• A database of methane concentrations as measured in the Netherlands and Europe

      Janssen LHJM; Wal JT van der; Hollander JC; Vermeulen A; Vosbeek MEJP; LLO (1997-02-28)
      In order to increase our knowledge of methane emissions on a small scale the project 'Sources, regional scaling and validation of CH4 emissions from the Netherlands and Northwest Europe' is carried out in the framework of Phase 2 of the National Research Program on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP-2). This project aims at the development of a validated CH4 emission database on a scale of 5x5 km and 25x25 km for the Netherlands and Europe respectively for the main source categories. CH4 emissions are validated in this project by comparing results of atmospheric models which use this emission database as an input, with measured CH4 concentrations. In this report the data of methane measurements at 4 locations in the Netherlands and 3 locations in Northwest Europe over the period 1990-1994 are gathered and reported. Besides data on CH4 concentrations also meteorological data as measured by KNMI near the measuring sites in the Netherlands are included in the database. The sources of the data, their formats, the procedures to process the data, the databases which are constructed to include the data in a systematic way and time series of the CH4 measurements over the period 1990-1994 are described in this report.
    • A database of methane concentrations as measured in the Netherlands and Europe

      Janssen LHJM; Wal JT van der; Hollander JC; Vermeulen A; Vosbeek MEJP; LLO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-02-28)
      Om meer inzicht te verkrijgen in de emissies en bronnen en putten van methaan op kleine schaal is het project 'Bronnen, ruimtelijke opschaling en validatie van Methaan emissies in Nederland en West-Europa' gestart in de 2e fase van het Nationaal Onderzoeksprogramma Mondiale Luchtverontreiniging en Klimaatverandering (NOP-2). Het doel van dit project is om een gevalideerde database van CH4 emissies te realiseren op een schaal van 5x5 km en 25x25 km voor Nederland en Europa respectievelijk voor de belangrijkste broncategorieen. Validatie van de CH4 emissies gebeurt door resultaten van berekeningen met atmosfeermodellen te vergelijken met metingen van CH4 in de buitenlucht. Een product van dit project is een gegevensbestand van methaanconcentraties zoals gemeten in Nederland en Europa. In dit rapport worden de gegevens van methaanmetingen zoals ze zijn uitgevoerd op 4 locaties in Nederland en op 3 locaties in noord-west Europa gedurende de periode 1990-1994 bijeengebracht. Behalve gegevens over CH4-concentraties in de buitenlucht, zijn ook meteorologische gegevens, zoals gemeten door het KNMI in de buurt van de Nederlandse CH4-meetstations, in de database bijeengebracht. De bronnen van de gegevens, het gegevensformaat, de procedures voor gegevensbewerking en de gegevensbestanden die zijn gemaakt om de data op een systematische manier op te kunnen slaan worden beschreven. Verder worden tijdreeksen van de metingen over de periode 1990-1994 gepresenteerd.
    • Dataopslag, monitoring en evaluatie van dierproeven, proefdieren en 3V-alternatieven voor proefdiergebruik in Nederland

      van Zijverden M; Noorlander CW; Deleu S; NKA; V&Z (Nationaal Kenniscentrum Alternatieven voor dierproeven (NKCA), 2013-05-01)
    • Deel-evaluatie van tijdschriftengebruik m.b.v. publikaties in publikatielijst uit jaarverslag RIVM 1993 en analyse van publikatiegedrag van RIVM-medewerkers in wetenschappelijke tijdschriften

      Haarlem C van; Erich HE; BDA (1995-10-31)
      The aims of this report were: 1) to make a comparison between used journals for the benefit of publications of RIVM staff members and collection of journals in the RIVM library ; 2) to get some understanding in the publication behaviour of RIVM (read RIVM staff members) with the help of the impact factor from the Journal Citation Reports and collaboration relationships as derived from the used publications. The list of publications of RIVM Annual Scientific Report 1993 has been used for this purpose. From the total list of 687 references 372 references were selected. The percentage of cover of the used journals compared to the collection of journals available from the library proved to be 64,7%. The relative number of the unique journal titles (204) with an impact factor amounts to 59.3%. The relative number of the publications (372) with an impact factor amounts to 56.2%. Based on information from bibliographic data from the publications a classification per sector was made focused on the kind of collaboration: a) collaboration within one sector ; b) collaboration of one sector with the remaining sectors ; c) collaboration of one sector and externals; d) collaboration of one sector with the remaining sectors and externals. The most frequent type of collaboration appeared to be type 'c' (43%). The sector exceeding types 'b' and 'd' had a much lower frequency (on average 12,5%). Subclassifications were made based on the parameters 'impact factor' and 'type of collaboration'. These classifications suggest that sector3 is relatively outstanding in its publication behaviour.
    • Deelname aan preventief gezondheidsonderzoek rondom de leefstijl. Bereik onder Nederlanders en redenen voor non-respons

      Bogers RP; Dingemanse CJ; Felix J; ter Bogt NCW; Bemelmans WJE; PZO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMGGD ZeelandGGD EemlandUMC Groningen, 2008-08-28)
      About 45% of the 40- to 75-year-old Dutch population participates in preventive health checks when they are personally invited via an invitation letter. The attendance rate is highest for those aged 60 to 70. As the most important reasons to decline a preventive health check, non-participants mention that they already are under regular medical supervision (mostly in the older age group) or have no interest or time (mostly mentioned in the younger age groups). These are the results of a study on participation in two recent large Dutch projects, the Preventive Health Checks for the Elderly (PGO-O), carried out in the province of Zeeland and the towns Amersfoort/Soest, and the Groningen Overweight And Lifestyle study (GOAL), carried out in the provinces of Groningen, Friesland and Drenthe. In these projects 1179 persons aged 60 to 75 and 5738 persons aged 40 to 70 were invited. The findings are largely confirmed by published data from similar recent Dutch projects and a literature study on fifteen comparable international studies. Persons with the lowest educational level seem to be less likely to participate in preventive health checks. No clear indication existed for selective response according to lifestyle or risk factors. Many participants could benefit from further lifestyle counselling. A high percentage of persons had an elevated blood pressure and/or obesity, probably because of the high prevalence of these risk factors in the general population. Information about the possible reach of preventive health checks are useful for policy makers and local organizations, e.g., in the planning of manpower, the costs, and the potential effects of health checks on a population level.
    • Deeltjesemissie door wegverkeer: emissiefactoren, deeltjesgrootteverdeling en chemische samenstelling

      Brink RMM van den; LAE (1996-10-31)
      This report represents an inventory derived from a desk study on particulate emissions from road traffic. These emissions concern exhaust-gas particulate emissions, as well as particulate emissions caused by tyre wear, wear of brake linings and wear of road surface. Another particulate emission source is dust caused by moving traffic. In addition to emission factors also size distribution and chemical composition of road traffic related particulates were investigated. Besides the effect of technical measures like oxidation catalysts and particulate traps were also discussed. From the study it can be concluded that: particulates in exhaust gas are smaller than 1 mum ; cars with diesel engines were found in 1995 to have a 40-times higher particulate emission than cars with petrol engines with three-way catalysts ; oxidation catalysts applied to light-duty diesel engines lead to a 25-70% reduction the particulate emissions ; oxidation catalysts combined with heavy-duty diesel engines can lead to higher particulate emissions caused by the conversion of SO2 to sulphates, with a reduction in the sulphate content of diesel fuel decreasing this phenomenon ; particulate traps mounted on heavy duty engines give an 80% reduction in the particulate emissions ; traffic-related particulate emissions from other sources than exhaust gas also contribute subtantially to particulate emissions from a moving vehicle.
    • Deeltjesemissie door wegverkeer: emissiefactoren, deeltjesgrootteverdeling en chemische samenstelling

      Brink RMM van den; LAE (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-10-31)
      In deze literatuurstudie werden zowel gegevens over uitlaatgas-deeltjesemissie alsook over deeltjesemissie als gevolg van slijtage van banden, remvoering en wegdek ge-inventariseerd. Daarnaast werd aandacht besteed aan deeltjesemissie als gevolg van, door rijdend verkeer, opgewerveld stof. Naast emissiefactoren zijn ook grootteverdeling en chemische samenstelling van door verkeer geemitteerde deeltjes bekeken. De invloed van technische maatregelen als oxidatiekatalysatoren of roetfilters zijn opgenomen. De conclusies die aan de hand van deze inventarisatie kunnen worden getrokken zijn: deeltjes in uitlaatgas zijn kleiner dan 1 mum; personenauto's met dieselmotor hadden in 1995 een 40 maal hogere deeltjesemissie dan personenauto's met een benzinemotor en drieweg-katalysator ; oxidatiekatalysatoren toegepast op lichte dieselvoertuigen leiden tot een 25-70% afname van de deeltjesemissiefactor ; oxidatiekatalysatoren toegepast op zware dieselvoertuigen kunnen tot een toename van de deeltjesemissiefactor leiden als gevolg van de omzetting van het in de motor gevormde SO2 tot sulfaat, een verlaging van het zwavelgehalte van dieselbrandstof verkleint dit fenomeen ; roetfilters toegepast bij zware dieselmotoren leiden tot een 80% reductie van de deeltjesemissie; verkeersgerelateerde deeltjesemissie door andere bronnen dan uitlaatgas dragen substantieel bij aan de deeltjesemissie door een rijdend voertuig.
    • Definitie voor de opzet van de studie VOLKSGEZONDHEID TOEKOMST VERKENNING 1997

      Ruwaard D; van den Berg Jeths A; Jansen J; Kramers PGN; van der Giessen A; van Genugten MLL; Gijsen R; Harteloh PPM; Maas IAM; Poos MJJC; Verkleij H; VTV (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-04-30)
      This definition report entitled 'Public Health Status and Forecasts 1997' (PHSF) describes the principles underpinning the second PHSF to be issued in 1997. Firstly, the wishes of the Directorate-General for Health of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport have played an important role in drawing up this report. In addition, comments on PHSF 1993 as well as the views of the editorial staff concerning desired improvements and completions were taken into account. The general objective and function of the PHSF project can be summarized as follows: to provide a review and analysis of the available public health data, with explicit reference to existing gaps in the provision of information, in order to assist health policy in evaluating current policy and preparing new policy. Three main pathways (including seven themes) are formulated for PHSF 1997: a To update the picture presented in PHSF 1993 ; this offers the opportunity to follow developments and it focuses on the continuity of the PHSF process (theme 1). b To extend the scope of PHSF 1993 with five new themes: (theme 2) health differences and the health status of specific groups in the Dutch population, (theme 3) weighting the burden of disease according to severity, amongst other things for the purpose of calculating integrated health indicators, (theme 4) the effects of prevention, (theme 5) the effects of health care, and (theme 6) the consequences of diseases for health care utilisation and health care needs. c To strenghten the integration presented in PHSF 1993 with respect to future developments (theme 7). The first six themes will provide the material to do this. PHSF 1997 aims to improve the use of interactive simulation models to depict changes over time for several related factors. This also makes it possible to investigate interventions related to determinants in order to discover the most effective ways to improve or maintain the health status. The conceptual model presented in PHSF 1993 is maintained to offer a structure for orderly handling of the subject-matter, but it is extended and further detailed to include the new themes. This definition report points out as concretely as possible the position of the themes in the conceptual model, the targets and the suggested approach. By means of the choice of the themes and the way of elaboration, it is intended that PHSF 1997 will be more useful for policy preparation and evaluation than PHSF 1993. Regarding the approach, it is foreseen that an appeal will be made to the considerable expertise of research groups within the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection and elsewhere. The proposed procedures for quality control are included. Finally a time schedule is presented for the production of PHSF 1997, in which discussion of the content plays a major role.
    • Definitie voor de opzet van de studie Volksgezondheid Toekomst Verkenning 2002

      van Oers JAM; Achterberg PW; van den Berg Jeths J; Gijsen R; Hoeymans N; de Hollander AEM; Jansen J; Kramers PGN; van der Lucht F; Maas IAM; Poos MJJC; Ruwaard D; Schouten JSAG; Stokx L; Treurniet HF; van der Veen AA; Verheij R; Verkleij H; Vrijsen WJJ; Westert G; VTV (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-07-05)
      This definition report presents the starting-points and design of the Public Health Status and Forecasts 2002 (PHSF 2002). The aim is: to collect, analyse and integrate data and knowledge relevant for policy development in the field of public health and health care. The PHSF is characterised by: (1) the health status of the population as the main starting-point; (2) its function as an integral framework for the collected information; (3) its nationwide project status, reflecting contributions of experts both within and outside the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (RIVM). To link up as closely as possible with the information needs for policy-making, PHSF will consist of: (1) a PHSF summarising report 2002, to be published in 2002, presenting an integrated, overall view of the developments in health status, the causes and consequences of these developments, and the possibilities for policy interventions; (2) thematic reports which will be published during the course, each characterised by a concise discussion of the relevant theme. So far five themes have been selected: (1) Health in the big cities; (2) Health promotion among specific groups; (3) Demand, supply and geographical distribution of health care; (4) Medicines and medical devices and (5) Care for the elderly. During the course of PHSF production new themes can be added; (3) the Monitor on Public Health and Health Care, an Intranet-accessible information system presenting regularly updated information on (developments in) public health, determinants and care.Within this design the PHSF should be seen as a supplier in continuum of information for public health policy-making. Just as during the realisation of earlier editions of the PHSF, an appeal will be made to research expertise, both within and outside the RIVM.<br>
    • Definitierapport &apos;Beleidsmonitoring radioactieve stoffen en straling&apos;

      Pruppers MJM; Janssen MPM; Blaauboer RO; Matthijsen AJCM; Pennders RMJ; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1998-02-28)
      The unit Radiation, Nuclear and Biological Safety (SNB) of the department of Substances, Safety and Radiation (SVS) of the ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment needs a set of high quality data for policy monitoring. Primarily it is necessary to know the emissions of radioactive substances and radiation by several sources and activities to monitor the effects of policy and enforcement. After realisation of the system for policy monitoring a yearly report on the foregoing year should be produced which deals with the radiological situation in the Netherlands. The definition study described in this report answers the question how the information system for policy monitoring could be defined and realised. Firstly, the requirements and wishes of all the parties involved were collected. After that several possible questions for the system were analysed to determine what data are needed to answer these questions. Three versions of the system were constructed and the extra instruments that are needed to use it for policy monitoring are described. Finally, for each version benefits and costs were studied. In order to get all the necessary data, it is advised to firstly realise the organisational facilities. Moreover it is advised to perform a pilot study in which for some typical sources the necessary and available data have to be assessed. Only after that a definite choice between the several possible versions can be made.<br>
    • Definitierapport &apos;Graadmeters externe veiligheid in de Milieubalans/Milieuverkenning&apos;

      Ale BJM; Pruppers MJM; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-11-30)
      For use in future versions of the integrative reports called Milieubalans ('environmental balance') and Milieuverkenning ('environmental outlook') RIVM has chosen to present an overview of environmental issues, especially those related to actual and future environmental policies in the Netherlands, in terms of so called target and related steering variables. This definition report describes the elaboration of this approach when it is applied to the entire area of interest 'industrial safety'. Together with other definition reports it is supposed to be the justification of choices which are made in defining the sequence of subjects and the minimum set of variables in the future versions of the Milieubalans and the Milieuverkenning. The elaboration is guided by the policy document Omgaan met risico's ('dealing with risks') which is later expanded by a letter of the minister of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment to the Second Chamber of the Parliament (June, 13th 1994).<br>
    • Definitierapport &apos;Graadmeters straling in Milieubalans/Milieuverkenning&quot;

      Pruppers MJM; Aldenkamp FJ; Blaauboer RO; Eggink GJ; Kwakman PJM; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-02-28)
      For use in future versions of the integrative reports called Milieubalans ('environmental balance') and Milieuverkenning ('environmental outlook') RIVM has chosen to present an overview of environmental issues, especially those related to actual and future environmental policies in the Netherlands, in terms of so called target and related steering variables. This definition report describes the elaboration of this approach when it is applied to the complete area of interest 'radiation'. Together with other definition reports it is supposed to be the justification of choices which are made in defining the sequence of subjects and the minimum set of variables in the future versions of the Milieubalans and the Milieuverkenning. The elaboration is guided by the policy document 'Radiation protection and risk management' (Omgaan met risico's van straling). The policy can be characterized as 'risk management by focusing directly on the sources of radiation'. In other words steering at the beginning and setting limits at the end of the source-risk-chain. Therefore, in this report it is concluded that the complete source-risk-chain has to be analyzed and modelled. The area of interest 'radiation' is divided into areas corresponding to the source categories which are used in the policy document. For each area possible target and steering variables, together with related target and reference values, are collected. Determination of the present (diagnosis) and future (prognosis) values of the target variables is also investigated. In conclusion an indication is given of the activities, which are advisable for the coming years in order to make the target variables operational. The next phases are roughly outlined.<br>
    • Definitierapport 'Graadmeters externe veiligheid in de Milieubalans/Milieuverkenning'

      Ale BJM; Pruppers MJM; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-11-30)
      Ten behoeve van toekomstige versies van de integratie-rapporten Milieubalans en Milieuverkenning is door het RIVM gekozen voor het integraal weergeven van de milieuproblematiek in relatie tot het Nederlandse milieubeleid, in termen van een beperkte set doelvariabelen of graadmeters. Dit definitierapport beschrijft en onderbouwt de graadmeters waarin het complete aandachtsgebied 'externe veiligheid' wordt uitgedrukt. Samen met de andere definitierapporten dient het als onderbouwing van de keuzen die zijn gemaakt bij het formuleren van de indeling van en de figuren in toekomstige versies van de Milieubalans en de Milieuverkenning. Voor het aandachtsgebied 'externe veiligheid' is het in de nota 'Omgaan met risico's' vastgelegde beleid richtinggevend. Dit beleid is verder geconcretiseerd in de brief van de minister van VROM aan de Voorzitter van de Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal (13 juni 1994).
    • Definitierapport graadmeters afval in de Milieubalans/Milieuverkenning

      Nagelhout D; Joosten JM; LAE (1994-04-30)
      For use in future versions of the integrative reports called Milieubalans ('State of the Environment') and Milieuverkenning ('Environmental Outlook') RIVM has chosen to present an overview of environmental issues , especially those related to actual and future environmental policies in the Netherlands, in terms of so called target and related steering variables. This definition report describes the elaboration of this approach when it is applied to the area of waste disposal. Together with other definition reports it is supposed to be the justification of choises which are made in defining the minimum set of environmental indices in the future versions of the Milieubalans and the Milieuverkenning. The elaboration is guided by the waste problems which are identified: the volume of waste, the emissions of waste disposal facilities, the loss of raw materials and the costs of waste disposal. In this report attention is paid to the monitoring of waste (diagnosis) and the variables which influence future values of the environmental indices (prognosis). In conclusion an indication is given of the activities, which are advisable for the coming years. In the end of this year this report will be followed by an updated version.
    • Definitierapport graadmeters atmosfeer in de Milieubelans/Milieuverkenning

      Noordijk H; Diederen HSMA; Woerd HJ van der; Velze K van (1994-05-31)
      environmental indices will be an important tool in future environmental assessments (milieubalansen en Milieuverkenningen). This report defines the indices for the atmosphere. It describes the state of definition at the start of the year 1994, and it is the result of the project group in the Laboratory of Air Research (LLO) of RIVM, with support of some experts within and outside of RIVM. This definition needs to be discussed by all the parties involved with environmental assessments, in order to improve the definition and to obtain consensus on it. This report serves as a basis for these discussions. The indices are clustered in human exposure, ecosystem exposure, depletion of stratospheric ozone, climatic change, decreasing self-cleaning capability of the atmosphere, and the damage to the cultural inheritance and the economy. The clusters on human and ecosystem exposure are subdivided into exposure to higher concentrations over a short time (smog), and exposure to concentrations averaged over a time-scale of seasons. Exposure of humans in the indoor environment is also treated separately. The indices are based on several tens of compounds. Concentrations are in general related to internationally accepted "no-effect levels" or "critical levels".
    • Definitierapport graadmeters bodem en grondwater in de Milieubalans/Milieuverkenning. Discussiestuk

      Grinsven JJM van (ed); LBG (1994-07-31)
      In the yearly Environmental Balance reports and four yearly Environmental Outlook reports the information ideally will be largely presented as Environmental Indices. Environmental Indices are limited number of concise and appealing parameters to present the vast amount of information on environmental quality. This report defines the Environmental Indices for Soil and Groundwater, and also describes the monitoring programs and models which are available to assess the present and future values of these indices. The information in this report is by no means final, for one reason because it is based mainly on discussions within the RIVM. Discussions with other institutes are in full swing. These discussions are absolutely necessary to increase support for the selected indices and to solve many gaps and discrepancies in the definition and the quantification of the indices. After a short overview of the present Soil and Groundwater research at the RIVM, the selected indices are systematically discussed, per environmental theme. Next an overview is given of the presently available monitoring programs and simulation models. This overview is followed by systematic allocation of these monitoring programs and simulation models for diagnosis and prognosis of the selected indices. Finally the most important gaps and discrepancies with respect to definition and quantification are listed. This list will guide part of the future research.
    • Definitierapport graadmeters drink- en industriewatervoorziening in de Milieubalans/Milieuverkenning

      Mulschlegel JHC; Hrubec J; Kragt FJ; Medema GJ; Versteegh JFM; Verweij W; LWD; LWL (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-11-30)
      The minister of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment has requested the RIVM to publish an annual Environmental Balance (EB) with an Environmental Outlook (EO) to appear every four years. Both of these will serve as the objective scientific basis for the development of the national environmental policy. The EB gives a description of the state of the environmental quality. The EO provides a long-term description of the environmental quality as a consequense of the implemented and proposed policy (measures), and explores policy options, including the relation to international developments.In this definition report indicators on which the status and development of one of the functions of fresh surface and groundwater "the drinking and industrial water supply are being proposed. Several criteria have been applied to select the most relevant indicators. Attention is paid to the monitoring of waterdemand and other indicators (diagnosis). Also an indicative outline of modelling is given (prognosis). In the last part of this report an indication is given of necessary activities, especially in the next year.<br>
    • Definitierapport Graadmeters Volksgezondheid in de Milieubalans/Milieuverkenning (1e versie)

      de Hollander AEM; Lebret E; CCM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-04-30)
      Every four years the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) produces a National Environmental Outlook in which the present and future state of the environment is described using indicators to represent (natural) resources, emissions, environmental quality, public health and ecological effects. In the present report the possibilities are explored to define indicators for public health effects of environmental pollution to be used in these Environmental Outlooks.<br>
    • Definitierapport Graadmeters Water in de Milieubalans/Milieuverkenningen. Discussiestuk

      van Liere L; Beurkens JEM; Leewis RJ; Medema GJ; de Nijs ACM; van Puijenbroek PJTM; Quarles van Ufford CHA; Wortelboer FG; LWD; LAE; LWL (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-09-30)
      In this report environmental indicators are being proposed for the water compartment to be presented in the Netherlands National Environmental Balance and the Environmental Outlook. Indicators are proposed for both fresh and saline waters. Fresh waters are classified in large rivers, canals and lakes of which the Ministry of Public Traffic and Waterworks is responsible for the water management, and regional waters under responsibility of regional water authorities. This latter group is subdivided in lakes, ditches, canals and brooks. Marine waters are treated separately. The environmental indicators are being thematically discussed (acidification, eutrophication and pollution). The emphasis in the report is laid on the construction of the chemical conditions for sustainable ecosystem development, although some salient biological features are brought forward where necessary to describe ecosystem effects. A special chapter is devoted to sediments. Some effects on the ecosystem are caused by more than one thematic actor. Those effects are dealt with in the chapter on multiple stress. A last chapter discusses the effects of the ecosystem on public health.<br>
    • Definitierapport indicatoren (water) bodemsanering/bodembescherming

      Franken ROG; Soczo ER; Bakker RHG; LBG (1996-06-30)
      For future versions of the integrated reports: Environmental Balance and Environmental Outlook, RIVM has chosen to present an overview of environmental issues, especially those related to actual and future environmental policies in the Netherlands. In terms of so-called target and related policy monitoring indicators. These environmental indicators are represented by a limited numbers of concise and appealing parameters to present the vast amount of information on environmental pressure and quality. This report defines Environmental indicators for the extent of soil pollution and the progress of soil remediation and of soil protection restricted to point sources. The most important gaps and discrepancies between definition of indicators and quantification (collecting data) are listed. It is concluded that for the present quantifying the majority of the listed indicators, for instance where information structures are lacking or relevant parameters are not collected, is not possible.