• Eindrapport "Evaluatie Salmonella Typhimurium ft 560 uitbraak in Twente"

      Isken LD; Roorda J; de Kok L; Kaur P; Ouwerkerk IMS; Stenvers OFJ; LCI (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMVoedsel en Waren Autoriteit VWAGGD Regio Twente, 2008-02-06)
    • Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2008

      Knetsch GJ; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMRijkswaterstaat WaterdienstVoedsel en Waren Autoriteit VWARIKILT Institute of Food SafetyNuclear Research and consultancy Group NRG, 2010-08-30)
      The Member States of the European Union have the obligation to measure radioactivity in the environment yearly, as stated in the Euratom Treaty of 1957. The Netherlands fulfilled this obligation also in 2008. In 2000 Euratom made recommendations to perform the measurements according to a certain outline, however Member States are not obliged to comply with these recommendations. In 2008, the Netherlands complied to the Euratom recommendations. Except for the determination of strontium-90 in mixed diet, which was not carried out. Measurements in air and environment show normal levels. Polonium-210 in deposition has the highest level since 1993 (about double the normal quantity). This might partially be explained by Saharan dust which was deposited throughout the Netherlands during the end of May. Radioactivity levels in food and milk were below the export and consumption limits set by the European Union. Since 2008, additional data on radioactivity levels in food have been added to this report. The additional data originate from RIKILT - Insitute of Food Safety. Target values in fresh water were exceeded for some radionuclides and locations, however these exceedings do not pose a threat to the public health. Target values are values that should preferably not be exceeded, however they are not limits.
    • Environmental radioactivity in the Netherlands : Results in 2011

      Knetsch GJ; M&V; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMRijkswaterstaatVoedsel en Waren Autoriteit VWARIKILTElektriciteits-Produktiemaatschappij Zuid-Nederland EPZ, 2013-09-25)
      In 2011 the Netherlands fulfilled the European obligation to annually measure radioactivity in the environment and in food. According to the Euratom Treaty of 1957, all Member States of the European Union are obliged to perform these measurements each year. In addition the Netherlands complies with the guidelines established in 2000 for performing the measurements uniformly. The measurements provide background values of radioactivity that are present under normal circumstances. These background values can be used as reference values, for instance, during a disaster. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) reports on behalf of the Netherlands to the European Union about radioactivity in the environment. Radioactivity during two radiological incidents In 2011 two radiological incidents occurred which could be detected in the Netherlands. Radionuclides originating from the incident at the nuclear site at Fukushima (Japan) were detected from 18 March until 10 June and radionuclides originating from an incident at an institute for medical isotopes in Budapest (Hungary) were detected from 3 until 11 November. The levels of radionuclides measured in the Netherlands as a result of these incidents were very low and do not pose a threat to public health. Radioactivity in air, food and milk Except for the measurements during these two radiological incidents, measurements in the air and environment showed normal levels, which are within the range of previous years. The deposition of polonium-210 showed the highest level since 1993, but this level does not pose a threat to public health. Radioactivity levels in food and milk were well below the export and consumption limits set by the European Union, except for one sample. Of 231 samples game and poultry one sample of boar (originating from the Netherlands in January 2011) contained 1.4 times more cesium-137 than the set limit. Radioactivity in surface water In some locations, the radioactivity levels in surface water were above the target values set by the Vierde Nota waterhuishouding (1998). However, these levels do not pose a threat to public health. Target values should preferably not be exceeded, but they are not limits as such.
    • Registratie voedselinfecties en -vergiftigingen bij de Inspectie voor de Gezondheidszorg en Voedsel en Waren Autoriteit, 2005

      Doorduyn YD; van den Broek MJM; van Duynhoven YTHP; CIE (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMVoedsel en Waren Autoriteit VWAKeuringsdienst van Waren OostZutphen, 2006-09-12)
      In 2005, the number of outbreaks notified to the Inspectorate was comparable with 2004: 44 outbreaks (with 357 cases) and 44 foodhandlers and professionals in health care with a laboratory-confirmed foodborne infection. The number of incidents reported to the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority in 2005 (535, including 301 outbreaks) was lower than in 2004 (601, including 336 outbreaks). At the Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, a probable cause for the foodborne infections and intoxications was relatively frequently found (for 28% of the incidents versus 16% in 2004). Bacillus cereus (3.6%) was most frequently reported, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (1.5%). It was indirectly estimated that 4.7% of reported outbreaks were of viral origin, although only three norovirus outbreaks were reported. At the Inspectorate for Health Care, the causative agent was reported for 64% of the outbreaks. Salmonella was most frequently identified (34%), followed by Campylobacter (23%) and norovirus (7%). In 2005, Campylobacter was observed more often as the cause (in 2004 17%). Simultaneously, norovirus was reported less often in 2005 (in 2004 15%).