• Milieu-indicator 1999: Resultaten van een verkenning naar een indicator voor het gewasbeschermingsmiddelenbeleid

      Brouwer WWM; Marsman H; Luttik R; CSR (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMPlantenziektenkundige Dienstafdeling FytofarmacieWageningen, 2000-02-01)
      The Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment commissioned the RIVM to assess the environmental effect of the policy measures for sustainable construction, for the period 1995 - 2020. This study asseses the environmental effects of technical measures for the reduction of energy use, water use and the use of materials in existing and new dwellings and utility buildings. Two models have been developed, one for dwellings and one for utility buildings (only for the sectors health, education, offices and retail trade). These models are uses to assess technical measures of the National Sustainable Construction Package for the reduction of energy, water use and the use of materials in existing and new dwellings and buildings can be assessed. Behavioral changes have not been included in the models. In order to calculate the effects the measures with regard to sustainable construction have been equipped with penetration scenarios. These penetration scenarios are explicated in consultation with experts (in the fields of policy and construction). For the dwellings in the Netherlands a reduction of energy use for space heating with approximately 15% is calculated. As a result the CO2-emission related to space heating will also decline. In utility buildings the energy use per m2 gross ground area will decline. As a result of the increase in ground area for most of the sectors in utility buildings the energy use (and the resulting CO2-emission) will be stable. The reduction of water use in dwellings is much larger than in utility buildings. This is a result of the much larger possibilities of water reduction in dwellings as compared to utility buildings. The reduction of material use has also been assessed in the prognosis. In the near future environmental profit will be gained in the recycling of materials for buildings, for instance for shingle, gypsum and PVC. In the reduction of harmful emissions, for instance for volatile organic compounds and heavy metals. In the durable use and the reduction in use of non-renewable elements, for instance wood and tar products.<br>