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Aan roken toe te schrijven productiviteitskosten voor Nederlandse werkgevers in 1999(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMErasmus Universiteit RotterdamiMTA/BMG, 2002-06-17)The productivity costs to Dutch employers attributable to smoking are estimated here for 1999. Included are productivity costs (value of lost production) due to absenteeism, and disability and death of employees due to smoking. Costs associated with smoking breaks during working hours or early retirement were not included due to lacking data. Costs connected with a special organisation of the space in buildings, and garbage or fire due to smoking fall outside the scope of this report. Production loss due to smoking was estimated on the basis of published information on disease-specific relative risks of death applicable to smokers, as compared to non smokers, combined with national disease-specific data on absenteeism, disability and deaths. Considering that employees can be replaced, production loss is restricted to the period from absence to replacement, the friction period. In the primary analysis in this report we estimated productivity costs, assuming a friction period of 6 months. In a comparative analysis we estimated the same costs with a different method, where the estimate was based on direct costs to employers such as salary payment, costs for replacement, death benefits and increased insurance contributions, resulting from employee absence. In 1999, 1.9% absenteeism, 3.3% new disability and 22% deaths among employees could be attributed to smoking. The associated costs were estimated at 305 million Euro or 105 Euro per employed smoker. The estimate based on direct costs to the employer was comparable (both methods estimate the same costs, so the productivity costs and direct costs should not be added up). Considering that health hazards of smoking do not disappear immediately after stopping, the employer saves 27 Euro per year in the short term on an employee who stops smoking. The estimates are conservative because not all smoking-related diseases are included in the calculations. Furthermore, no costs were attributed to passive smoking. Apart from pointing out the advantages to health, employers can also promote a smoking stop for economic reasons.