• Een nieuwe toetsdiepte voor nitraat in grondwater? Eindrapport van het onderzoek naar de mogelijkheden voor een toetsdieptemeetnet

      Fraters B; Boumans LJM; van Elzakker BG; Gast LFL; Griffioen J; Klaver GT; Nelemans JA; Velthof GL; Veld H; LVM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMAlterraTNO Bouw en OndergrondWageningen Universiteit, 2006-07-25)
      Changing the compliance checking level for nitrate in groundwater in sandy regions from the upper metre to the upper five metres of groundwater has not proven to be to be expedient. The motivating factor for this change is the opportunity it would offer to comply with the objectives of the EU Nitrates Directive and the Water Framework Directive without unnecessary restriction of the total nitrogen application standards. This change in the compliance checking level lacked expediency because the current nitrate concentration in the upper five metres of groundwater in soils vulnerable to nitrate leaching failed to show a decrease. The nitrate concentrations decrease in depth in the upper five metres of groundwater in other soils. But the upper metre of groundwater also flows via run off and shallow subsurface flow (for example, via tile-drains) to surface waters, and transports nitrate and other nitrogen compounds. For this reason, water-quality objectives for surface waters have to be taken into consideration as well. For the other soils, nitrate concentrations decrease by 15 to 40% in the upper five metres of groundwater in moderately vulnerable sandy soils and 30 to 100% in slightly vulnerable sandy soils.
    • Soil ecosystem profiling in the Netherlands with ten references for biological soil quality

      Rutgers M; Mulder C; Schouten AJ; Bloem J; Bogte JJ; Breure AM; Brussaard L; de Goede RGM; Faber JH; Jagers op Akkerhuis GAJM; Keidel H; Korthals GW; Smeding FW; ten Berg C; van Eekeren N; LER (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMAlterraWageningen UniversiteitLouis Bolk Institute, 2008-07-10)
      The RIVM (Dutch abbreviation for National Institute for Public Health and the Environment) and other institutes have described ten soil ecosystem profiles, or 'biological soil quality references', based on soil quality as inferred from existing empirical evidence. This is a pilot study, since no specific protocol has been established yet. The aim is to use these new references as benchmarks in the implementation of a more sustainable use of soils. References were derived from a combination of data on land use (e.g. dairy farms, arable fields and heathlands) and soil type (sand, peat, clay and Loess). Soils types covering about three-quarters of the surface of the Netherlands are studied in this report. Several participants, with expertise ranging from soil ecology and microbiology to rural management, selected sites where they believed data to be representative of good soil quality. To do this, they used soil monitoring data from the Netherlands Soil Monitoring Network (in Dutch: LMB). The ten references were derived from empirical data. This report provides also the averages and frequency distributions of soil biological, chemical and physical soil characteristics. The occurence of soil organisms has also been described, as well as their biodiversity.
    • Typeringen van bodemecosystemen in Nederland met tien referenties voor biologische bodemkwaliteit

      Rutgers M; Mulder C; Schouten AJ; Bloem J; Bogte JJ; Breure AM; Brussaard L; de Goede RGM; Faber JH; Jagers op Akkerhuis GAJM; Keidel H; Korthals GW; Smeding FW; ten Berg C; van Eekeren N; LER (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMAlterraWageningenWageningen UniversiteitPraktijkonderzoek Plant en OmgevingWageningenLouis Bolk Instituut, 2007-12-14)
      RIVM and other institutes described ten soil system profiles (the so-called biological soil references) according to the soil quality as inferred from existing empirical evidence of previously investigated sites. This is a pilot study, since no specific protocol has yet been established. These new references aim to be used as benchmarks to implement a more sustainable use of soils. References were derived from a combination of data from land-use (e.g. dairy farms, arable fields and heathlands) and soil type (sand, peat, clay and loess). Our approach covers the soils of about three-quarters of the surface of the Netherlands. Several scientists, with expertise ranging from soil ecology and microbiology up to rural management, selected sites where data was seen by them as representative of good soil quality. For this purpose these scientists used soil monitoring data from the Netherlands Soil Monitoring Network (in Dutch: LMB). The ten references were derived from empirical data. This report also provides the averages and frequency distributions of biological, chemical and physical soil characteristics. The extent to which soil organisms occur has been described as well as their biodiversity.
    • Typeringen van bodemecosystemen- Duurzaam bodemgebruik met referenties voor biologische bodemkwaliteit

      Rutgers M; Mulder C; Schouten AJ; Bogte JJ; Breure AM; Bloem J; Jagers op Akkerhuis GAJM; Faber JH; van Eekeren N; Smeding FW; Keidel H; de Goede RGM; Brussaard L; LER (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMAlterraWageningenLouis Bolk InstituutDriebergenBedrijfslaboratorium voor grond- en gewasanalyseOosterbeekSectie BodemkwalitieitWageningen Universiteit, 2006-02-24)
      The coming years will see a transformation in the Dutch policy for soil protection, with the focus shifting from soil protection to sustainable use of the soil. Within the framework for sustainable land use, the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) requested RIVM and other institutes to formulate quality references for a 'healthy' soil. Two references were formulated: one for dairy farming on sandy soil and one for natural grassland on sandy soil. References are represented by numerical values for chemical, physical, biological and other parameters. Data for determining references were derived from the database of the soil biological indicator sub-set of the Dutch Soil Monitoring Network. A step-by-step approach was developed to select key parameters from the indicator sub-set. This approach was based on the so-called soil 'ecosystem services', i.e. soil fertility, resistance and resilience against stress and disturbance, the buffer and reactor capacity of the soil, and biodiversity. 'Soil health' can therefore be assumed to be determined with the key parameters only.