• Description of the DEPAC module : Dry deposition modelling with DEPAC_GCN2010

      van Zanten MC; Sauter FJ; Wichink Kruit RJ; van Jaarsveld JA; van Pul WAJ; CMM; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMPlanbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, 2010-10-05)
      The process of dry deposition represents the coming down of air components like ammonia on vegetation and soils. Since dry deposition measurements are difficult and expensive, dry deposition estimates are mainly computed through modelling. New insights have led to an update of the description of the dry deposition process. This report presents a detailed description of the revised software-module DEPAC, which simulates the dry deposition process of ammonia. Dry deposition influences the concentration of a component in the air and is an important source of components for the receiving surface. Thus it is important to estimate the amount of total nitrogen deposited on nature. When too much nitrogen is deposited, biodiversity is harmed since nitrogen-thrifty vegetation is replaced with more common species like grasses and brambles. Dry deposition of ammonia represents the largest amount of the total nitrogen deposition. Ammonia enters the air predominantly through the process of evaporation from manure in animal stables and when liquid manure is spread over the land. Earlier versions of the DEPAC module ignored the ammonia concentration in vegetation and soils. The current version assumes that ammonia is present in vegetation, water surfaces and soils. Thus surfaces not only adsorb ammonia but also are able to emit it under certain atmospheric conditions. Further included in the update are an improved description of the light fall in woods and other high vegetation and an improved description of the yearly cycle of the amount of leaf area of plants and trees.
    • Developments in monitoring the effectiveness of EU Nitrates Directive Action Programmes : Result of the second MonNO3 workshop, 10-11 June 2009

      Fraters D; Kovar K; Grant R; Thorling L; Reijs JW; CMM; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMPlanbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBLNational Environmental Research InstituteAarhus UniversityLEI Wageningen UR, 2011-07-13)
      Member States of the European Union are obliged both to monitor the quality of their waters and the effect of their Action Programmes on these waters and to report the results to the European Commission. These monitoring obligations have been interpreted differently by the various countries due to the lack of specific guidelines. Most countries, however, have increased their efforts to monitor water quality the last six years, primarily as a consequence of the discussion between the Member States and the European Commission on how the fertiliser policy should be designed and implemented. Member States try to underpin their position on monitoring with the results from additional monitoring efforts. Another factor contributing to the increase in monitoring is the requirement for Member States that recently joined the EU to adapt their monitoring systems to comply with the obligations of the European Directives. These are the findings of an International Workshop ('MonNO3' workshop) organised in 2009 by the RIVM together with the Danish National Environmental Research Institute (DMU), the Geological Survey for Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) and LEI, part of Wageningen University and Research Centre. Twelve countries from Northwest and Central Europe participated in the second MonNO3 workshop. The focus was on developments since 2003, the year that the first MonNO3 workshop was held. Similar to the first 'MonNO3' workshop, the second one has also contributed to the exchange of knowledge and information - at the international level - on monitoring the effects of the fertiliser policy. Attention was also paid to the use of monitoring data for purposes other than providing information on the status of and trends in water quality; for example, to use data for underpinning measures to be included in the fertiliser policy. In closing, the participants discussed possible amelioration and expansion of the monitoring networks. Keywords:
    • Fijn stof van antropogene bronnen : Een literatuurstudie naar samenstelling en verspreiding

      van der Ree J; Morgenstern PP; Dusseldorp A; MGO ; CMM; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMPlanbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBLGGD'en, 2010-12-30)
      The greater part of airborne particulate matter concentrations originate from human activities, such as road traffic, shipping and animal husbandry. A literature review conducted by the RIVM shows that the contribution from these anthropogenic sources to particulate matter concentrations can be identified up to several kilometers from the source. This research was requested by regional health authorities (GGD'en), since data on the contribution of anthropogenic sources to local particulate matter concentrations is scarce. This report can be used by regional health authorities as background information when advising citizens and policy makers. The composition and dispersion of particulate matter varies between different sources, which in turn leads to different health effects of exposure. Therefore, it is not possible to translate health effects related to particulate matter in cities (where road traffic is the predominant source) to health effects caused by the sources studied. Considered most damaging to health are smaller particles, particles originating from combustion and particles containing water soluble metals. The RIVM studied the following sources: shipping, the food industry (animal feed and flour), transshipment, intensive animal husbandry, the metallurgic industry, refineries and construction sites. They were selected because the regional health authorities receive numerous questions about these sources and because of their relatively large contribution to particulate matter emissions in the Netherlands.
    • Grootschalige concentratie- en depositiekaarten Nederland : Rapportage 2011

      Velders GJM; Aben JMM; Jimmink BA; van der Swaluw E; de Vries WJ; CMM; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMPlanbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, 2011-05-26)
      RIVM presents the new maps with concentrations of seven air pollutants in the Netherlands. It also presents the new maps for the deposition of eutrofying compounds. These maps show the collective picture of the air quality and deposition in the Netherlands. They are being used by the national air quality collaboration program (NSL) and the programmatic approach to nitrogen (PAS) of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation. The maps have a legal status and are a touchstone for new infrastructural projects. They are based on measurements and model calculations for the period 2010-2030. The maps are available online, at www.rivm.nl/gcn. This report presents the methods used for producing the maps and shows the differences with the maps produced in 2010. The concentration (GCN) and deposition (GDN) maps are based on a scenario for economic growth and the Dutch and European environmental policies. The maps with concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) differ in a limited number of locations with those reported in 2010. The concentrations close to busy routes for inland shipping are lower than estimated last year, while the concentrations of particulate matter close to the harbors are higher. An important difference compared to last year is the lower estimated amount of nitrogen dioxide emitted by diesel passenger cars. This will probably result in a reduction in the number of locations for which the limit value for the concentration of nitrogen dioxide is exceeded in the Netherlands in 2015 compared to last year's estimates. The number of locations where the limit value for the concentration of particulate matter (PM10) is exceeded in the Netherlands in 2011 will probably be similar to last year's estimates.
    • Grootschalige concentratie- en depositiekaarten Nederland : Rapportage 2012

      Velders GJM; Aben JMM; Jimmink BA; Geilenkirchen GP; van der Swaluw E; de Vries WJ; Wesseling J; van Zanten MC; CMM; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMPlanbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBL, 2012-06-14)
      New maps of concentrations and depositions for NSL and PAS: RIVM presents new concentration maps for the Netherlands, for eight air pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter, for the period up to 2030. New deposition maps for nitrogen are also presented. These maps are produced annually and show a combined image of the air quality and level of deposition in the Netherlands. They are used in the national air quality collaboration programme (NSL) and in the programmatic approach to nitrogen (PAS) of the Dutch Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment and the Ministry of Economic Affairs, Agriculture and Innovation. The maps are based both on measurements and model calculations. They have legal status and are considered a touchstone for new infrastructural projects. Comparison with last year's report: The new concentration maps for nitrogen dioxide (NO2) differ only slightly from those reported in 2011. Although concentrations of particulate matter (PM10) were found to be higher in 2011 than in 2010, concentrations projected for 2015 decrease faster than reported last year, as a result of improved model calculations. The projected number of locations in the Netherlands where limit values for NO2 and PM10 concentrations are likely to be exceeded will probably differ only slightly from last year's estimates. Elementary carbon: New in this year's report are the concentration maps for elementary carbon (EC; soot). Carbon is emitted during various combustion processes. It is assumed that carbon concentrations are a better indicator of the health risks related to air pollution, particularly from local traffic emissions, than is the case for concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. These maps should be regarded as merely indicative, because of the current limited experience with modelling and measuring of elementary carbon. These concentrations, therefore, would be most appropriate to use in a relative sense, for comparing the effects of certain measures on human health. Considerations for next year's report: The current maps do not include impacts from the May 2012 obligations to reduce emissions according to the revised Gothenburg Protocol of the United Nations. The new emission ceilings for 2020 for most substances are higher for countries bordering on to the Netherlands than the values used in this report. The consequences of these new emission ceilings will be taken into account for next year's maps (report 2013). The current scenarios also do not include any effects from the government proposal to raise the maximum speed limit on motorways.
    • Leaching of plant protection products to field ditches in the Netherlands : Development of a PEARL drain pipe scenario for arable land

      Tiktak A; Boesten JJTI; Hendriks RFA; van der Linden AMA; LER; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMPlanbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBLAlterraWageningen UR, 2012-12-27)
      In the current Dutch authorisation procedure for calculating exposure of surface water organisms to plant protection products, deposition of drift is considered to be the only source. Drainage from agricultural fields is being ignored. Because drainage may be an important source for exposure of water organisms, RIVM, Wageningen UR and the Board for the authorisation of plant protection products and biocides derived a new procedure in which drainage is included. The update of the current procedure was initiated by the Dutch government to bring the Dutch procedure more in line with the EU procedure, which already takes account of drainage. Cracking clay soils A large part of the drainage may occur via cracks in the soil resulting from clay shrinking upon drought. The PEARL model was extended with a module to account for this preferential flow route and tested against field data. PEARL appeared to be able to simulate the preferential flow processes reasonably well. Substance properties still important Calculations for a number of hypothetical substances showed that sorption and degradation still play an important role in the leaching of these substances. Substances with a longer half-life and a lower sorption coefficient show the highest leaching potential. The effect of the substance properties is, however, less pronounced than in a situation without cracks, because most of the active layer of the soil is bypassed.
    • Scenarios for exposure of aquatic organisms to plant protection products in the Netherlands : Part 1: Field crops and downward spraying

      Tiktak A; Adriaanse PI; Boesten JJTI; van Griethuysen C; ter Horst MMS; Linders JBJH; van der Linden AMA; van de Zande JC; LER; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMPlanbureau voor de Leefomgeving PBLctgbAlterraWageningen URPlant Research InternationalWageningen UR, 2012-12-27)
      In the current Dutch authorisation procedure for calculating the exposure of surface water organisms to plant protection products, drift deposition is considered to be the only source for exposure of surface water organisms. Although drift can still be considered the most important source, atmospheric deposition and drainage may constitute important sources as well. Therefore, RIVM, PBL Netherlands Assessment Agency, Wageningen UR and the Board for the authorisation of plant protection products and biocides have derived a new procedure in which these two potential sources are included. The new procedure, described in this report, is restricted to downward spray applications in field crops. Specific Dutch circumstances The update of the procedure was initiated to bring the Dutch procedure more in line with the EU procedure, which already takes account of drainage. However, typical Dutch adaptations of the procedure remain. In the new procedure, drift is still based on Dutch drift deposition measurements. Characteristic is that the flow velocity of the selected ditch is rather low. Risk management decisions Two boundary conditions were used as starting points for deriving the scenario. First, there was the risk management decision that the scenario should be protective for at least 90 per cent of field ditches. Second, it was assumed that all adjacent fields are treated with the same substance and thus contribute to resulting exposure concentrations in the ditch. Drift reducing measures still important Currently, when spraying plant protection products on fields along surface water, growers should maintain a crop-free buffer zone and use certified sprayers that reduce spray drift deposition by at least 50 per cent. Example calculations with four substances showed that it is worthwhile to invest in further drift reduction. Calculated impacts on water organisms reduced upon applying higher drift reduction when drift was the dominant factor.