• Haalbaarheid gebruik onbemande meetvliegtuigjes bij calamiteiten

      Tukker K; Jentink HW; van Putten EM; Roelofsz MC; Muller CF; Vreeken J; M&M; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMNLR, 2014-12-04)
      In principle, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with modern measuring instruments can be used to perform measurements at high altitudes in the event of a disaster. In the past such measurements could only be carried out at ground level. Tests have demonstrated that UAVs can be used to conduct radioactive source measurements in the event of a nuclear accident, but complex calculations are required to convert the resulting data into radiation dose levels. It is also possible to take samples from a plume of smoke, although this method does not produce clear results. Both techniques are very promising and it appears to be possible to resolve legal problems associated with the use of UAVs during disasters. Additional flight tests and more information are required before such UAVs can be used in practice.<br> <br>These are the main conclusions of a study conducted by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in conjunction with the National Aerospace Laboratory of the Netherlands (NLR) to explore the practical applications of this innovative technology. The study focused on the types of disasters in which UAVs can be deployed most effectively. A preliminary analysis showed that chemical fires and nuclear accidents offered the most appropriate conditions. The researchers subsequently investigated which types of UAV and measuring devices are most suitable for deployment during the aforementioned disasters.<br> <br>During a chemical fire, UAVs can be used to measure the diameter and height of the plume. The UAV can also take samples of the smoke in the plume. In the event of a nuclear accident, UAVs can be deployed to map the radioactive cloud and measure radioactivity levels in the contaminated area. One major advantage of using UAVs is that they reduce or even completely eliminate the need to send first responders to the area, while retaining the ability to perform measurements close to the source in the 'danger zone'. As a result, first responders are exposed to lower radiation levels or even no radiation at all. <br> <br>There are various types of UAVs currently on the market. Aeroplane and rotorcraft UAVs appear to be the most obvious choice for use during chemical fires and nuclear accidents, in light of their carrying capacity, hovering capabilities and greater radius of action. The measuring and sampling equipment used in the study was selected from the technologies already in use at RIVM.<br>
    • De haalbaarheid van het meten van de CARA-prevalentie in "Monitoring van Risicofactoren en Gezondheid in Nederland (MORGEN-project)"

      Miedema I; Smit HA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1993-10-31)
      The feasibility of monitoring the prevalence of Chronic Non-Specific Lung Diseases (CNSLD) within the framework of the Monitoring Project on Cardiovascular Risk Factors was investigated. A self-administered questionnaire on respiratory symptoms was tested and lung function measurements were performed in 213 respondents in Amsterdam. There were no apparent problems for responders to fill out the questionnaire, although small improvements in lay-out should be made. The lung function measurements took 10 minutes per responder on average. Less than 6% of the respondents had a coefficient of variation of 5% or more. It was concluded that the performance of the measurements by the paramedical assistant was satisfactory. Almost 30% of the responders reported one or more respiratory symptoms. The prevalence of separate symptoms varied from 2% (asthma) to 17-18% (wheezing). The prevalence of CNSLD based on a combination of questionnaire information and lung function measurements was almost 13% (severity grade 3 or more). These figures are in the same order of magnitude as prevalence figures that were observed in earlier Dutch studies. It is recommended to incorporate the CNSLD questionnaire that was used in the feasibility study, into the Monitoring Project on Chronic Diseases and to include lung function measurements in the medical examination.
    • Haalbaarheidsstudie Humane Blootstelling Voeding

      Heisterkamp SH; Olling M; LBO (1996-12-31)
      A study is undertaken of the feasibility of a general model or standard procedure to assess the exposure to xenobiotics, and possibly the effects, in food. An inventarisation is made of the research in the Netherlands with regard to this route of exposure. Quality and adequacy of the existing models and databases are judged and the issues as internal exposure and the effect of food preparation are considered. The conclusion is that the existing models, operational at RIKILT-DLO and LEO-RIVM should be adapted in such a way that exposure can be quantified in different ways together with their uncertainties. The importance of the maintenance of existing databases is stressed. A report on the construction of a general model and its validation is planned to be published in 1997.
    • Hair dye allergy in consumers : Evaluation of the allergy alert test

      Ezendam J; Salverda-Nijhof JGW; GBO ; SIR; vgc (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2011-09-23)
      The allergy alert test advised by manufacturers of hair dyes in their instruction leaflets as a means of testing for hair dye allergy is inadequate in its present form. Standardization of the test protocols is required as these vary significantly between manufacturers. This is the conclusion drawn from the risk/benefit evaluation of the allergy alert test performed by RIVM. This evaluation was based on the current opinion of the SCCS (Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety), publicly available literature and interviews with experts in the field of skin allergy. The induction of contact allergy and allergic contact dermatitis by oxidative hair dyes represents a significant health problem among consumers and hairdressers. In this context, the RIVM considers the allergy alert test in principle to be a valuable tool for assessing whether a specific hair dye product can elicit an allergic skin reaction in individual consumers. The instruction leaflets of hair dye products currently recommend that consumers always perform an allergy alert test 48 hours prior to each application of a hair dye product. In case of a positive test result, indicating a possible sensitivity to the hair dye product, consumers are advised not to apply the hair dye product and to seek medical advice to determine the cause of the reaction. Whether consumers are able to adequately perform and evaluate an allergy alert test is unknown at the present time. It is therefore recommended that the industry further investigates this. It is also recommended that a campaign be launched with the aim of creating more awareness among consumers and hairdressers of the potential risks associated with the use of hair dyes.
    • Halogeenverbindingen in metaalbewerkingsvloeistoffen

      Bremmer HJ (1988-06-30)
      Abstract not available
    • Handhaving door de VROM Inspectie gericht op gezondheid in het kader van VROM beleid; Informatie over aangrijpingspunten voor handhaving

      Schols E; Bruggen M van; Dusseldorp A; Houweling DA van; IMD; MGO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-12-17)
      In het Actieprogramma Gezondheid en Milieu (april 2002) staat dat VROM en VWS onderzoek zullen doen naar die aspecten waar handhaving kan bijdragen aan het behalen van gezondheidswinst (actienummer 15). De opdracht tot het onderhavige onderzoek is in dit kader gegeven. Doel van deze opdracht is dat de VROM-Inspectie meer inzicht krijgt in haar mogelijkheden de gezondheid van de mensen in Nederland te bevorderen. Dit onderzoek heeft hieraan bijgedragen door alle thema's op een rij te zetten waarvoor VROM beleid is en die effecten op de volksgezondheid kunnen hebben. Vervolgens is in een vast stramien informatie gegeven over de geschatte of gemeten omvang van gezondheids-effecten, de doelgroepen of activiteiten waardoor het probleem optreedt, en de wettelijke aangrijpings-mogelijkheden voor de VROM-Inspectie. De omvang van de gezondheidseffecten is beschreven door aan te sluiten bij het Beoordelingskader Gezondheid en Milieu. Het schaalniveau om de omvang van de gezondheidseffecten in kaart te brengen was heel Nederland. Naast informatie over de thema's was het verzoek van de opdrachtgever de thema's te ranken naar grootte van de omvang. Enkele beschikbare methoden om een weging naar grootte van de omvang zijn gekvalueerd. De DALY - een samengestelde maat om het verlies aan gezonde levensjaren in uit te drukken - en de zogenaamde GES-methode zijn met name beschouwd. Voor de gegenereerde informatie bleek er geen methode beschikbaar om de verscheidenheid in gezondheidseffecten naar omvang te kunnen wegen.
    • Handhaving door de VROM Inspectie gericht op gezondheid in het kader van VROM beleid; Informatie over aangrijpingspunten voor handhaving

      Schols E; van Bruggen M; Dusseldorp A; Houweling DA; IMD; MGO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-12-17)
      The Inspectorate of the Netherlands Ministry of Spatial Planning, Housing and the Environment (VROM) endeavours to set priorities for law enforcement based on the impact that target groups and activities have on public health. To be able to set these priorities the Inspectorate requested the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) to systematically overview all activities or policy topics influencing public health for which the Ministry is accountable. Data reflected the estimated or measured health effects on a national scale, the target groups and activities associated with health problems and the legal enforcement possibilities for the VROM Inspectorate. Evaluation of potential health effects was based on scientific reviews and recent health impact assessments of exposure to pollutants at national levels. Results were expressed in number of persons exposed, number of people affected (mortality, morbidity, annoyance and perception) and trends in exposure or disease. The resulting factsheets described the roles given to national policy, laws and regulations, the role of the National Inspectorate in the law enforcement and the effects on public health. On the national scale, it was not always possible to locate the right data. This was due partly to lack of knowledge on the effects, such as with genetically modified organisms and partly because few studies on this scale have taken place, for example, soil contamination and pesticides.
    • Handhaving van een rookvrij binnenmilieu

      Talhout R; Sleijffers A; Opperhuizen A; GBO (2009-07-20)
      Abstract not available
    • Handleiding bij het CAR-programma versie 1.0

      Eerens HC; Sliggers CJ; Baars HP; Huygen C; LLO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMTNOVROMRIVM, 1988-01-31)
      Betreft model voor de verspreiding van luchtverontreiniging.<br>
    • Handleiding bij het PC-pakket RORISC &apos;Ruimtelijke Ordening en Risico&apos;

      Laheij GMH; Post JG; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1998-03-31)
      RORISC is a PC-application for use in the field of spatial planning and external safety. With RORISC it is possible to estimate the effect of a new physical planning plan around a hazardous installation on the societal risk. The method in RORISC, described in RIVM report no. 610066004, makes use of the individual risk contours and the societal risk curve for the existing situation, as well as the population density and dimensions of the new physical planning plan. The floppy disk with RORISC (version 1.0) and the requirements for using RORISC are included in this manual.<br>
    • Handleiding bij het PC-pakket RORISC 'Ruimtelijke Ordening en Risico'

      Laheij GMH; Post JG; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1998-03-31)
      RORISC is een PC-applicatie toe te passen op het gebied van ruimtelijk ordening en externe veiligheid. Met RORISC is het mogelijk om een inschatting te maken van de gevolgen voor het groepsrisico van een nieuw ruimtelijk ordeningsplan in de omgeving van een potentieel gevaarlijke inrichting. De methode in RORISC, beschreven in RIVM rapport nr. 610066004, maakt gebruik van de individueel risicocontouren en de groepsrisicocurve voor de bestaande situatie en de populatiedichtheid en dimensies van het nieuwe ruimtelijk ordeningsplan. In de handleiding, waarin een floppy disk met RORISC (versie 1.0) is opgenomen, wordt de benodigde informatie voor het gebruik van RORISC beschreven.
    • Handleiding calamiteiten puff-model: versie 1.0

      Rheineck Leyssius HJ van; Jaarsveld JA van (1987-12-31)
      Abstract not available
    • Handleiding CAR Parking

      Gofferje D; LLO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-11-30)
      Dit rapport is de gebruikershandleiding bij het programma CAR Parking. CAR Parking is ontwikkeld om de luchtkwaliteit in de directe omgeving van parkeervoorzieningen te beoordelen en te toetsen aan de norm voor benzeen. Het model berekent de emissie van benzeen door auto's in de parkeergarage en de bijdrage aan de benzeenconcentratie in de omgeving van de parkeergarage. Door de gebruiker in te voeren gegevens betreffen verkeerskenmerken (zoals aantal bezoekende auto's per dag, gemiddelde rijsnelheid, parkeerduur), gebouwkenmerken (zoals afmetingen van gevels, aantal parkeerlagen, afstand tussen parkeerlagen), ventilatie-kenmerken (zoals open deel van gevels, capaciteit eventuele mechanische ventilatie) en omgevingskenmerken (aanwezigheid andere gebouwen). Per gevel worden de bijdragen aan de benzeenconcentratie berekend op door de gebruiker gekozen afstanden. CAR Parking is een Window applicatie. Bij deze handleiding horen 2 diskettes met installatie software.
    • Handleiding CAR Parking

      Gofferje D; LLO (1997-11-30)
      The CAR-Parking computer program, for which this manual has been written, was developed for calculating the air quality in the vicinity of parking garages and for testing the concentration of benzene against the standards for this compound. The model calculates the emission of benzene from cars inside the parking garage and the contribution to the concentration of benzene in the vicinity of the parking garage. The input data apply to traffic (e.g. number of cars per day, average velocity, length of time car is parked), parking garages (dimensions, number of levels, distance between levels), ventilation (open parts of the outer wall, capacity of mechanized ventilation) and configuration (presence of other buildings). Outer-wall concentrations are calculated for user-defined distances. The CAR-Parking program is a Windows application. The manual comes complete with two disks containing installation software.
    • Handleiding CAR-AMvB programma (versie 2.0), CAR-AMvB programma voor de rapportage besluiten luchtkwaliteit over 1997, 1998, 1999 en 2000

      Vissenberg HA; Velze K van; LLO (1998-01-31)
      This manual describes the use of the CAR-AMvB program (version 2.0). This program can be used for the calculations of air quality alongside roads in cities in the Netherlands, for the execution of the Air Pollution Act for carbon monoxide and lead, nitrogen dioxide and benzene. The RIVM provide this program to municipals. These municipals have to report their exceedance of concentrations to the provincial authorities. This manual of the CAR-AMvB program could be used for the obligation reports of 1997 and the probably reports in 1998, 1999 and 2000. This version could be used for future calculations in 2010 and 2020. The emission factors and background concentrations are described in the Global Competition scenario of the fourth national environmental survey.
    • Handleiding CAR-AMvB programma (versie 2.0), CAR-AMvB programma voor de rapportage besluiten luchtkwaliteit over 1997, 1998, 1999 en 2000

      Vissenberg HA; Velze K van; LLO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1998-01-31)
      De handleiding van het CAR-AMvB programma (versie 2.0) beschrijft de werking van het programma voor de berekening van de luchtkwaliteit in stedelijke verkeerssituaties. Het CAR-programma wordt voor de uitvoering van de Besluiten luchtkwaliteit: koolstofmonoxide en lood, stikstofdioxide en benzeen door het RIVM ter beschikking gesteld aan gemeenten. In het kader van deze Beluiten luchtkwaliteit moeten deze gemeenten jaarlijks de overschrijdingen van concentraties rapporteren aan de provincies. De handleiding hoort bij het CAR-AMvB programma dat gebruikt kan worden voor de verplichte rapportage over 1997 en de eventuele rapportages over 1998, 1999 en 2000. Deze versie van het CAR-model kan tevens worden gebruikt voor toekomst berekeningen voor de jaren 2010 en 2020, op basis van emissiefactoren en achtergrondsconcentraties zoals gebruikt in het Global Competition scenario van de Nationale Milieuverkenningen 4.
    • Handleiding voor de afleiding van indicatieve milieurisicogrenzen

      de Poorter LRM; van Herwijnen R; Janssen PJCM; Smit CE; MSP; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2015-06-29)
      Environmental risk limits form the basis for assessing whether substances in water, soil and air may be harmful to people, animals and plants. RIVM has renewed the provisional method from 2009 to determine so-called indicative environmental risk limits. With this method, they can be determined quickly and inexpensively. In the new version, environmental risk limits are based on the latest insights and have expanded from one to four risk levels. Also the method for determining indicative risk limits for marine water systems is included now; previously this was only the case for freshwater systems. Within the Netherlands indicative risk limits are used because the accepted European derivation method is a time-consuming exercise. For the derivation of indicative risk limits data is used from a selected set of sources with information about properties and harmful effects of substances. No extensive literature searches and data reliability checks are performed. Indicative risk limits therefore have a greater uncertainty than the European, thorough version. Environmental risk limits form the scientific basis on which the Dutch interdepartmental Steering Group on Environmental Quality Standards establishes environmental quality standards: environmental risk limits as such do not have any official policy status. The Dutch government uses environmental quality standards for the implementation of National chemicals policy and the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). There are standards for four different levels: a negligible risk (NR), a level at which no adverse effects are to be expected (MPC, AA-EQS), a maximum tolerable level for ecosystems for short-term exposure (MACeco), and a level where possible serious effects on ecosystems may occur (SRCeco).
    • Handleiding voor het informatiesysteem &quot;Afvalverwerkingseenheden&quot; (AVE2)

      Siemons JAEM (1991-02-28)
      This operation manual describes procedures for working with the RIVM information system on waste-disposal and -treatment. Furthermore, the structure of the system is illustrated.
    • Handreiking Beoordelingskader Gezondheid en Milieu - veehouderij

      de Wolf J; BDV (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2016-09-09)
      The 'Assessment framework Livestock' is a tool to systematically deal with local questions on the health of neighbouring residents of livestock operations. This framework has added value in complex situations, for example when conflicting interests are involved, or multi-dimensional issues have to be dealt with. The framework facilitates balanced decision making. This guidance supports the use of the Assessment framework, and is mainly aimed at professionals of the Local Health Authorities. Also other parties, wanting to apply the assessment framework, can benefit from this guidance. In order to agree on the information provided in the assessment framework, all parties involved participate in a meeting to discuss the situation, based on five themes: extent of health effects, severity, outrage, possible measures, and cost-effectiveness analyses. In this way, available knowledge is brought together in order to support policy makers in decision making. The assessment framework does not provide the decision itself. In 2013, the Assessment Framework ' Livestock' was tested in four pilot studies. This guidance is based on the experiences gained during those pilots.
    • Handreiking geluidhinder wegverkeer : Berekenen en meten

      Dusseldorp A; Houthuijs D; van Overveld A; van Kamp I; Marra M; IMG ; MGO; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2011-10-28)
      Noise annoyance resulting from road traffic in certain situations can be assessed in two ways. Firstly, the percentage of people affected can be obtained through questionnaires from surveys. Secondly, it can be calculated according to traffic noise levels and the standard exposure-response relation (dated 2001). The Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) has drawn up a guideline that addresses various issues related to the assessment of noise annoyance, the interpretation of results and the influence of age and other personal and contextual factors. Questions from local health authorities on differences between measured and calculated percentages of noise annoyance have led to the realisation of this guideline. After having explored local data and reports, it was concluded that results from different studies are often not comparable because different research questions and methods of analysis are used. Furthermore, the comparison of measured and calculated mean percentages is not useful when the statistical variation in the results is not taken into account. In addition, the application of an age-specific exposure-response relation (dated 2009) resulted generally to more concord between the calculated and measured percentages. In current situations, surveys are considered the best way to assess the actual noise annoyance. When the same surveys are repeated at different points in time, noise annoyance can be well measured. For estimating percentages of noise annoyance for future situations, exposure-response relations are the appropriate tools. Due to the variation in study results, the calculated percentages may deviate from those that actually occur in the future situation.