• Assessment factors for human health risk assessment: a discussion paper

      Vermeire TG; Stevenson H; Pieters MN; Rennen M; Slob W; Hakkert BC; CSR; LEO; TNO-ITV (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNederlandse organisatie voor toegepast wetenschappelijk onderzoek (TNO)Zeist, 1998-03-31)
      The general goal of this discussion paper is to contribute towards further harmonisation of the human health risk assessment. It discusses the development of a formal, harmonised set of default assessment factors. The status quo with regard to assessment factors is reviewed. Options are presented for a set of default values or probabilistic distributions for assessment factors based on the state of the art. Methods of combining default values or probabilistic distributions of assessment factors are described. The benchmark dose concept is proposed for better characterisation of the true human no-effect level in a probabilistic manner. It is shown how the probabilistic benchmark dose distribution can be combined with distributions of assessment factors to arrive at the distribution of a Human Limit Value.<br>
    • State of infectious disease in the Netherlands 2012

      Bijkerk P; Kemmeren J; Kardamanidis K; Mollema L; Fanoy EB; de Melker HE; RVP; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMPublic Health Service Midden-NederlandZeist, 2014-01-09)
      In 2012, outbreaks of pertussis and Salmonella Thompson were the most important events concerning infectious diseases in the Netherlands. These outbreaks are described in the State of Infectious Diseases in the Netherlands in 2012. The purpose of this annual report is to provide insight into developments and trends of infectious diseases in the Dutch population. In addition, developments in other countries that are relevant for the Netherlands, are described. The annual report is compiled for policymakers at the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport (VWS). Each year, one particular topic is highlighted. This time the focus is on developments in vaccines and vaccination programmes and their relevance for the Dutch public health. Many vaccines are given through countrywide vaccination programmes, such as the National Immunization Programme (approximately 2 million vaccinations each year) and the National Influenza Prevention Programme (approximately 3,5 million vaccination each year). In addition, vaccinations are given to travellers, medical risk groups, such as people without a spleen, and employees who have an increased risk for an infectious disease through their vocation, such as health care and laboratory personnel. The epidemiology, the mortality and morbidity, and vaccine coverage are described per vaccination programme. Vaccine coverage in travellers, employees and medical risk groups is largely unknown. Changes in society ensure that certain groups are critical to vaccinations. In this report we describe groups who refuse vaccination, such as members of Reformed Congregations and people with an anthroposophical lifestyle. Also, the attitude and motivation of parents to have their child vaccinated or not is discussed. Finally, we describe the increase in the number of elderly and chronically ill people. Their susceptibility to infections makes them an important group to consider (new) vaccinations.