• De aanwezigheid van methyl tert-butylether (MTBE) in drinkwater en drinkwaterbronnen

      Morgenstern PP; de Korte GAL; Hogendoorn EA; Versteegh JFM; LWD; IEM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-06-21)
      In 2001 the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) in the Netherlands conducted a drinking water measurement programme in co-operation with the Netherlands Waterworks Association (VEWIN) for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in drinking water and the corresponding sources. This study, consisting of two sampling periods, shows a generally low concentration of MTBE in drinking water at the selected drinking water plants. The selection of sampling locations was based on the vulnerability of the water catchment area. Measurements in the June/July period showed a concentration of <0.01 ug/l in 22 samples of raw water; the average concentration was 0.07 ug/l and the highest 0.42 ug/l. The average concentration in drinking water in September/October was 0.09 ug/l and the maximum 2.9 ug/l. This maximum concentration was unusual, considering that the second highest value was 0.14 ug/l MTBE. The raw water (both groundwater and surface water) samples registered a concentration of <0.5 ug/l; the highest concentration in surface water was 3.2 ug/l. However, at one location a relatively high concentration (11.9 ug/l) was found in an individual groundwater well. This contamination could be attributed to a local source. The main conclusion here is that MTBE occurs in drinking water, although the concentrations are generally very low (<0.14 ug/l), with a maximum value of 2.9 ug/l. There are no effects on health expected. It is, however, recommended to screen for MTBE in groundwater at locations with a history of or experience with soil contamination. Taking precautions for future spills at petrol stations remains priority number one.<br>
    • De aanwezigheid van Pseudomonas aeruginosa in circulatiebaden in relatie tot de controle volgens de Wet Hygiene en Veiligheid Zwemgelegenheden

      Schijven JF; Havelaar AH (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1989-05-31)
      Door 8 externe laboratoria werden 133 buitenbaden en 340 binnenbaden onderzocht op aanwezigheid van Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Het betrof circulatiebaden, die periodiek volgens de eisen van het Besluit Hygiene en Veiligheid Zwemgelegenheden (BHVZ) werden gecontroleerd. Pseudomonas aeruginosa bleek slechts incidenteel voor te komen. Een concentratie vrij beschikbaar chloor groter dan 2 mg/l bij gebruik van cyanuurzuur en groter dan 0,5 mg/l zonder gebruik van cyanuurzuur bleken voldoende veiligheid te bieden tegen de aanwezigheid van Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Aanbevolen wordt geen meetverplichting voor Pseudomonas aeruginosa in circulatiebaden in te stellen, maar wel een norm of een streefwaarde, namelijk "niet aantoonbaar in 100 ml". Tevens wordt aanbevolen de ondergrens voor de concentratie vrij beschikbaar chloor te stellen op 0,5 mg/l, onafhankelijk van de pH. Ook wordt aanbevolen de nu geldende eis aan bacterien van de coligroep te laten vallen.<br>
    • Aanzet tot de ontwikkeling van een methode voor een kwantitatieve evaluatie van Gebiedsgericht Beleid

      Soest F van; LBG; CIM (1998-10-26)
      In most regions in the Netherlands where a regionally oriented policy has been introduced, this policy is still in the implementation stage and has, so far, hardly been monitored. The insight into the effect of a particular measure on environmental quality is little. Neither is it possible to relate measured environmental quality to single measures taken. Relationships need to be established to obtain insight into the cost-effectiveness of environmental measures. In this study, to develop a method for the quantitative evaluation of regionally oriented environmental policy using two regions to which this policy has been applied, relatively straightforward estimations and calculations were made of emission reductions resulting from measures taken. Geostatistical analyses were applied to two sampling grids, one designed for a whole province and the other for a specific region. Although the calculations and the geostatistical analyses provided insight into the way monitoring data can be used, the results of the calculations and the geostatistical analyses were not directly comparable. Applying simple models might provide a solution to this problem. Models that are well calibrated and validated for specific regions can be used to calculate the effects of a single measure on environmental quality. If reliable results are achieved, modelling can replace part of the monitoring on quality. However, it will always be necessary to check the results periodically.
    • Aanzet tot een bevestigingsmethode voor de detectie van residuen van sulfonamiden in vlees

      Wijnands LM; Janssens H; Engel HWB (1991-06-30)
      A first step towards a chemical multi-method for the detection of residues of sulphonamides in various types of meat is described. The method is based on an extraction with ethyl-acetate, clean-up by a silica column and an anion exchange column, derivatisation by diazomethane (methylation) and pentafluoropropionic acid anhydride (acylation) and detection by a gas-chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector. The requirement of a detection level of 0.1 ppm was met for five sulphonamides added singularly or in combination to pork, beef and veal. Investigations in chicken presented difficulties with the background noise, particularly where sulphanilamide was involved. Whereas research priorities were put elsewhere and investigations concerning sulphonamides were stopped, this report was made up to serve as a basis for further research.
    • Aard en omvang van complicaties van gastrostomata bij ernstig meervoudig gehandicapten

      van Tienhoven EAE; Hilbers ESM; van Halteren AR; BMT (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2003-08-28)
      Gastrostomy is a procedure that involves placing a tube into a person's stomach through the abdominal wall to provide long-term nutritional support. While the procedure increases the quality of life, it is also associated with several complications. A survey among members of the Netherlands Society of Physicians for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities (NVAVG) has been performed to identify the incidence and nature of the complications in intellectually disabled persons in the Netherlands. A total of 77 questionnaires were completed, representing about one-third of all the questionnaires sent out. Eighty per cent of the respondent physicians who work with severely intellectually disabled persons had to deal with complications in the last five years. Two hundred complications, which reflects about 200 patients, were observed in this period. Most complications can be classified as minor. The most frequently observed are obstruction of the tube and granuloma formation. However, major complications, such as peritonitis and aspiration pneumonia, were reported frequently. In addition, in the last five years 13 physicians had observed deaths that were most likely related to gastrostomy. Due to the design of the study, the low response to the questionnaire and the lack of information on the total number of intellectually disabled persons with a gastrostomy, it was not possible to calculate the percentage of persons who experienced a complication. A prospective follow-up study is necessary to examine how the different complications are caused. It would also be advisable to develop a national, harmonised protocol to try to slow down the rate of complications.
    • Aardappelverwerkende industrie

      Etman EJ; Post JG (1994-01-31)
      This document on Potato-processing industry has been published within the SPIN-project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licences.
    • De aarde als onze provisiekast, een inventarisatie van voorraden en hun onderlinge samenhang

      Annema JA; Hoek PWM van den; Ros JPM (1993-03-31)
      This report contains general information on some important aspects of natural resources, like the total number, handling and rate of exploitation, increase and functions. Four main natural resource categories are distinguished: chemical elements and bulk minerals, energy carriers, environmental resources (e.g. high quality air and soil) and bioresources (e.g. wood, fish, biodiversity). Resources are nearly always related to each other. Therefore, in finding solutions to exploit our natural resources in a less wasteful way, there are risks of shifting problems from one resource to another. Some preliminary exercises with scenarios indicate that in the next century limits could be reached. This could mean a shortage of soil to fulfill all functions, but also a shortage of energy carriers or certain ores. It is improbable that merely improving technology is sufficient to avoid reaching limits.
    • Absence of Trichinellosis in the Netherlands

      Knapen F van (1991-09-30)
      Endemic clinical Trichinella spiralis infections in man in the Netherlands have not been observed since many decades. Incidentally imported infections may be identified. Population studies with sensitive direct and serological methods indicate no infection in dutch residents. T.spiralis infections in pigs in the Netherlands can not be demonstrated by trichinoscopy. More sensitive methods introduced after 1961 demonstrated incidental low degree infection spread all over the country. The change in pig husbandry almost excludes the transmission of T.spiralis to pigs in the Netherlands. A permanent epizootiological surveillance of 0.5 to 1% of the total pig population in the Netherlands since 1979 and direct control measurements on selected farms indicate that no T.spiralis infection occur in the Dutch pig population. Incidentally in wildlife in the Netherlands (wild boars, foxes) the existance of a sylvatic lifecycle can be demonstrated. It seems justified, based on the conclusions above mentioned, to certify that port from animals raised in the Netherlands is free from trichinella. The information coming from the relative unsensitive pooled sample digestion method to prevent T.spiralis infection is not indicative for T.spiralis infection perse, but excludes relatively severe infections which may cause illness in man. Therefore, the permanent epizootiological surveillance as carried out in the Netherlands since 1979, should replace the traditional regulations soon.
    • Acceptatie tests O3-monitoren, fabrikaat Thermo Environmental Instruments model 49W, ten behoeve van het Landelijk Meetnet Luchtkwaliteit

      Uiterwijk JW; Regts TA; Meulen A van der (1993-06-30)
      This report describes the results of the acceptance procedure of the 49 ozone analyzers, model 49W, based on the UV-photometric absorption technique, supplied by Thermo Environmental Instruments. The acceptance procedure is an adapted version of "Perchar". These instruments are the replacements for the original Philips, model PW9771 monitors, based on the chemiluminescent reaction of ozone and Rhodamine-B, in the "Landelijk Meetnet Luchtkwaliteit". (National Air Quality Monitoring Network)
    • Acceptatie- en statustesten van radiodiagnostische apparatuur. Aanbevelingen voor te inspecteren parameters

      Bijwaard H; Brugmans MJP; LSO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-10-29)
      In the absence of Dutch guidelines for the quality control of modern (digital) X-ray equipment, crucial equipment parameters have been identified for commissioning and performance testing. Commissioning and performance testing are an essential part of the quality assurance of X-ray equipment. This quality assurance should contribute to an adequate image quality for an accurate diagnosis and a low radiation dose for the patient. A detailed review of commissioning and performance testing in the Netherlands was carried out for the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate. As these tests are often very limited in current Dutch practice, a comprehensive list of test parameters was compiled, based largely on international guidelines and literature. Parameters known to regularly exhibit shortcomings were identified from this list. A considerable number of these are related to image quality, which is essential for an accurate diagnosis. The parameters that directly affect the patient dose are crucial for patient safety. International standards from the literature can be used for several of these parameters until up-to-date Dutch guidelines have been compiled.
    • Acceptatierapport FAG FH62 I-N beta-stofmonitoren

      Venema J; Meulen A van der; Elzakker BG; Regts TA (1992-10-31)
      22 FAG FH62 I-N beta-dust monitors have been subjected to an acceptance test. This test involved a check on the proper functioning of: the mechanical parts, the status signals, the measuring signals, the command signals, noise levels and flowcontrol, as well as a temperature test. The defects and peculiarities which showed up are registered and mentioned in this report. In general the results were satisfying and the monitors have passed the test without many problems.
    • Acceptatierapport van 17 SX200 zwarte rook monitoren

      Hijink BM; MON; LLO (2002-04-05)
      In this Report the results of an acceptance research for 17 new ETL SX200 Black Smoke monitors is presented. The new monitors are compared with the LML method EEL43. The new monitor is an automated instrument, serving to replace present manual LML monitors. It is more advanced and more stable than the LML method that needed a lot of maintenance. The new monitors are measuring more or less equal concentrations with the LML method. The average difference between the new method and the LML method is 1.4 micro g/m3. The SX200 produces lower concentrations than the LML method. The standard deviation between identical co-located automated monitors is circa 0.5 micro g/m3, well below the LML requirement of 1 micro g/m3. The main reason for the difference between both systems is the difference in flow. The flow from the LML method usually is 5% higher. This has a direct influence on the concentration. The LML method has a human factor included in the measuring of the filters afterwards. This sometimes produces big differences. Furthermore the precision of the SX200 is ten times better. Due to the results of this research the monitors are accepted and installed in the LML.
    • Accessibility measures: review and applications. Evaluation of accessibility impacts of land-use transportation scenarios, and related social and economic impact

      Geurs KT; Ritsema van Eck JR; LAE (Universiteit Utrecht-URU, 2001-06-09)
      This report describes an extensive literature study and three case studies aimed at reviewing accessibility measures for their ability to evaluate the accessibility impacts of national land-use and transport scenarios, and related social and economic impacts. Several activity- and utility-based accessibility measures were computed to analyse job accessibility by car and public transport in the Netherlands for: (1) the (base) year 1995, (2) a Trend, or business-as-usual, scenario, representing the continuation of (restrictive) Dutch land-use policies and historical land-use trends for 1995-2020, (2) a Tolerant scenario, representing a land-use scenario, in which consumers' housing preferences determine land-use developments for 1995-2020. The scenarios are based on calculations using national land-use models and a national transport model. The main conclusion arising from this study is that the current Dutch practice of evaluating the (infrastructure-based) accessibility impacts of (land-use) transport projects, plans or scenarios can be improved by estimating activity-based accessibility measures, using existing land-use and transport data, and/or models. Activity-based accessibility measures are very well able to analyse accessibility impacts, satisfactorily incorporate the different components of accessibility (i.e. the transport, land-use, temporal and individual components) and serve as a useful tool for analysing social impacts. Utility-based accessibility measures may provide a useful basis for economic evaluations of land-use transport scenarios, but further research is necessary to analyse the added value to existing evaluation methods.
    • Accumulatie van metalen in planten, een bijdrage aan de evaluatie van de interventiewaarden en locatiespecifieke risicobeoordeling van verontreinigde bodem

      Versluijs CW; Otte PF; LBG (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-02-25)
      The intake of contaminants through the human consumption of crops grown on contaminated land is one of the exposure routes in the standard calculation of the Dutch intervention values for soil remediation. This appeared to be a major exposure route in the standard calculation of potentential human risks of soil contamination with metals. This literature study focused on evaluating the estimation of the bioconcentration of contaminating metals in the crops growing on contaminated land. For this estimation of potential risks the subject was narrowed down to estimating average values of the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of metals in consumed parts of crops grown in home gardens and for various soil types, including standard soil. Data collected from the literature (n=2260) were restricted to field data on existing contamination and excluded pot experiments, hydroculture and artificial contamination. BCF values were calculated for individual crops and an average consumption basket. For the calculation of intervention values, the BCF values had to be standardized to standard soil and soil concentrations near to the expected intervention values. To facilitate this standardization, a range of empirical relationships was calculated for variations in the BCF values of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn with the parameters - soil concentration, soil acidity and percentages of organic carbon and silt in the soil. These relationships are also useful in a location specific actual risk analysis for a site with specific crops and known soiltype. The results of several calculation schemes were compared considering sometimes occurring uncertainties, like data not completely covering the required ranges of soil concentrations and soil type parameters. In this case extrapolations were avoided in favour of a 'worst case' riskestimation. In cases were the relationships were not significant we used geometric means.
    • De accumulatie van sporen metalen in groenten geteeld op verontreinigde bodems. Een literatuurstudie

      Bockting G; van den Berg R (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1992-12-31)
      In the frame of a revision of the Dutch Guideline for Soil Protection a review of the literature concerning trace element contents of vegetables grown on polluted soil is presented. The elements considered were arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, copper, mercury, lead, molybdenum, nickel, tin, and zinc. The content of each of these elements in a vegetable may vary widely. Furthermore, different vegetable species may differ in trace element uptake. Even if we consider the accumulation of only one element in one kind of vegetable, it is difficult to predict plant contents from soil contents, because of the great number of factors that influence accumulation. These factors may be distinguished into soil and plant bound factors. The factors that appear to be important from the literature are summarized. Furthermore, all available data with respect to trace elements contents of vegetables grown on polluted soils (preferably under field conditions), are brought together in this report. Finally, biological concentration factors (BCFs) for the transfer of trace elements from soil to vegetables were proposed. Here a distinction was made between BCFs for potatoes, that make up a large part of our diet, and other vegetables. The content of a number of elements in vegetables appeared to be limited due to phytotoxicity.<br>
    • De accumulatie van zeldzame aardmetalen in planten. Een literatuurstudie

      Rikken MGJ; ACT (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-12-31)
      Dit rapport bevat de resultaten van een literatuuronderzoek naar de accumulatie van zeldzame aardmetalen (ZA) in planten, als onderdeel van een inventariserend onderzoek naar de overdracht van ZA in de keten kunstmest - bodem - plant - vee en mens. De gehalten in planten kunnen sterk verschillen, waarbij zowel plantfactoren als bodemfactoren het gehalte bepalen. De gehalten (drooggewicht) van zeldzame aardmetalen in planten zijn over het algemeen laag: < 0,2 mg/kg voor wortel- en bladgroenten, < 0,05 mg/kg in de meeste vruchten en < 1 mg/kg in kruiden/grassen. Verder blijkt dat ZA in geringe mate worden geaccumuleerd in gewassen. De op grond van de gegevens voor (vee)voedergewassen bepaalde bioconcentratiefactoren (BCF) liggen meestal tussen de 0,001 en 0,1. Voor voedingsgewassen liggen de meeste BCF-waarden tussen de 0,0001 en 0,01, een factor 10 lager dan die voor voedergewassen.
    • De accumulatie van zeldzame aardmetalen in planten. Een literatuurstudie

      Rikken MGJ; ACT (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-12-31)
      This report summarizes literature data on the accumulation of rare earth metals (RE) in plants, as a part of the investigation of data on the transfer of rare earth metals in the chain artificial fertilizers - soil - crops - livestock and man. The concentration and accumulation in plants can differ as a consequence of both plant factors and soil factors. The concentrations in plants (dry weight) of RE are in general low: < 0.2 mg/kg for root- and leaf vegetables, < 0.05 mg/kg in most fruits and < 1 mg/kg in herbs/grasses. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) for RE are usually within the range of 0.001 to 0.1 for feed crops and 0.0001 to 0.01 for food crops, indicating a low accumulation potential, especially in food crops.<br>
    • Accumulation of phytosterols in food. Evaluation of the adverse effects following the intake of high dose of phytosterols

      van Amsterdam JGC; Opperhuizen A; Jansen EHJM; TOX (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2005-07-14)
      Phytosterol-enriched foods (sterol or stanol esters) decrease plasma LDL in healthy and hypercholesterolaemic individuals; a daily intake of 1-3 g plant sterols lowers LDL levels by about 5-15%. Higher intake of phytosterols is not more effective.Phytosterols are poorly absorbed and retain no systemic toxicological effects i.e. no endocrine, teratogenic, mutagenic or carcinogenic effects. However, plant sterols and stanols interfere with the absorption of beta-carotenoids, but virtualy not the plasma levels of other fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin A, D, E and tocopherols. One-year consumption of margarine enriched with phytosterol (3 g per day) decreased plasma beta-carotenoid by 33%. The consequences of such a persistent decrease of blood concentrations of beta-carotene on human health are largely unknown. No serious concern can be deduced regarding the role of beta-carotene as a vitamin A precursor, except in cases where the vitamin A requirement is larger than normal, like in pregnancy, lactation or infancy. The available data on adverse effects do not provide a basis for setting an upper level of total daily intake of phytosterols but considering the observed maximal effective dose for cholesterol lowering is 2-3 g/day and the lack of long-term studies, it is prudent to avoid plant sterol intakes exceeding this dose. Since a number of foods appear as potential candidates to be enriched with plant sterols, additional management measures may be needed to avoid excessive intakes.
    • The accumulation of soil contaminants in crops, location-specific calculation based on the CSOIL module. Part I Evaluation and suggestions for model development

      Versluijs CW; Koops R; Kreule P; Waitz MFW; LBG (1998-04-30)
      In relation tot the decision to undertake remedial action on a site the possibilities are reviewed of location-specific estimations of human exposure by consumption of crops grown on that site. The model CSOIL is used for the calculation of the Dutch intervention values on basis of assessment of potential risks. The plant module of CSOIL (v. 7.1) is used as a basis to develop the aspect of accumulation in plants from potential to actual risk-assessment. According to calculations with CSOIL for about half of the reviewed soil contaminants the total estimated human exposure is based for 80% or more on the consumption of crops from the contaminated area. In this report the main attention is given to the impact of soil parameters on the amounts of soil contaminants in consumed crops and the choice of crops in the model. Alternative models are reviewed. For metals the German UMS model seems to be useful. For organic contaminants the description of the transport of compounds to plant stems and leaves is a weak point in the CSOIL module. This part can possibly be improved for leafy crops by applying the Trapp en Matthiess model. This model is also being used in the EUSES-model (European Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances), but is not yet validated.
    • Ace Inhibitors and Angioedema

      Vleeming W; van Amsterdam JGC; de Wildt DJ; Stricker B; TOX (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-09-30)
      This report examines available data concerning the risks of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor therapy, paying particular attention to angioedema. Relevant publications were identified mainly through a MEDLINE search. Inhibitors of ACE are used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure. The first part is mainly directed to the pharmacological properties of ACE-inhibitors, the prevalence and description of angioedema. The second part supplies information on mechanisms probably involved in development of (ACE inhibitor-induced) angioedema. Angioedema is not common (0.1-0.2%) but a potentially life-threatening adverse effect of ACE therapy. It is a class effect of ACE inhibitors and has been reported to occur after the first dose as well as after prolonged exposure. Treatment includes immediate withdrawal of the ACE inhibitor and maintenance of an adequate airway function followed by adrenaline and sometimes antihistamines and corticosteroids. ACE inhibitors not only block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II but also decrease the catabolism of bradykinin and substance P. All reviewed reports suggest a relation between ACE inhibitor induced angioedema and increased levels of (tissue) bradykinin. An exclusive role of bradykinin in angioedema, however, has not been proven. Therefore, other mediators or stimuli involved in inflammation, including substance P, leukotrienes, prostaglandins, platelet activating factor (PAF), histamine, endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF) and physical stimuli are also believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of angioedema. Additionally, ACE gene polymorphism and some enzyme deficiencies are proposed to be involved in ACE inhibitor induced angioedema. There seems to be no evidence for an immune-mediated pathogenesis. Angioedema remains an incompletely understood phenomenon. New insights into this complex issue are necessary to define the pathogenic role of kinin accumulation, eicosanoid generation and pharmaco-genetics in ACE inhibitor-induced angioedema. Further study should focus on epidemiology in patients with angioedema on ACE-inhibitors in combination with pharmacogenetics and on the pathogenic role of mediators which are proposed to be involved in ACE inhibitor induced angioedema.<br>