• Maagsapresistente ("Enteric coated") produkten. Een literatuuronderzoek

      Stokman PGW; Olling M; Rauws AG (1990-05-31)
      A literature study has been carried out on the release of active substance from monolithic enteric coated tablets and from disperse enteric coated forms (tablets or capsules) in the dog and the human. No important differences in gastro-intestinal processing of enteric coated products have been found between the dog and the human. The difference between both forms resides is the gastric processing. Monolithic forms are retained until the stomach is empty and are expelled by the housekeeper waves. The disperse forms, after desintegration, are treated as liquids and pass the pylorus gradually. This results in unpredictable gastric passage and effective plasma concentrations. The disperse forms release the active substance more uniformly and behave in this aspect more like slow or extended release products. Further research in this area should be directed on the discrepancy between release "in vitro" and "in vivo", and on the relation between higher pH values in the stomach (3-6) and premature release of the active substance.
    • Maatregelen na een radiologische besmetting van drinkwater en drinkwaterbronnen

      Kwakman PJM; Versteegh JFM; LSO; mev (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2010-05-27)
      The possible radiological contamination of drinking water must be considered following a radiological event. Drinking water companies in the Netherlands are lawfully obliged to supply an acceptable amount of 'clean' emergency drinking water. One option is to utilize their emergency water reserves in order to minimize radiation exposure resulting from the consumption of contaminated drinking water. A second option would be to change the abstraction point of the raw water used to produce drinking water. These were the conclusions drawn by the RIVM following its investigation of possible recovery actions for handling such a situation. This first inventory of recovery actions aimed at managing radioactive contaminants in drinking water in the Netherlands was carried out by order of the Inspectorate of the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. There is an ongoing need for clean drinking water, and a rapid and effective recovery action is required following a radiological contamination incident. The two recovery actions proposed in the inventory are taken from a European Handbook and subsequently adapted to the Netherlands for implementation at the national level. The investigation also determined contamination levels in terms of their respective health risks and the countermeasures that should be taken. In addition, the report contains decision trees to determine the specific actions to be taken and annexes with worked-out scenarios. The emphasis of the report is on the management of radiological contaminants in drinking water that is delivered to the public as tapwater.
    • Maatschappelijke baten. Deelrapport van de VTV 2010 Van gezond naar beter

      Post NAM; Zwakhals SLN; Polder JJ; VTV; vz (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2010-03-25)
      'Maatschappelijke baten' is het deelrapport van de Volksgezondheid Toekomst Verkenning 2010, dat een overzicht biedt van de opbrengsten van volksgezondheid, preventie en zorg in Nederland. De meeste burgers vinden hun gezondheid het allerbelangrijkst, en alleen daarom al goud waard. Voor de samenleving als geheel zijn gezonde burgers cruciaal menselijk kapitaal. Lichamelijke en psychische beperkingen leiden tot het buitensluiten van groepen burgers wier participatie aan onze samenleving en economie van levensbelang is. Gezondheid is van invloed op de schoolprestaties en de loopbaan van mensen en beïnvloedt de arbeidsparticipatie, het arbeidsverzuim en de arbeidsproductiviteit. Een betere volksgezondheid draagt bij aan de economische groei en speelt een onmisbare rol bij de vermindering van de kosten van ziekteverzuim en arbeidsongeschiktheid. Gezondheid is ook een belangrijke factor voor andere vormen van maatschappelijke participatie, waaronder vrijwilligerswerk en mantelzorg. Een goede volksgezondheid en een hoogontwikkelde, welvarende samenleving zijn onlosmakelijk met elkaar verbonden. Voor veel mensen zijn toegankelijke zorgvoorzieningen een bron van zekerheid en welbevinden. Daarnaast is de gezondheidszorg een bron van werkgelegenheid en innovatie en daarmee een economische sector van betekenis.
    • De maatschappelijke betekenis van geluid

      Devilee J; Maris E; van Kamp I; MGO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2010-11-04)
      People prefer to have control over sounds and noise in their environment. If this is not the case it affects their behaviour in terms of helping behaviour, aggression and tolerance towards other people. It is important that this is taken into account in policy and action It is e.g. advisable that noisy events are announced timely to residents such as pop concerts and building activity. This is one of the conclusions of a study of RIVM into the societal aspects of environmental noise commissioned by the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. This study comprises of a literature study and interviews with experts. Until now relatively little attention has been paid at both the scientific as policy side to the meaning of sound and noise for both producer and receiver. General research and policy into environmental noise has been dominated by 1) noise as a physical measure in decibels such as Lden, Lmax and SEL 2) noise as a stressor and 3) noise as disturbance. The emphasis lies primarily on (exceedance of) threshold levels and accompanying negative health effects. In the past years, there has been growing attention to the perception of noise and the role of its meaning and context. City planners are exploring the negative aspects of acoustic environments in conjunction with positive, potentially restorative aspects. For example by integrating sounds which people perceive as pleasant into urban areas. However, there is still a need for a theoretical framework in which both positive and negative aspects can be combined and in which acute and long term health effects as well as (social) behavioral aspects are integrated. RIVM has canvassed such a model taking human behavior and motives as a point of departure and its social effects on the immediate environment. The Institute advises to take these aspects of motives, meanings and behaviour into account in approaches to environmental noise, noise research as well as noise regulation.
    • Maatschappelijke kosten voor astma, COPD en respiratoire allergie

      Suijkerbuijk AWM; Hoogeveen RT; de Wit GA; Wijga AH; Hoogendoorn EJI; Rutten-van Mölken MPMH; Feenstra TL; PZO; vz (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2013-03-20)
      Over the next 25 years, the number of patients with asthma and COPD will rise by 28% and 70% respectively, National Institute of Publilc Health and the Environment (RIVM) estimates. The primary causes are population growth and ageing. The number of patients with a respiratory allergy (like hay fever) is likely to remain stable, as the disease is less common among the elderly. Combining scenarios for healthcare costs developed by the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis with the disease specific model projections of prevalence, the health care costs for respiratory allergy are expected to rise by 73%, those for asthma to double, and those for COPD even to triple by 2032. RIVM has made these projections at the request of the Lung Foundation Netherlands. Healthcare costs for asthma in 2007 were estimated to be 287 million euros, on average 530 euros per patient. About 70% of these costs were medication related. Costs of sick leave due to asthma were on average 1200 euros per employee. Sick leave associated costs were highest among employees aged 55 years and over. Healthcare costs for COPD in 2007 were estimated at 415 million euros, on average 1400 euros per patient. Main cost drivers were hospitalisations, medication, and nursing. The costs of sick leave due to COPD were on average 1900 euros per employee and the mean annual costs of lost productivity due to early retirement of a COPD patient were 1200 euros. Sick leave and disability were highest among older employees with COPD. In patients older than 55 years, costs of production losses exceeded healthcare costs. Healthcare costs for patients with a respiratory allergy in 2007 were estimated at about 102 million euros, on average 170 euros per patient. 90% of these costs was related to medication. No reliable data were available concerning productivity losses for this condition. The expected rise in the number of patients with asthma, COPD or respiratory allergy and the associated costs of healthcare and production losses provide important information for healthcare policy in the Netherlands. Prevention and treatment of the diseases are indicated, especially smoking cessation and the efficient use of medication. As the number of elderly with asthma or COPD will rise, providing them with support is essential.
    • Maatschappelijke kosten-baten analyse van cognitieve gedragstherapie voor alcohol- en cannabisverslaving

      Over EAB; van Gils PF; Suijkerbuijk AWM; Lokkerbol J; de Wit GA; KZG; V&Z (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2016-12-07)
      Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CGT) in specialized addiction care centers has the potential to improve health of people with alcohol addiction. Per person treated with CGT, these benefits accumulate to about 12,000 euro (range 10.000 - 14.000 euro). These profits originate from improved health and less mortality, improved quality of life and higher productivity. A decrease in the number of persons with an alcohol addiction will also lead to lower costs for police and justice following from less criminal activities. CGT is effective as well as treatment for adolescents with cannabis addiction. Per person treated with CGT, societal benefits accumulate to about 11.000 euro (range 9.700 - 13.000 euro). Here, the net benefits arise from improved health, improved quality of life, reduced early school leaving and higher incomes for those clients who have successfully participated in CGT in addiction care. These findings stem from social cost-benefit analyses (SCBA) of CGT treatment for alcohol and cannabis addiction. Early withdrawal from treatment and the possibility of relapse to addictive behaviour have been taken into account in the calculations. Even in the most conservative calculations, the societal benefits of CGT remain positive. A considerable number of people with an alcohol or cannabis addiction currently do not receive addiction care. Some hundreds of thousands persons in the Netherlands suffer from alcohol dependency, while some tens of thousands adolescents suffer from cannabis addiction. Addiction is frequently associated with a stigma and many people experience barriers to seek specialized help. This study shows that society will benefit from an increase in people treated with CGT in specialized addiction care. Such an increase in number of people treated could for instance be realized by educational programs for professionals who come across people with dependency problems, such as general practitioners, professionals working in emergency care and youth care. This appears from a study led by RIVM. Enhancing the uptake of CBT in specialized addiction care centers has been modeled using the SCBA approach. Two SCBA's were performed: one with respect to alcohol addiction and the other regarding cannabis addiction among adolescents.
    • Maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse van beleidsmaatregelen om alcoholgebruik te verminderen

      de Wit, GA; van Gils, PF; Over, EAB; Suijkerbuijk, AWM; Lokkerbol, J; Smit, F; Spit, WJ; Evers, SMAA; de Kinderen, RJA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu, 2019-01-21)
      Als alle kosten en baten van alcohol worden opgeteld, waren de kosten in 2013 ongeveer 2,3 tot 4,2 miljard euro. Kosten kunnen bijvoorbeeld ontstaan door een lagere arbeidsproductiviteit, door inzet van politie en justitie, en door verkeersongevallen. De baten van alcoholgebruik zijn bijvoorbeeld de accijnsinkomsten voor de overheid. Als we ook private kosten meenemen in de berekening, zoals de kosten van voortijdige sterfte en verlies aan kwaliteit van leven, dan waren de kosten in 2013 4,2 tot 6,1 miljard euro. In deze kostenschattingen is het welzijn dat mensen bij het drinken van alcohol kunnen ervaren niet meegenomen, omdat het moeilijk is om dit in maat en getal uit te drukken. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek van het RIVM en drie andere organisaties. Maatregelen zijn mogelijk om mensen minder alcohol te laten drinken, zoals een accijnsverhoging, een beperking van het aantal verkooppunten en een totaalverbod op alcoholreclame en -sponsoring. Zulke maatregelen kunnen de samenleving forse besparingen opleveren en hebben daarmee netto een positief effect op de Nederlandse samenleving. Voorbeelden van die positieve effecten zijn minder sterfte en betere kwaliteit van leven doordat ziekten die met alcoholgebruik samenhangen worden voorkomen. Ook wordt de arbeidsproductiviteit hoger, zijn er minder verkeersongevallen en is minder inzet van politie en justitie nodig. Op de lange termijn, over een periode van 50 jaar, levert een accijnsverhoging van 50 procent tussen de 4,5 en 10,7 miljard euro op. Bij een accijnsverhoging van 200 procent is dat 12,2 tot 35,8 miljard euro. Het saldo van kosten en baten na 50 jaar is 1,8 tot 4,3 miljard euro wanneer 10 procent van de verkooppunten worden gesloten. Dit bedrag loopt op tot 4,6 tot 10,7 miljard euro als 25 procent van de verkooppunten sluit. Een mediaban levert de samenleving circa 3,5 tot 7,8 miljard euro op na 50 jaar, maar hierover bestaat meer onzekerheid. Dit is een herziene versie van een onderzoek uit 2016. Nieuwe inzichten en nieuwe cijfers waren de aanleiding voor deze herziening. Voor beide rapporten is een zogeheten maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse (MKBA) uitgevoerd waarbij de drie genoemde beleidsmaatregelen zijn doorgerekend. MKBA's zijn een hulpmiddel om de welvaartseffecten van maatregelen in kaart te brengen en kunnen beleidsmakers ondersteunen bij hun beslissingen over toekomstig overheidsbeleid.
    • Maatschappelijke kosten-batenanalyse van beleidsmaatregelen om alcoholgebruik te verminderen : Social cost-benefit analysis of regulatory policies to reduce alcohol use in The Netherlands

      de Wit GA; van Gils PF; Over EAB; Suijkerbuijk AWM; Lokkerbol J; Smit F; Mosca I; Spit WJ; KZG; V&X (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMTrimbos InstituutEcorysMaastricht University, 2016-10-03)
      If all costs and all benefits of alcohol are expressed in monetary terms, the net costs were 2,3 to 2,9 billion euro in 2013. Examples of the costs of alcohol are less productivity at work, costs of police and justice and traffic accidents. Alcohol also has benefits, for instance excise tax income for government. The feeling of wellbeing that consumers may experience from drinking alcohol has also been expressed in monetary terms. The monetary benefits of alcohol have been subtracted from the costs of alcohol to arrive at the final estimate of net costs for society. Regulatory policies aimed at reducing the amount of alcohol consumed, such as a further increase of excise taxes, a reduction of the number of sales venues and a total mediaban, will result in savings for society at large. Some examples of such positive effects are less mortality and improvement of quality of life because some diseases associated with alcohol are prevented, more productivity, less traffic accidents and less efforts to be taken by police and justice. In the long run, over a period of 50 years, an increase in excise taxes of 50% will result in societal benefits of 14 to 20 billion euro, an increase of excise taxes of 200% will result in societal benefits of 37 to 47 billion euro. The societal benefits of closure of 10% of sales venues are estimated at 3 to 5 billion euro after 50 years, and at 8 to 12 billion euro when 25% of sales venues would be closed. The societal benefits of a mediaban would amount to 7 billion euro after 50 years, but there is more uncertainty about this result. This appears from a study led by RIVM. The three regulatory policies have been modelled using the Social Cost-Benefit Analysis (SCBA) approach. By expressing the net welfare effect of government policies and interventions, SCBAs can support policy makers in taking decisions on implementation of future policies.
    • Maatschappelijke waardering van duurzame ontwikkeling. Achtergrondrapport bij de Duurzaamheidsverkenning

      Beckers TAM; Harkink EWFPM; Ingen EJ van; Lampert MA; Lelij B van der; Ossenbruggen R van; NMD (TelosMotivaction, 2004-10-21)
      From several studies it follows that Dutch consumers are not really interested in buying sustainable products or services. But these studies also conclude that some consumers are more sustainable in their purchasing behaviour than others. In order to explain this difference the Dutch population was divided into three sustainability segments, on the basis of the values people hold. Low sustainable: The people in this segment are fixed upon here and now, appreciate comfort, centre on self-interest, are hedonistic and materialistic, don't worry about the environment. Medium sustainable: Worry about the environment, are trying to live eco-conscious, believe in the social responsibility of trade and industry, are involved in their neighbourhood, feel responsible for society. High sustainable: Hold the same mentality as the medium sustainable segment, but want to consciously consume eco-friendly, want to pay more for eco-friendly products and are involved in world affairs. The sustainability segments were compared to the so-called 'social milieus', developed by Motivaction. Two groups stood out. Traditional citizens on the one hand and cosmopolitans and post materialists on the other appeared to be most sustainable. This implies that individuals with totally different value patterns can be more or less equally sustainable. Traditional citizens are in particular concerned with the care and preservation of their own surroundings, whereas cosmopolitans and post materialists are more involved with global issues. Generations appeared to be remarkably different in their level of sustainability. Younger generations consider sustainable development to be far less important than older ones. Likely, this can be attributed to the phase of life, although some indications point to the fact that sustainability does not match the value pattern of younger generations well.
    • Maatschappelijke waardering van duurzame ontwikkeling. Achtergrondrapport bij de Duurzaamheidsverkenning

      Beckers TAM; Harkink EWFPM; Ingen EJ van; Lampert MA; Lelij B van der; Ossenbruggen R van; Telos; Motivaction; NMD (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-10-21)
      Uit verschillende recente onderzoeken blijkt dat de Nederlandse consument niet warm loopt voor duurzame producten of diensten. Daarnaast laat recent onderzoek zien dat de belangstelling voor duurzame producten of diensten verschilt tussen consumenten. Hoe is dit te verklaren? Om deze vraag te kunnen beantwoorden deden Telos en Motivaction in opdracht van het MNP-RIVM onderzoek naar het duurzaamheidbewustzijn en -gedrag van de Nederlandse bevolking. Er werden drie duurzaamheidsegmenten gevonden, op grond van de waardenpatronen van mensen. Laag duurzamen: zijn sterk gericht op leven in het hier en nu, houden erg van gemak, stellen het eigen belang centraal, zijn hedonistisch en materialistisch ingesteld, zijn niet bezorgd over het milieu. Middelhoog duurzamen: zijn bezorgd over het milieu, willen milieubewust leven, zijn gehecht aan maatschappelijke verantwoordelijkheid van bedrijven, zijn betrokken bij de buurt, voelen zich verantwoordelijk voor de maatschappij. Hoog duurzamen: hebben dezelfde mentaliteit als middelhoog duurzamen en willen daarnaast ook bewust milieuvriendelijk consumeren, meer betalen voor milieuvriendelijke en natuurlijk gefabriceerde producten en zijn tevens betrokken bij de wereldgemeenschap. De duurzaamheidsegmenten zijn vergeleken met de door Motivaction ontwikkelde 'sociale milieus'. Traditionele burgers enerzijds en kosmopolieten/ postmaterialisten anderzijds bleken het meest duurzaam. Bij de eerste gaat het vooral om zorg en behoud van de eigen omgeving, bij de tweede vooral om mondiale betrokkenheid. Men kan met andere woorden vanuit een totaal verschillende waardenorientatie tot duurzaamheid komen. Opvallend was verder dat generaties sterk blijken te verschillen in de mate van duurzaamheid. Jongere generaties vinden duurzame ontwikkeling een stuk minder belangrijk dan ouderen. Dit kan waarschijnlijk deels worden toegeschreven aan de levensfase waarin men zich bevindt, maar er zijn ook aanwijzingen dat duurzaamheid minder goed aansluit bij het waardenpatroon van jongere generaties.
    • Mabuterol identified as an illegally used beta-agonistic growth promoteor for slaughter animals

      Ginkel LA van; Stephany RW; Rossum HJ van (1990-06-30)
      As a result of multi-residue screening for beta-agonists in growth promoting preparations, premixes, feed and excreta mabuterol (a close analogue of clenbuterol) was identified as an illegally used beta- agonist for growth promotion in veal calves. The identification was based on sample clean-up with multi immunoaffinity chromatography (MIAC) and detection and identification with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.
    • De macro-samenstelling en energie-inhoud van duplicaat 24-uurs voedingen bemonsterd in 1984/1985

      Vaessen HAMG; Ooik A van; Zuydendorp J; Kamp CG van de (1987-06-30)
      Abstract not available
    • Macrodispersie in gelaagde pakketten - deel 1: een rekenmodel -

      Uffink; G.J.M. (1985-06-30)
      Abstract not available
    • Magneetvelden nabij Rokkeveen : meting voor en na ingebruikname van een nieuwe hoogspanningslijn

      Kelfkens G; Beerlage MAM; Bolte JFB; Pruppers MJM; IRV; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2014-12-15)
      RIVM has performed measurements of magnetic fields near 'Rokkeveen' before and after bringing into use a new overhead power line ('Randstad 380 kV'). Near the location of the edge of the magnetic field zone, the results of the measurements were sufficiently equal to the results of the magnetic fields calculations. The deviation of 5 meter at the most, which is, near the zone limit, acceptable for the ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment, was not exceeded. Therefore, the calculation instructions are well applicable to determine the location of the zone limit. In the planning process of a new overhead power line it is only possible to calculate the magnetic field. Some people living near (new) lines wonder whether calculated magnetic fields are similar to measured magnetic fields. They indicate to trust measurements more. Since 2005 the Dutch government uses near overhead power lines, by way of precaution, a calculated magnetic field zone. This is the strip of land at both sides of the power line where, now and in the future, the yearly averaged magnetic field can be stronger than 0.4 microtesla, the unit for the magnetic field strength. The national government advices to take care that in new situations, within this zone as few as possible dwellings, schools, crèches, and day care facilities are situated. The measurements haven been performed after the local pressure group 'De Groene Landscheiding N470' has made a request to the minister of Economic Affairs and the minister of Infrastructure and the Environment. According to the pressure group this type of measurements before and after is necessary to unambiguously determine the additional effect of the 'Randstad 380 kV' connection. The study is commissioned by the ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment.
    • Magnetische velden van hoogspanningslijnen en leukemie bij kinderen

      Plas M van der; Houthuijs DJM; Dusseldorp A; Pennders RMJ; Pruppers MJM; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-05-31)
      Naar aanleiding van de conclusie van de Gezondheidsraad dat 'er sprake is van een redelijk consistente associatie tussen het voorkomen van leukemie bij kinderen en het wonen in de nabijheid van bovengrondse elektriciteitslijnen' heeft het ministerie van VROM aan RIVM gevraagd wat de consequenties voor Nederland zijn als deze associatie het resultaat is van een causale relatie tussen de sterkte van het magnetische veld van deze lijnen en het optreden van leukemie bij kinderen. Uit experimenteel onderzoek komen vooralsnog geen aanwijzingen voor enig plausibel biologisch mechanisme dat een oorzakelijk verband tussen blootstelling aan extreem laagfrequente magnetische velden en het optreden van enigerlei vorm van kanker ondersteunt. RIVM acht vanuit epidemiologisch oogpunt de resultaten van de recent verschenen 'pooled analyses' van Ahlbom et al. en van Greenland et al. een beter uitgangspunt voor de beschrijving van het risico op het krijgen van leukemie dan de informatie uit de afzonderlijke studies of uit eerder uitgevoerde meta-analyses. In het RIVM-onderzoek zijn uit de twee 'pooled analyses' waarden van het relatieve risico als functie van het magnetische veld afgeleid. De blootstellingssituatie in Nederland is bepaald op basis van schattingen van het magnetische veld op diverse afstanden tot de hoogspanningslijnen. Uit tellingen van het aantal personen dat binnen deze afstanden woont, zijn het toegevoegde individuele risico en het potentiele aantal extra gevallen van leukemie bij kinderen berekend. Met het begrip toegevoegd individueel risico wordt het risico op het krijgen van leukemie door kinderen als gevolg van het wonen bij een bepaalde waarde van het magnetische veld afkomstig van een hoogspanningslijn bedoeld. Er zijn onzekerheden over de vorm van de eventuele blootstelling-responsrelatie. Derhalve kan uit epidemiologisch onderzoek alleen worden geconcludeerd dat het relatieve risico mogelijk is verhoogd bij veldsterkten hoger dan ergens tussen 0,2 en 0,5 microtesla. Op basis van de resultaten van Ahlbom et al. en Greenland et al. blijkt voor Nederland het toegevoegde individuele risico op het krijgen van leukemie door kinderen in gebieden met magnetische veldsterkten boven 0,3 a 0,4 microtesla maximaal ongeveer 3 op de 100.000 per jaar te bedragen. Er zijn onzekerheden in het aantal kinderen dat bij deze veldsterkten woont, onder andere door de onzekerheden in schattingen van de magnetische veldsterkte als functie van de afstand tot de hoogspanningslijnen. Gebruik makend van deze schattingen, wordt het aantal extra gevallen van leukemie bij kinderen geschat op 0,2 tot 1 per jaar op een totaal van circa 110 nieuwe gevallen per jaar. Voor de Nederlandse bevolking is onvoldoende bekend hoe groot de blootstelling aan het totaal aan bronnen van extreem laagfrequente magnetische velden is. Het verdient daarom aanbeveling deze blootstelling nader te onderzoeken.
    • Magnetische velden van hoogspanningslijnen en leukemie bij kinderen

      van der Plas M; Houthuijs DJM; Dusseldorp A; Pennders RMJ; Pruppers MJM; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-05-31)
      In response to the conclusion of the Health Council of the Netherlands that 'there is a reasonably consistent association between the occurrence of leukaemia in children and residence near overhead power lines' the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM) requested RIVM to investigate what the consequences would be for the Netherlands if this association was found to be a result of a causal relationship between the strength of the magnetic fields due to these lines and the occurrence of leukaemia in children. Until now, experimental research has failed to indicate any plausible biological mechanism that supports a causal relationship between exposure to extremely low-frequency magnetic fields and the occurrence of any form of cancer. RIVM considers the results of two recently published pooled analyses a better starting point for describing the risk of leukaemia in children than the information from the individual studies or from meta-analyses performed previously. In the RIVM study values for the relative risk as a function of the magnetic field were derived from these two pooled analyses. The exposure situation in the Netherlands was determined using estimates of the magnetic field at several distances from the power lines. The additional individual risk and potential number of extra cases of leukaemia in children were calculated on the basis of the number of persons living within these distances. The additional individual risk in the RIVM study is defined as the risk children run of developing leukaemia due to living in a certain magnetic field near a power line. There are uncertainties about the form of the dose-response relationship. Therefore, the relative risk can only be concluded to be possibly elevated at field strengths somewhere above between 0.2 and 0.5 microtesla. On the basis of the results of the two pooled analyses, the additional individual risk for children who live in areas where the magnetic field exceeds 0.3 to 0.4 microtesla to develop leukaemia was found in the Netherlands to be 3 per 100,000 per year at the most. There are uncertainties in the number of children living in these magnetic fields, partly because of uncertainties in the estimates of the magnetic field as a function of the distance from power lines. When these estimates are used, the number of extra cases of the total 110 new cases each year is estimated at 0.2 to 1 per year. Since the total exposure to all sources of extremely low-frequency magnetic fields in the Netherlands is insufficiently known, further investigation of this exposure is recommended.<br>
    • The mailing of genetically modified microorganisms: A field survey

      Canter Cremers HCJ; Groot HF (1991-12-31)
      In this report we present samples of how genetically modified microorganisms (GMM) were mailed to us from various countries, including the Netherlands. None of the six packages that contained GMM and arrived by air mail, complied to the rules of the IATA, whereas a further three, which arrived by national mail did not comply to Dutch law. Except two, all packages were a clear result of ingenuity of the sender. We subjected the ten packages to simple rigidity tests, namely 1) dropping it, 2) stepping on the parcel and 3) dropping a weight of 6.3 kg on top of it from a height of 1m. Only one, a parcel harboring commercial obtainable "Culturettes" (Manufactured by Baxter Health Care Products), survived these tests completely undamaged. We compared our experiences with two departments which receive genetically modified bacteria and human pathogens, respectively on a regular basis, namely the PHABAGEN culture collection (University of Utrecht, the Netherlands) and the Laboratory of Bacterial Determinations (National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection, Bilthoven, the Netherlands). Apart from confirming our experiences to a large extend, their experiences indicate that the vials in about 0.5% of the packages will be damaged. If our assumptions are correct, an estimated 3000 packages containing cultures of genetically modified microorganisms are mailed in the Netherlands each year. An estimated 15 of these will be damaged during handling, which, at the present standards of mailing, will result in the unintended, small scale, introduction into the environment of the genetically modified microorganisms involved. Our overall conclusion is therefore that the present standards of mailing of genetically modified microorganisms are insufficient to protect environment and (post)man against possible risks.
    • Major Shifts in Societal Trends and Their Impact on Climate Change

      Slob AFL; Hoorn ThMM van; NOP (1999-08-16)
      The Dutch National Research Program (NRP) on global air pollution and climate change commissioned a study on major shifts in societal trends that are relevant for the climate problem. The main objective of this study was to give direction to future research on this topic for the National Research Program. Several methods were used to achieve this goal: literature study, interviews with experts, researchers, policymakers and involved parties and a concluding workshop on the subject. The conclusion of the study was that four main trends in our society have a relationship, either positive or negative, with the climate problem: individualisation, ageing of the population, globalisation and the rapid development of information and communication technologies. Options to change or break trends can be found in technological innovations, changes in institutions and changes in human behaviour. Several recommendations were made for future research in the framework of the Dutch NRP. This research should focus on trends as such, on behaviour and on policy strategies for coping with trends and shifts in trends. The following research topics were recommended to the Steering Group for further study: - a general study on trends, trendbreaks and climate change, - development of information and communication technologies as a driver of trendbreaks, - interaction between technology and behaviour, - time spending, trendbreaks and the climate problem, - globalization, - new policy methods and strategies aiming at trendbreaks.
    • Management en Good Laboratory Practice Afdeling Centrale Dierproeffaciliteit CDF

      van Soolingen J; Kroes R; Arens ABM; Beenen J; Bekius FA; Gomersbach-de Ridder A; van de Kuil R; ter Laak BG; de Liefde A; Luypen S; Poelen MJ; Post W; Reulen P; van de Siepkamp JJ; Schot C; Sturkenboom CWA; van Veenendaal W (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1990-12-31)
      This report describes the realisation and implementation of working procedures in compliance with Good Laboratory Practice, as performed by the Central Animal Facility of Division II Pharmacology and Toxicology. This report froms a basis for a quality system with the pivot aim to meet Sterlab requirements.<br>
    • Management en Good Laboratory Practice op de afdeling Biotechnische Evaluatie Stofeffecten (BES) van het Centraal Dierenlaboratorium (CDL)

      van Soolingen J; Kroes R; de Vrey P; Arens ABM; Beenen J; Bekius FA; Gomersbach-de Ridder A; Jansen van &apos;t Land C; van de Kuil R; ter Laak BG; de Liefde A; Luypen SW; Mattern PF; Poelen MJ; Post W; Reulen P; van de Siepkamp JJ; Schot CW; Timmerman A; van Veenendaal W (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1992-05-31)
      The department BES (Biological Evaluation of Drug Effects) carries out animal studies for RIVM laboratories, whose commitment to GLP makes it necessary for BES also to comply with GLP. Compliance is assured by means of a quality system laid down in a quality handbook quaranteeing the consistent quality of the department products. The elements of the BES quality system are documented in this report under the following headings: - quality targets and management organisation - survey of areas of competence and of stoff qualifications - equipment inventory - goods and services available - standard operating procedures. Furthermore a general servey is presented of those co-operative arrangements necessary for optimal departmental organization.<br>