• Mineralen beter geregeld. Evaluatie van de werking van de Meststoffenwet 1998-2003

      MNP RIVM; LDL (AlterraWageningen URLandbouw Economisch InstituutWageningen UR (LEI)Plant Research InternationalWageningen URRijksinstituut voor Integraal Zoetwaterbeheer en Afvalwaterbehandeling (RIZA)Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (CBS)Wageningen Universiteit - BedrijfseconomieBureau HeffingenNederlands Instituut voor Toegepaste Geowetenschappen (TNO-NITG)Nutrienten Management Instituut (NMI)Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam (EUR), 2004-04-27)
      Within the present national and European context the results of this evaluation point out that the Dutch manure policy has reached a decisive stage. The high nitrate concentrations in groundwater decreased substantially, but exceedance of the European standard of 50 mg/l persists on soils sensitive to nitrate leaching. The nitrogen surpluses will have to go down by several tens of kg/ha before the nitrate standard will be reached. Although the agricultural sector managed to bring down the phosphorus surpluses by 30% since 1997, soils are still accumulating phosphorus, and leaching of phosphorus did not decrease. The policy goals of MINAS, the loss standards for nitrogen and phosphorus, were achieved. However, the underlying environmental goal, a tight balance between nutrient application and crop removal, was not reached. The manure contracting system did not have any limiting effect on manure production, because the dairy farmers had to contract only 85% of the nitrogen production in manure. The system of Manure production ceilings was very effective as it prevented the large and economically vital farms to increase their livestock numbers. In October 2003 MINAS was rejected by the European court of justice as a proper implementation of the Nitrate Directive. Hereafter the Dutch government decided to abandon MINAS in 2006, and the Manure contracting system in 2005. In 2006 the Netherlands will adopt a manure policy based on application standards instead of standards for mineral losses. The new manure policy, including application limits for nitrogen in manure and fertilisers as required by the Nitrate Directive, will set tighter limits to the use of nitrogen and phosphorus than the present MINAS.