beide instanties worden samengevoegd en als een geheel geanalyseerd door het Centrum Infectieziektebestrijding van het RIVM. Deze geïntegreerde aanpak geeft een duidelijker beeld van de mate waarin uitbraken van voedselinfecties en -vergiftigingen in Nederland voorkomen en de trend daarin door de jaren heen. De genoemde getallen zijn evenwel een onderschatting van het werkelijke aantal voedselgerelateerde uitbraken en het aantal zieken. Dit komt doordat niet iedere zieke naar de huisarts gaat of de NVWA informeert. Naar schatting worden jaarlijks 680.000 mensen in Nederland ziek door het eten van besmet voedsel. De NVWA en GGD'en registreren en onderzoeken voedselinfecties en vergiftigingen om meer zieken en uitbraken te voorkomen. Daartoe proberen ze vanuit hun eigen werkveld inzicht te krijgen in de besmette bronnen en de aard van de ziekteverwekkers. De NVWA onderzoekt het voedsel en de plaats waar het wordt bereid. De GGD richt zich op de personen die hebben blootgestaan aan besmet voedsel en probeert via hen de mogelijke bronnen te herleiden.
    • Registratie voedselinfecties en -vergiftigingen bij de NVWA en het CIb, 2012

      Friesema IHM; de Jong AEI; Boxman ILA; van Pelt W; GEZ; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNVWA, 2013-10-30)
      In 2012, the number of cases with a foodborne infection was higher compared to previous years. A total of 276 outbreaks with 2607 patients and 273 single cases of foodborne infections and intoxications were registered from the the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) and the regional health services. The increase was caused by several large outbreaks of foodborne infections in 2012. The largest outbreak that came to the attention of the public was the Salmonella Thompson (1149 reported cases) caused by contaminated smoked salmon. These are the main conclusions of an analysis made by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) based on the 2012 registration data from the NVWA and the Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb). Both institutes register foodborne infections and intoxications to gain insight in sources of contamination and pathogens; the figures partially overlap. However, these figures are probably an underestimation, as not all infected patients visit their GP or inform the NVWA. In the Netherlands, an estimated 680,000 patients occur as a result of contaminated food. Just as in previous years, Campylobacter, Salmonella and norovirus were the most commonly occurring causative agents of foodborne outbreaks. However, the impact of Salmonella outbreaks and norovirus outbreaks is bigger than that of Campylobacter, as these pathogens cause more cases per outbreak. Furthermore, cases of a Salmonella infection are also more likely to be severe; almost all hospitalizations related to foodborne infections (in 2012: 79 of 82) and all four reported deaths were found to be caused by Salmonella infections. Examples of crucial steps in the prevention of foodborne infections are good hygiene and proper handling during food production and preparation. Adequate heating of risky products and preventing cross-contamination are instances of this. Therefore, continuous attention should be paid to food safety issues by the government, producers, suppliers, food handlers, and consumers. In 2012, the NVWA received 527 reports about foodborne infections compared with 363 reports in 2011. After a decrease in the intervening years, it increased to the level it had been in 2008-2009. The number of cases reported to the NVWA was 2776 patients compared with 889 in 2011. The number of reports made by the regional health services has remained fairly stable: 43 reports, involving 1652 patients.
    • Registratie voedselinfecties en -vergiftigingen in Nederland, 2014

      Friesema IHM; Tijsma ASL; Wit B; van Pelt W; GEZ; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNVWA, 2015-11-05)
      In 2014 there were fewer outbreaks of food-borne infections and food poisoning in the Netherlands than in previous years. However, due to a rise in the number of affected individuals per reported outbreak, the total number of sick persons increased by 13 percent compared to 2013. A total of 207 outbreaks with 1655 affected individuals were reported in 2014, compared to 290 reported outbreaks with 1460 affected individuals in 2013. In addition, 242 individual cases of food-borne infection or food poisoning were reported to the Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA) in 2014. These are some of the conclusions from an analysis of the 2014 registry data of food-borne infections and food poisoning in the Netherlands. The figures also show a relatively large number of norovirus outbreaks and a relatively small number of Campylobacter outbreaks compared to previous years. The number of Salmonella outbreaks increased in 2014 compared to 2013, but was still lower than in the years preceding 2013. The relevant data are supplied by the NVWA and the regional and municipal health authorities. Since 2014, all reports are combined and analyzed as a single data set by the Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb) at the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). This new, integrated approach provides a clearer picture of the incidence of food-borne infections and food poisoning in the Netherlands, as well as trends over time. However, the figures included in this report represent an underestimation of the actual number of food-borne infections and cases of food poisoning. This is due to the fact that many affected individuals do not visit their GP or inform the NVWA. Experts estimate that approximately 680,000 people in the Netherlands fall ill every year as a result of consuming contaminated food. The NVWA and the regional and municipal health authorities register and investigate cases of food-borne infection and food poisoning in order to prevent further outbreaks and safeguard public health. Based on their specific expertise, these organizations try to gain insight into the possible sources of contamination and the nature of the pathogens involved. The NVWA investigates food products and the facilities where they are prepared, while the regional and municipal health authorities attempt to trace potential sources of contamination by interviewing persons who were exposed to contaminated food.
    • Staat van Zoönosen 2011

      Maassen C; de Jong A; Stenvers O; Valkenburgh S; Friesema I; Heimeriks K; van Pelt W; Graveland H; LZO; cib (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNVWA, 2012-11-20)
      The State of Zoonotic Diseases 2011 is an overview of the occurrence of various zoonoses for that year and is combined with the trends for the long term. The report also contains a few striking incidents that occurred in 2011 and focuses on one theme each year. Striking incidents of zoonotic diseases explained Generally speaking the trends do not reveal any pronounced developments. There were, however, a number of striking incidents such as the outbreaks of E. coli 0104 through sprouting vegetables and Salmonella Newport. Another example is that of the Schmallenberg virus, a new virus in cattle and sheep that causes congenital malformations in lambs and calves. The Centre for Infectious Disease Control (CIb) at the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) thinks that it is highly unlikely that the virus can cause an infection in humans. The report also contains the state of affairs for livestockassociated MRSA and for Lyme disease. Research on Lyme disease is increasingly focusing on people who have symptoms without having had prior clear signs of infection, such as the red ring that surrounds a tick bite. Theme: Animals en route Each year the report ends with a chapter on a special theme; this year the title of that chapter is Animals en route. This chapter highlights the legal and regulatory requirements for importing animals and for travelling with animals. Bearing in mind that the transfer of animals between countries can bring zoonotic risks with it, professionals such as those working at the Public Health Services (GGD) and veterinarians should be aware of these regulations. In this chapter a distinction has been made between pets, the horse family, farm animals and exotic animals. It is striking to note how many Dutch people take their dog or cat on holiday abroad. People's knowledge with regard to the zoonotic risks and their adherence to veterinary regulations is probably limited. Travelling with animals may therefore constitute a threat for the health of both animals and humans. The last incident of a case of rabies being brought into the Netherlands (in 2012) was the result of a puppy being illegally imported from Morocco.