• Analysis of the impact of the Kyoto Protocol on the export revenues of OPEC member states and on the oil import requirements of non-Annex I countries

      Linden NH van der; Linde C van der; Lako P; Rooijen SNM van; NOP (Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN)PettenNetherlands Institute of International Relations ClingendaelDen Haag, 2000-08-14)
      Abstract niet beschikbaar
    • Climate Options for the Long-term (COOL) - Nationale Dialoog

      Hisschemoller M; Kerkhof M van de; Annema JA; Folkert R; Kok M; Spakman J; Faaij A; Treffers DJ; Jager D de; Jeeninga J; et al. (Free University of AmsterdamInstitute for Environmental StudiesUniversity of UtrechtEcofysUtrechtECNPettenSpanjersberg & PEDen Haag, 2002-12-23)
      Abstract niet beschikbaar
    • The effect of aerosol on closure of the regionale short-wave radiation balance

      Henzing JS; Knap WH; Stammes P; ten Brink HM; Kos GPA; Even A; Swart DPJ; Bergwerff JP; Apituley A; NOP (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMKNMIDe BiltECNPetten, 2001-12-10)
      IPPC reports the aerosol radiative forcing per major aerosol category, like sulphate and fossil fuel derived carbon. Part of this carbon is reflective and part of the material (black carbon "soot") absorbs radiation. We find that in the Netherlands sulphate contributes some 30% to the reflection. Nitrate contributes even more; an estimated 35%. The local importance of nitrate is acknowledged in the new IPCC-TAR, but it is stated that insufficient data exist to assess its importance outside of the Netherlands. The amount of "fossil fuel" carbon could not be directly quantified. The reason is that it consists of thousands of different chemical compounds that all have different physicochemical properties. However, by deduction we found that its concentration is substantial. The mentioned three components, nitrate, sulphate and carbon, are thus the dominant aerosol components in the regional aerosol radiative forcing. As can be seen in the results, the forcing on partly cloudy days seems less because of a shorter sunshine duration. It should then be considered that on cloudy days the reflective power of the aerosol is higher due to the higher relative humidity and the associated uptake of water by the aerosol. This compensates for the shorter sunshine duration. Reflection of solar radiation caused by the aerosol is exerted by aerosol components that can be of a natural origin or produced by man. In our report we show, on the basis of the aerosol composition, that at least 85% of the aerosol is of a manmade origin and the aerosol reflection is therefore a forcing. The forcing is defined as the amount of solar radiation reflected back into space, and not available for heating of the earth due to the presence of manmade aerosol.<br>
    • Referentieraming broeikasgassen. Emissieraming voor de periode 2001-2010

      van den Wijngaart RA; Ybema JR; MNV (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMEnergieonderzoek Centrum Nederland (ECN)Petten, 2002-01-27)
      Het rapport presenteert de resultaten van het project 'Referentieraming energie en broeikasgassen' dat door RIVM en ECN is uitgevoerd in opdracht van de ministeries van Economische Zaken en Volkshuisvesting, Ruimtelijke Ordening en Milieubeheer. De Referentieraming schat de emissie van broeikasgassen in Nederland in 2010. Emissie bronnen en trends tot 2000 zijn geanalyseerd, en toekomstige ontwikkelingen van de economie en energievoorziening zijn opnieuw ingeschat. De nieuwe raming van de emissie van de broeikasgassen is vergeleken met eerdere ramingen die zijn gebruikt voor het nationale klimaatbeleid. Tevens zijn de emissiereductie effecten van het voor 1 juli vastgestelde klimaatbeleid ingeschat. Bij de analyse is onderscheid gemaakt tussen de CO2 en niet - CO2 broeikasgassen. De resultaten dienen ter ondersteuning van de tussentijdse evaluatie in 2002 van het klimaatbeleid zoals aangekondigd in de Uitvoeringsnota Klimaatsbeleid (1999).<br>
    • Sharing the burden of greenhouse gas mitigation

      Jansen JC; Battjes JJ; Ormel FT; Sijm JPM; Volkers CH; Ybema JE; Torvanger A; Ringius L; Underdal A; NOP (ECNPettenCICEROOslo, 2001-11-23)
      Abstract niet beschikbaar
    • Sources, Regional Scaling and Validation of Methane Emissions from the Netherlands and Northwest Europe

      Berdowski JJM; Draaijers GPJ; Janssen LHJM; Hollander JCTh; Loon M van; Roemer MGM; Vermeulen AT; Vosbeek M; Visser H; NOP (TNOApeldoornThe NetherlandsECNPettenThe NetherlandsKEMAArnhemThe Netherlands, 2001-11-19)
      Abstract niet beschikbaar