• Blootstelling van volwassen Turken in Nederland aan dioxine en verwante verbindingen via de voeding

      Theelen RMC; Hulshof PJM; Liem AKD; LOC; . (1993-05-31)
      It is known, that emissions from incinerators can cause elevated levels of dioxins and related compounds in cow's milk fat and beef. Later on it was shown that a local contamination of mutton from these sources was also likely to occur. As the consumption of mutton by the general Dutch population is negligible, that finding did not cause any problem. On the other hand, one can predict a potential problem for a population with a significant intake of mutton, such as Dutch inhabitants from foreign origin. Therefore a food consumption survey with adult Turkish men and women was carried out by the Agricultural University Wageningen. At the same time the concentration of (i)-TEQ in mutton near incinerators and from background area was determined by the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection in Bilthoven. The original data from the food consumption survey were used to calculate the intake of (i)-TEQ and (pcb)-TEQ by the Dutch Turks, applying concentrations of dioxins and furans, and planar PCB's from the previous study with the general Dutch population. So a series of individual intake figures was established from which the median intake and its 95 percentile of the adult Turks was computed. The results showed a daily intake of 2,3,7,8-chloride substituted dioxins and furans of 84 pg (i)-TEQ (95%: 171), equivalent with 1.13 pg (i)-TEQ/kg .day (95%: 2.32). For planar PCB's the corresponding figures are 110 pg (pcb)-TEQ (95%: 221), equivalent with 1.48 pg (pcb)-TEQ/kg.day (95%: 2.99). It was concluded, that these figures are simular with the results from the previous study with the general Dutch population, and that there was no exceeding of the Dutch Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 10 pg TEQ/kg.day for the Dutch Turks. The study showed however that butter, sheep and beef, and in a lesser degree cheese from cow's milk fat contributed most to the total intake, as for the general Dutch population milk products and cheese, and food items with various fats from food industry were most significant. A scenario analysis showed an exceeding of the TDI of 1% of the adult Dutch Turks, if mutton was contaminated with 13 pg TEQ/g. fat and 5% for mutton with 18 pg TEQ/g.fat. Levels up to 20 pg (i)-TEQ/g.fat are determined, and as incinerators do also emit planar PCB's the total dioxins and related compounds in mutton can be higher then 20 pg TEQ. So, local contamination of mutton could have unacceptable consequences for the Dutch Turks. As a result of the local contamination of cow's milk fat near incineration processes, measures to reduce emission of (i)-TEQ are forced by law. These measures will reduce the concentrations of dioxins and related compounds in mutton at the same time, thus controlling major sources of exposure for the general polulation will also be effective for the exposure by dutch Turks.
    • Gehalten van dioxinen in schapevet

      Liem AKD; Beijen PC; Hijman WC; Theelen RMC; Derks HJGM; Jong APJM de; LOC; .; TOX; BFT; (1993-04-30)
      This report describes the results of a study on the occurrence of PCDDs and PCDFs in fat of sheep in the Netherlands. In the period August 1990 to September 1991, a total of 21 fat samples from sheep and lambs were collected in background areas in the provinces Noord-Holland (Texel), Groningen, Friesland and Gelderland, where almost eighty percent of all Dutch sheep are held. The other samples were taken from sheep and lambs from areas near the (former) municipal solid waste incinerator at Zaandam (five samples) and one sample was obtained from an ewe which was held on waste dump site in Duiven Westervoort. In the samples the levels have been determined of the seventeen 2,3,7,8-chlorine substituted PCDDs and PCDFs (expressed as International Toxic Equivalents or TEQ), by using gas chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry.