• Emissies en doses door procesindustrie. Jaarrapport 2004 'Beleidsmonitoring straling'

      Eleveld H; Tanzi CP; Dijk JWE van; LSO (Nuclear Research and consultancy Group NRG, 2005-09-15)
      The radiation dose for the Dutch population due to discharges and emissions from processing industries has decreased substantially since 1994. However, the processing industry still makes the largest industrial contribution to the radiation dose. Nuclear installations and medical institutions contribute much less. There was a considerable decrease up to 2000, when two fertilizer enterprises stopped their activities in the Netherlands. Although the reported discharges of radioactive substances to water show a sharp decrease, the collective dose due to emissions to air has shown slight increases since 2001. The policy to reduce discharges in water has led to enterprises investing in wastewater treatment systems. Enterprises also take the radiological consequences into account when purchasing raw materials containing natural occurring radioactive material. The cost of the raw material obviously also influences the decision. Occupational exposure in processing plants was investigated using the data of the National Dose Registration and Information System (NDRIS). Often, employees' inhalation doses can amount to over 1 mSv per annum (i.e. 40% of the average annual radiation dose per capita of the Dutch population), but the dose limit of 6 mSv was not exceeded in any of the cases. We have developed and applied the chain model for regular emissions for assessing the radiation dose. Current dose assessments based on the chain model were found to fit with dose assessments based on measurements. The yearly variation in meteorological factors can affect the radiation dose for members of the public for 25% at locations close to the source when compared to calculations based on decennium averaged meteorology.
    • Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2008

      Knetsch GJ; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMRijkswaterstaat WaterdienstVoedsel en Waren Autoriteit VWARIKILT Institute of Food SafetyNuclear Research and consultancy Group NRG, 2010-08-30)
      The Member States of the European Union have the obligation to measure radioactivity in the environment yearly, as stated in the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The Netherlands fulfilled this obligation also in 2008. In 2000 Euratom made recommendations to perform the measurements according to a certain outline, however Member States are not obliged to comply with these recommendations. In 2008, the Netherlands complied to the Euratom recommendations. Except for the determination of strontium-90 in mixed diet, which was not carried out. Measurements in air and environment show normal levels. Polonium-210 in deposition has the highest level since 1993 (about double the normal quantity). This might partially be explained by Saharan dust which was deposited throughout the Netherlands during the end of May. Radioactivity levels in food and milk were below the export and consumption limits set by the European Union. Since 2008, additional data on radioactivity levels in food have been added to this report. The additional data originate from RIKILT - Insitute of Food Safety. Target values in fresh water were exceeded for some radionuclides and locations, however these exceedings do not pose a threat to the public health. Target values are values that should preferably not be exceeded, however they are not limits.