• Aandacht voor 'ageing' binnen de chemische industrie : Bedrijven over de risico's als gevolg van het verouderen van chemische installaties

      Geus ECJ; Kieskamp KK; ABI; VLH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-07-10)
      Incidents can occur at companies that work with chemical substances because their plant systems are ageing (this is also more specifically known under the lengthier term 'ageing of the process industry'). Since 2015, companies subject to the Major Accidents (Risks) Decree - also known as 'BRZO companies (Besluit Risico's Zware Ongevallen) - have been obliged to get a clear understanding of the safety risks associated with ageing and corrosion in their plants and to control those risks. From 2017 onwards, BRZO inspection services have been paying attention to the ageing of installed systems. As preparation for the inspection, the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has sent out a questionnaire to obtain a picture of how much attention sectors that are subject to the BRZO pay to ageing. Of the 17 sector organisations that were approached, 9 responded with details. The survey has shown firstly that not all sectors include ageing explicitly in their risk management yet. At the end of 2016, many companies were still in the early stages of including it in the process. The majority of sectoral organisations do discuss ageing internally. Secondly, companies appear to use various definitions of ageing. In the narrower definitions, ageing is purely about degradation of materials. The broader variants cover not only degradation of materials such as rusting or wear and tear, but also ageing of the technology, procedures and knowledge deployed. Half the sectoral organisations use the term in the broader sense. Various initiatives have now been taken to get companies and the authorities to focus more on ageing.
    • Analyse van trends in stralingsbelasting als gevolg van beeldvormende diagnostiek

      Pruppers MJM; Waard-Schalkx IR de; Bijwaard H; IRV; ABI; M&V; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2013-06-10)
      For diagnoses that require an image of the body's interior (medical imaging) X-ray equipment can be used that produces ionising radiation. In the Netherlands the average per caput radiation dose due to diagnostic radiology has increased between 2002 and 2010 with 70 per cent (approximately 0.045 millisievert yearly). The main cause for this is the doubling of the number of Computed Tomography (CT) examinations in Dutch hospitals in the past ten years. This follows from research by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) that focusses on the use of CT scanners in Dutch hospitals. However, a real explanation for the observed increase in CT use is missing. Seemingly obvious explanations like ageing and growth of the population appear to contribute only marginally. It is unclear what causes the increased use of CT. Presumably hospitals carry out more and more CT examinations because they have more scanners that can make scans faster. Apart from that, diagnostic guidelines and treatment plans may have changed in recent years in a way that leads to more frequent use of CT for diagnoses. It is also possible that new, younger staff, trained with CT, contributes to this development. Another factor might be the growing empowerment of patients that ask for CT scans themselves. In addition, physicians may ask for more CT scans due to fear of litigation in case they miss a diagnosis. More insight in possible explanations might be obtained from an expert elicitation that should lead to a ranking of arguments. Apart from that, research for CT alternatives or reduction of examination doses can be supported. Furthermore, more consciousness among physicians of the costs and risks of CT could help to reduce the number of CT examinations. However, one should not lose sight of the benefits of diagnostic radiology, i.e. quicker and better diagnoses.
    • Classificatie methode kabelafval

      Broekman MH; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2013-05-27)
      Recent studies of the chemical composition of cable waste have shown that accurate assays of hazardous substances in cable sheaths are not possible. These studies are necessary in order to reach proper classification of cable waste should any doubt exist on this matter. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment has developed a phased plan for classifying the international transport of cable waste. This waste consists, for example, of discarded cables for telecommunications and electricity wiring. The cables consist of one or more metal cores for the wiring and a surrounding casing which protects the metal cores. The casing can be made from different types of materials, such as paper, burlap, plastics and metals. The phased plan was commissioned by the Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate on the basis of best practices. It contributes to a better reliability and quality according to European requirements. The member states of the European Union are obliged to comply with European Regulation on the shipments of waste (EVOA) to ensure that cable waste is properly classified. This ensures the correct processing of waste. For cables with a plastic casing, the EVOA classification depends on the presence of hazardous substances. If the plastic casing contains a certain amount of hazardous substances, such as mineral oil, PCBs, PAHs, heavy metals and their compounds, organohalogen compounds, or brominated flame retardants, it is classified as hazardous waste. Such cable waste can therefore not be classified as Green list waste.
    • Dosisbesparing bij radiologische apparatuur

      Stam R; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2014-01-24)
      The radiation doses that patients in the Netherlands receive in medical diagnostics are among the lowest in Europe. Nevertheless, some improvements are still possible. This is important because the overall medical radiation burden for diagnostic procedures has been increasing in the past few years. This is because Dutch citizens on average undergo ever more medical procedures that use radiation, such as CT scans. Modern radiological equipment offers more and more possibilities to keep the dose per procedure as low as possible. The National Institute for Public Health and the Environment has therefore assessed which properties of the equipment are outdated and which are desirable to reduce the dose. Examples of outdated equipment are devices which do not make it possible to limit the size of the X-ray beam and devices that do not automatically adjust the dose to the properties of the patient's body (such as weight). Examples of advanced dose limiting techniques are 'magnetic navigation', where for example a cardiac catheter is led through blood vessels with the help of magnetic fields rather than X-ray images. Another example of the state of the art is the adjustment of the dose to the different phases of the cardiac cycle (contraction and relaxation). There are also detectors with reduced electronic noise that make the device more sensitive and capable of using less radiation. Also important are the latest mathematical techniques to reconstruct the image (iterative reconstruction), which make a lower dose adequate. For the radiation burden of patients resulting from diagnostic procedures it is important to limit both the number of procedures and the dose per procedure. The present report mainly concerns the dose per procedure. It is relatively high for CT scans and for interventions with long exposure to X-rays. In order to use the possibilities of state of the art equipment optimally, it is important that the users are properly trained and provided with continuing education. Dose reduction is particularly important for children, because they are more vulnerable for the adverse effects of radiation. The assessment was made on the basis of literature research and interviews with experts from various professions (radiologists, medical physicists, technicians and manufacturers). This investigation was conducted at the request of the Health Care Inspectorate of the Netherlands.
    • Ernstige arbeidsongevallen 1999-2011 : Trends en ontwikkelingen

      Berkhout PHG; Damen M; Ameling CB; Sol VM; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2015-06-25)
      The total number of serious occupational accidents in the Netherlands is decreasing from around 2600 in 1999 to around 2000 in 2011, according to an analysis of occupational accidents from 1999-2011. The data show no change in the severity of the accidents: three per cent of the employed victims (80 persons in 1999; 60 persons in 2011) die each year because of an occupational accident and four percent is unfit for work. Almost one third of the employees has an above average probability of a serious accident. The chance of having an accident is unevenly distributed The probability of having a serious occupational accident is affected by age, gender, type of labour contract, nationality and sector. Young people of 19 years old prove to have a relatively high risk. Workers in their late fifties show the highest chance of having an accident. It seems that temporary workers have a higher risk than workers with a fixed working week in a permanent or temporary contract. Males have a higher risk than females, even after correction for the sector. Also nonnative people of the first generation have a higher risk, but non-native people of the second generation show a risk equal to Dutch native workers. Not all sectors show a downward trend of occupational accidents In four sectors the number of accidents remains high, despite the general decline. It involves the sectors 'textile and clothing', 'agriculture, fisheries and minerals', 'production of machinery and equipment' and 'specialised construction'. The last sector includes activities such as 'roofing', 'construction of scaffolding', 'piles driving' and 'concrete braiting'. Other building related sectors such as 'building completion' and 'construction of infrastructure (such as bridges and cables)' do show a decrease in the number of accidents. The analysis is based on information on serious occupational accidents investigated by the labour inspectorate, coupled with Central Bureau of Statistics data on individual characteristics of employed workers, such as age and sector. The research does not provide explanations of the findings.
    • Feitenrelaas rond de aspecten 'Gezondheid en Veiligheid' van biovergisting

      Heezen PAM; Schalk JAC; Posthuma L; Wintersen AM; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2015-07-03)
      Biodigestion is a process in which organic material from manure and other residues is degraded in specifically designed plants. In this process biogas is formed which contains the combustible gas methane (CH4). The solid residue, termed 'digestate', is used as fertilizer. The process in which other organic materials are digested besides manure is called codigestion. Co-digestion is promoted in many EU countries as a source of renewable fuel. In The Netherlands, co-digestion is promoted and subsidized by national and regional authorities. There are now about 100 plants for the co-digestion of manure and other organic materials. Another three plants are dedicated to process manure only.
    • Gammastralingsniveaumetingen aan de terreingrens van COVRA N.V. te Borsele in 2015 en 2016 met het MONET-meetnet

      Tanzi CP; ABI; VLH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-02-12)
      This report contains an erratum d.d. 08-10-2018 on page 41 Over the years 2015 and 2016, the radiation level caused by gamma radiation at the site boundary of the COVRA N.V., the Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste, was below the maximum permitted level. This is the conclusion of this report based on field measurements carried out by RIVM. Dutch legislation on the use of nuclear energy requires that the maximum dose rate at the site boundary of the COVRA N.V. does not exceed 40 microsievert annually. Control measurements of the gamma radiation level were therefore carried out with gamma radiation monitors placed at twelve locations at the site boundary. This is done within the framework of the MONET monitoring network, which falls under the administrative management of the RIVM. The measurements are processed by subtracting the natural background The result is then translated into the effective radiation dose for an individual by applying the so-called 'Actual Exposure Correction factor' (ABC-factor). ABC-factors are closely linked with the specific use of the site where the effective radiation dose is calculated. RIVM is tasked by the Authority of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (ANVS, formerly known as KFD) to annually report on whether COVRA N.V. meets the criterion set out in its license. Both the daily averages of the effective gamma dose around COVRA N.V. are shown and an explanation of how the background level for the MONET monitors is determined is provided in the report. Over the period 2015 to 2016 the highest gamma yearly dose, to which the ABC-factor is applied, is found to be 2,9 and 3,0 microsievert respectively. This is lower than the value of 40 microsievert per year which is stipulated in the permit.
    • Gammastralingsniveaumetingen aan de terreingrens van COVRA N.V. te Borsele in 2017 met het MONET-meetnet

      Tanzi CP; ABI; VLH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-11-01)
      In 2017, the radiation level in 2017 caused by gamma radiation at the site boundary of the COVRA N.V., the Central Organisation for Radioactive Waste, was below the maximum permitted level of 40 microsievert per year. The maximum measured gamma dose is 3,0 microsievert per year. This is the result of measurements carried out by RIVM. RIVM is tasked by the Authority of Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (ANVS) to annually report on whether COVRA N.V. meets the criterion set out in its operating license. COVRA N.V. needs to ensure that the maximum effective dose received by persons outside the boundary of COVRA N.V. does not exceed 40 microsievert annually, as is stipulated in the operating license. In order to determine the maximum effective dose, the gamma radiation is measured at twelve locations along the site boundary. The measurements are carried out within the framework of the MONET monitoring network, which falls under the administrative management of the RIVM. The measurements are analyzed by subtracting the natural background value. The resulting measurement data are corrected with the so-called "Actuele Blootstelling Correctiefactor" (ABC-factor). An ABC-factor takes into account the specific use of the area where the gamma dose may be incurred. This translates into a maximum effective dose of 3.0 microsievert per year, which is far below the maximum permitted yearly gamma dose. In this report the daily averages of the radiation dose recorded by the MONET-monitors at the boundary of COVRA N.V. in 2017 are shown, and an explanation is given of how the background level at each measuring location was determined.
    • Gebromeerde brandvertragers in afgedankte elektrische apparatuur : Studie naar grenswaarden, het vóórkomen en de meting

      Broekman MH; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2014-05-09)
      Waste of electrical and electronic devices might contain brominated flame retardants. The highest concentrations are found predominantly in plastic casings of old televisions and computers. Other plastic items such as keyboards, mechanical mice and telephones also might contain high levels of flame retardants. Brominated flame retardants may be released when plastic components of appliances for disposal are processed into reusable materials. They can pose a risk to humans and the environment. Based on their properties brominated flame retardants are: persistent, harmful, toxic, potentially carcinogenic and hazardous to the environment. The electronic waste, which burns incompletely in the open air instead of incineration plants for waste, constitutes an indirect risk. In these cases, any brominated flame retardants that are present are converted into dangerous brominated dioxins. It is therefore important that the processing procedure takes place according to European legislation. The current literature study, performed by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and commissioned by the Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate (ILT), has revealed the hazardous properties of brominated flame retardants commonly used. Since 2002, it has been compulsory for manufacturers, collectors and processors to remove brominated flame retardants from electronic waste correctly according to the minimum standard of the national waste management plan. Therefore the ILT needs limit values for the concentration of brominated flame retardants in plastic components. The same is obtained for effective measurement methods to determine the concentration of brominated flame retardants. The study shows that binding limit values can be derived only for four out of approximately ten commonly used substances. In addition several measurement methods are available for determining whether an electronic device contains brominated flame retardants. Most of them have not been sufficiently validated. The RIVM suggests that the ILT's current screening method for bromine - XRF scanning - is appropriately combined with a specific analysis for the presence of brominated flame retardants.
    • Handreiking voor inspectie van Brzo-bedrijven : Indicatoren en het veiligheidsbeheerssysteem

      Sol V; Bollen LAA; Kooi ES; Manuel HJ; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2015-12-04)
      Companies working with large amounts of hazardous substances must conform to specific requirements to prevent major accidents with serious consequences for man and environment. Recently, the decree covering these companies, the Major accidents risks decree (Brzo), changed. The new decree (Brzo 2015) introduces, among other things, the use of indicators providing information on the safety performance of a company. They can be used to assess the safety of companies. In response to the amendment, RIVM has drawn up a guidance that shows inspectors which indicators are possible and how to handle them. Examples of indicators are the number of near misses, the actions that are taken thereon, and how often a company performs maintenance operations. The indicators are not legally required and firms are stimulated to prepare them themselves, so they are tailored to their own production process. This guidance provides criteria according to the latest scientific insights that indicators must meet. In addition, examples are given of adequate and less adequate indicators. The Labour Inspectorate evaluates whether the companies have a socalled safety management system, whether it is tailored to the risks involved, and whether it works well. Indicators can help this process. Moreover, the indicators can help companies to show government and society that safety is under control.
    • Interventieradiologie - Inventarisatie van de Nederlandse praktijk met speciale aandacht voor stralingsbescherming van de patiënt

      Bijwaard H; Valk D; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2017-07-04)
      Some medical procedures, such as angioplasty, use radiology. RIVM made several recommendations to minimise radiation. One of these is to always use so-called Medical Imaging and Radiation Experts to achieve an optimal dose. They are often left out of the process, particularly for interventions in cardiology departments. It is also advisable to screen patients in advance, e.g. for radiation-related sensitivities, and subsequently monitor complaints that might develop. This happens all too infrequently in the Netherlands. These are the results of research by RIVM, as a follow-up to a 2007 study. The recommendations given at that time have largely been addressed. Hospitals use fairly new equipment and the interventional radiologists involved generally have a certificate in radiation protection. Possibilities for limiting the radiation dose are adequately available in hospitals and are widely deployed. However, complications after the intervention, such as redness of the skin and hair loss, are hardly ever recorded in a registry established specifically for that purpose. Moreover, half of the hospitals investigated did not attempt to limit the options that increase the dose. The investigation was commissioned by the Health Care Inspectorate (IGZ). The state of the art of interventional radiology was investigated in the scientific literature and a digital survey was conducted among 18 hospitals.
    • Inventarisatie van het gebruik van Diagnostische Referentieniveaus voor röntgenstraling in Nederland

      Bijwaard H; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2014-02-13)
      In 2012 the Dutch Commission on Radiation Dosimetry (NCS) published reference levels for the use of X-rays for a number of radiologic tasks. These are meant to indicate acceptable doses that lead to good X-ray imaging and radiology departments are not obliged to adhere to these levels. These values should not be used at an individual level, but compared to doses given to a group of patients with the same treatment. The departments appear to be wellinformed about these so-called Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs). They are either well underway in implementing them or have already done so. The levels have usually not yet been incorporated in the QA system of the department nor in the treatment protocols. This is shown in an RIVM study that was conducted by order of the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate (IGZ). For this purpose a survey was held among 20 Dutch hospitals. It was shown that the amount of radiation used, as far as it was indicated by the hospitals, remains below the DRLs. Where this was structurally not the case, it was caused by either the weights of the patients (a higher weight requires a higher dose) or the complexity of the procedures. In addition, large differences emerge in the way hospitals compare doses to the DRLs. The DRLs have been formulated for a theoretical standard patient for each radiologic task. Before doses can be compared to the DRLs, they need to be derived for this standard patient. A procedure for this has been prescribed, but it is not always followed in practice. This is especially difficult in the case of children, as most general hospitals diagnose only few children. This leads to insufficient data to pursue the prescribed procedure. To improve the implementation process radiology departments are recommendend to look at eachother's experiences and learn from these. Apart from that, it needs to be investigated whether the methodology for checking the DRLs for children can be adjusted. This is important because children are more sensitive to radiation from X-rays.
    • Inventory on the potential import of non-authorized genetically modified ornamentals in the Netherlands

      Scheepmaker JWA; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2014-04-17)
      Genetic modification of ornamentals is on the rise worldwide. Using this technique it is, for instance, possible to modify the colour of cut flowers (e.g. a blue rose) and to make ornamentals more resistant against drought, diseases or the use of herbicides. Before their admittance to the market, genetically modified plants have to be assessed for potential risks to human health and the environment. An inventory performed by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) shows that genetically modified ornamentals without an official permit do not seem to be present on the Dutch market. The inventory was commissioned by the Netherlands Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate (ILT), which is responsible for supervising and enforcing government regulations on Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO), including the monitoring of unauthorized genetically modified ornamentals. The inventory provides a list of ornamentals for which genetic modifications have been achieved successfully in the laboratory. The report also lists experiments which have been performed since 2000, both within and outside the EU, to test whether new traits are visible in greenhouses or in the field. In addition, the report includes a list of genetically modified ornamentals which are currently authorized in the EU and outside the EU, including in Australia, New Zealand, the United States, Canada and Japan. From these lists, genetically modified ornamentals were selected that could be imported into the Netherlands, either now or in the near future. These 'candidates' are carnations, roses, Petunia, the grass seed Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bentgrass) and Pelargonium (popularly known as geranium). Four factors were assessed to enable ILT to prioritize genetically modified ornamentals for monitoring purposes and enforcement of regulations. The most important factor was the potential risk for human health and the environment. This risk turned out to be low. Only the GM grass A. stolonifera that is resistant against the weedkiller glyphosate may present a risk to the environment as it may become invasive following application of glyphosate. However, glyphosate-resistant A. stolonifera has not yet been commercialized.
    • De invloed van veroudering van installaties ('ageing') op de oorzaak van ongevallen met gevaarlijke stoffen

      Geus ECJ; Kieskamp KK; ABI; VLH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-07-10)
      Various factors can cause incidents with hazardous substances at companies that work with large quantities of these substances. In the Netherlands, ageing of installations is a (partial) cause of approximately 30% of the incidents at such companies. The above conclusion was drawn by RIVM based on an analysis of incident reports of companies to which the Major Accidents (Risks) Decree (Brzo) applies. The above study was carried out in compliance with to the European Seveso-III directive, which requires companies to focus attention on the ageing of their installations. This directive was introduced in the Netherlands via the Brzo of 2015 and does not contain a definition of ageing. The European Union proposes a broad definition of ageing, which was used by RIVM for this study. In addition to wear and tear of materials as a cause, incidents at this type of company can also be caused by ageing of procedures, the organisation, and knowledge needed to work safely with the installation. Up to date, limited research has been conducted on the topic of ageing. Compared to one of the existing ageing studies, a study carried out in the United Kingdom in 2008, the percentage of ageing related incidents is similar.
    • Invoer van NORM reststoffen

      Goemans P; Folkertsma E; ABI; VLH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-01-16)
      Inside and outside of the Netherlands, various non-nuclear industrial sectors, such as the petroleum and gas industries, deal with naturally occurring radioactive materials ('NORM'). As a result of their production processes, residues may be produced that contain or are contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials ('NORM residues'). In this study, 'residues' are defined as materials that can be further processed for the recovery of re-useable materials. NORM residues that have been produced outside of the Netherlands are imported into the Netherlands for further processing. This can result in the production of waste that contains naturally occurring radioactive materials ('NORM waste'). NORM waste can no longer be used and must be disposed of as radioactive waste via storage or landfills. At the request of the Dutch Authority for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (ANVS), RIVM has carried out a study into the scale of and possible increase in the quantity of NORM residues that are imported into the Netherlands. This study makes it clear that, at present, only a limited quantity of NORM residues is being imported into the Netherlands for processing. These NORM residues are being imported for activities that focus on the recycling of goods and products, the cleaning of installation components, and the dismantling of production platforms. These activities result in the small-scale production of NORM waste in the Netherlands. In future, the import of NORM residues and the quantity of NORM waste produced in the Netherlands after processing may increase. This could, for example, be caused by an increase in the decommissioning of production platforms from Dutch as well as foreign petroleum and gas companies. The increase in the number of geothermal installations inside and outside of the Netherlands could also result in the production of more NORM residues that might, in part, be processed in the Netherlands. Finally, changes in national and international legislation and regulations could result in an increase or decrease of materials that need to be managed as waste in the Netherlands.
    • Ketenanalyse impregneermiddelen

      de Groot GM; Bakker J; Luit RJ; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2013-12-24)
      At the request of the Dutch Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate (ILT), RIVM has established an overview of the various branches that produce, import and distribute impregnation agents and process them on an industrial scale. In addition, information was collected on the impregnation agents actually used, and on those substances no longer permitted. Furthermore, information was gathered about the level of compliance with European regulation on substances and any problems related to this compliance. Impregnation agents particularly include those used for making certain materials more resistant to water, grease and dirt, such as leather, textiles, paper, wood and stone. Often-used impregnation agents are fluorocarbons, silicones and siloxanes, as well as acrylates and other synthetic resins. Impregnation agents are used on an industrial scale in the textile, carpet, leather, paper, timber and concrete product industries, as well as in industrial cleaning. Producers of fluorocarbons and silicones are mostly located outside the Netherlands. On inspection, producers and importers were found to comply with the registration obligation for substances. Trade organisations of the industrial users of permeating substances indicate that their suppliers have been found to nearly always register these substances and their use. In instances where this is not the case, other suppliers who do register the permeating substances and their use are approached instead. Industrial users do not experience any problems when certain substances are no longer permitted, as they are timely being presented with suitable alternatives. Furthermore, both producers and industrial users of permeating substances have indicated that they consider the general Safety Data Sheets that accompany hazardous substances and mixtures, often, to be too complicated and not sector-specific enough. Branches have indicated that they particularly use the sector-specific health and safety catalogues on the safe handling of hazardous substances. The information in this report was collected on the basis of the literature, trade organisation interviews, and on a meeting with inspectors.
    • Ketenanalyse smeermiddelen

      de Groot GM; Bakker J; Luit RJ; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2014-05-15)
      At the request of the Dutch Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate (ILT), the RIVM has established an overview of the various branch industries that produce, import and distribute lubricants or use them on an industrial scale, such as in the production of machines, various types of vehicles and their components. In addition, information was collected on these lubricants and additives, such as about the types of substances used as well as those that are no longer permitted. Furthermore, information was gathered about the level of compliance with the European regulation on substances and any problems related to this compliance. The ILT will use the results from this study to determine the areas that warrant particular attention during their supervision of how the target groups in the lubricants' chain are complying with the regulation on substances. Lubricants mostly consist of mineral base oils, greases or waxes, in combination with various types of additives. Apart from being used in machines, appliances and transportation, lubricants are also applied in the form of metalworking fluids and as additives in the plastics industry. The main resources for lubricants - mineral base oils - are produced by refineries. In the Netherlands, various companies produce lubricants by subsequently blending these base oils with additives. These are the large petroleum companies as well as those that produce lubricants for various suppliers under private label, and a number of small-scale lubricant production companies. Lubricants are distributed around the Netherlands largely via the fuel and oil trade. Used oils (such as lubricants) are reprocessed by a few companies and, among other things, turned into reusable base oil for lubricants. Particular attention must be paid to the prevention of harmful substances remaining in or entering the base oils during this process. According to the Dutch lubricants association, VSN, there are no problems related to the registration of substances or the drafting of safety data sheets (SDS) for this industry. Both the Dutch and the European trade association actively offer information and support to their members, on this subject. The knowledge among lubricant and oil wholesalers on the legal obligations regarding the classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures is below the average knowledge level in other industries. The information in this report was collected on the basis of literature research and trade association interviews.
    • Leren van beroepsziekten? Een nieuw perspectief verkend : Verkenningsstudie Storybuilder voor Beroepsziekten

      van Guldener VR; Bellamy L; Chambon M; Manuel HJ; Melssen NZM; Proper KI; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2017-07-11)
      It is estimated that about 4,100 people die every year from conditions related to their work. Better insights into the causes of the occurrence of occupational diseases creates opportunities for recognising them earlier and more effectively. Preventive measures can then be taken based on that information. It transpired that an RIVM research model that creates a picture of the underlying causes of severe work-related accidents (Storybuilder) could also be used for occupational diseases. It is recommended that the knowledge obtained from this exploratory work should be checked by professionals from the field to get a picture of its value for practice and policy. An occupational disease is an illness that people have contracted primarily as a result of their work or the conditions at their work. An example could be mesotheliomas caused by working with asbestos. RIVM examined 20 dossiers for this exploratory study: 10 case files of people with OPS (organic psychosyndrome) / CTE (chronic toxic encephalopathy) and 10 case files of people with irreversible back complaints. It turned out to be possible to use Storybuilder to get a picture of existing case studies. The first Storybuilder models of the two occupational diseases are described in the report, but this working method has not yet been validated or discussed with professionals from the field. The researchers also observed that the dossiers studied do not contain all the information needed to give a complete factual description of how the occupational conditions arise. It is recommended that an inventory should be made of additional information sources for the information that is as yet missing. If this succeeds, it will be possible to carry out studies in greater depth with the Storybuilder models for occupational diseases and if possible extend them to other types of occupational diseases.
    • Milieurisico's van specifieke stoffen in bunkerolie in zeeschepen: : Onderzoek van de literatuur en de REACH-dossiers

      Broekman MH; Bakker J; ABI; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2016-09-13)
      It is known that the ocean shipping contributes substantially to air pollution due to emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter and heavy metals such as nickel. Less well known is that sea vessels also emit pollutants such as ultrafine particles and black carbon. The substantial emission of environmentally harmful substances is mainly caused by sea-going vessels usually sail on heavy fuel oil. Heavy fuel oil (bunker oil) is a fuel composed of the product of petroleum refining, mixed with substances from the refining process or the chemical industry. The blended materials are, in turn, often byproducts or remnants from these industries. To what extent the emission of these blend materials is an additional risk to the environment is unknown. Because the composition of the marine fuel by ship is different, it is not possible to ascertain the nature and extent of the emissions from the flue gases. Those are the central findings from a study of the RIVM, which was commissioned by the Human Environment and Transport Inspectorate (ILT). In previous studies the RIVM is constructed knowledge about the composition of heavy fuel oil and a list of substances drawn up should not be blended into fuel oil. In the current study the RIVM examined whether these substances are registered with REACH, the European legislation for registration chemicals. From a few substances it is shown that it is to be the case but there is no (mandatory) risk assessment of effects on the environment. The scientific literature lacks studies about the environmental impact of these blend materials in marine fuel. The varying composition of the fuel that is created makes it difficult to measure the environmental impact of blended substances into the marine fuel by ship. In addition, a standardized method fails to measure the chemical composition of environmentally harmful substances in the fuel and the emission of pollutants in the flue gases.
    • National legal and regulatory framework in various North Sea countries concerning the transboundary movement of NORM residues

      Goemans P; Folkertsma E; ABI; VLH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2018-01-16)
      Inside and outside of the Netherlands, various non-nuclear industrial sectors, such as the petroleum and gas industries, deal with naturally occurring radioactive materials ('NORM'). As a result of their production processes, residues may be produced that contain or are contaminated with naturally occurring radioactive materials ('NORM residues'). In this study, 'residues' are defined as materials that can be further processed for the recovery of re-useable materials. The processing of these residues can result in the production of waste that contains naturally occurring radioactive materials ('NORM waste'). NORM waste can no longer be used and must be disposed of as radioactive waste via storage or landfills. NORM residues are also imported for further processing in other countries. RIVM has therefore carried out a survey on policy and the legal and regulatory framework in Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom, and Norway concerning the transboundary movement of NORM residues. In general, these countries do not allow imports of NORM residues for immediate disposal. Under certain conditions import is allowed, for example if NORM residues undergo further processing which allows for materials to be re-used. This study was carried out at the request of the Dutch Authority for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection (ANVS). This study provides an overview of the international legal and regulatory framework for the transboundary movement of NORM materials, residues and wastes as well as conventional waste. Furthermore, a general advice is formulated as to which criteria could be used by the Netherlands to evaluate a request for imports of NORM residues. These criteria could be used for the potential development of a national policy.