• Quantitative risk profile for viruses in foods

      Bouwknegt M; Verhaelen K; de Roda Husman AM; Rutjes SA; MLU; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2013-05-01)
      Viruses, similar to bacteria, can pose a risk to human health when present in food, but comparatively little is known about them in this context. In a study aimed at the health risks posed by viruses in food products, the RIVM has inventoried both current knowledge and pertinent information that is lacking. The inventory, which is presented in this report as a so-called risk profile, focuses on three viruses that can be transmitted to humans through food consumption. These are the hepatitis A viruses in shellfish, noroviruses in fresh fruits and vegetables and hepatitis E viruses in pork. The study was commissioned by the Dutch Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority. General findings he general finding is that to date it has been difficult to obtain a reliable estimation of the number of viruses in food products. This is partly due to large differences in the methodologies currently used to detect viruses in food products. However, accurate information on the number of viruses in a food product is crucial to a reliable estimate of the health risk. The probability that any one person becomes infected increases with an increasing number of contaminated products, or with an increasing number of viruses per product. The shortcomings of the methods currently used to make such estimations are identified in this report, and recommendations are made for improvements that will enable a more realistic determination. Factors that increase the likelihood of food becoming contaminated with viruses during production or processing were also studied. For raw or fragile products, such as oysters, or fresh fruits and vegetables, viruses are not inactivated by heating because the foods are not cooked before consumption. Specific findings on the studied viruses With respect to fresh produce, it is important to estimate how many noroviruses come into direct contact with the fruits and vegetables through the irrigation system. Another possible but important source that needs to be characterized is the transfer of viruses from hands or tools to the food product during harvesting and/or processing. For hepatitis E virus, it is important to know how many pigs are infected at the time of slaughter as this could result in contaminated pork products. If the hepatitis E virus infection occurs months before slaughter, the pigs would likely have recovered by the time of slaughter and the products would not represent a health risk to the consumer. It is also important to determine the number of hepatitis E viruses per product. In terms of shellfish, it is relevant to know how many viruses are present in the surface waters in which they are cultured and the extent to which they remain in the shellfish up to the moment of consumption.
    • A query for Coxiella in veterinary and environmental matrices

      de Bruin A; van Rotterdam BJ; LZO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2011-05-31)
      Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, is a zoonosis with a worldwide distribution that affects both humans and animals. In 2007, 2008, and 2009 large community outbreaks of Q fever were observed in the Netherlands. In 2008, several studies were started to investigate potential sources of C. burnetii infection and possible transmission routes. Temporal studies focussed on C. burnetii DNA content on farms, and their direct surroundings. Coxiella burnetii was found in veterinary and environmental samples obtained from a single farm, with an abortion wave among its goats in April 2007, during two successive years of Q fever outbreaks in 2007 and 2008. Within the Q fever outbreak of 2009, investigations at one location in Zuid-Limburg over a 16 week-interval demonstrated that the C. burnetii DNA content in both veterinary and environmental samples declined over time after the initial wave of abortions among goats. Although a decline of the C. burnetii DNA content was observed, environmental and veterinary samples were still found to be positive up to several months after the abortion wave at the farm. Human outbreak linked source investigations focussed on veterinary and environmental matrices on farms, which in previous studies were found to contain the highest C. burnetii DNA content. These matrices included vaginal swabs from animals and surface area swabs from horizontal surfaces, to investigate the potential link between the putative Q fever-affected goat farms and (clusters of) human Q fever cases in the near vicinity of these farms. Screening results for vaginal swabs obtained from goats and/or sheep are consistent with results for surface area swabs taken on the same farm.
    • Quick scan and Prioritization of Microplastic Sources and Emissions

      Verschoor A; de Poorter L; Roex E; Bellert B; MSP; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMDeltaresRijkswaterstaat : Department for WaterTraffic and the Environment, 2014-12-17)
      This report presents an inventory of land-borne sources of microplastics that may end up in sea. Microplastics are particles smaller than 5 mm and may enter the food chain. Sources can be products, production process or routes along which they are transported via rivers to the sea. Subsequently these sources are prioritized. Based on the prioritization policy plans can be developed to reduce the amount of microplastics in the environment. More research is required to underpin and specify measures. <br>Five criteria were used for the prioritization: volume of the emission, essentiality of the source, possibility of quick win measures, social perception and presence of alternatives for the consumer.<br> <br>High priority was assigned to sources of secondary microplastics, i.e. microplastics that result from fragmentation of larger plastics. Plastic debris, which consists largely of packaging materials and disposable products is the most important source of microplastics (score 8-9 on a scale from 1-10). Other secondary microplastic sources with a relatively high score (score 6-7) are fibres and clothing, roadway runoff (including tire dust), dust from construction places, agricultural plastic and input from abroad via the rivers Rhine, Meuse and Scheldt. Also waste water, sewage sludge and compost received a relatively high score (score 6), because they contain primary as well as secondary microplastics from a variety of sources with emissions to the sewer system, such as households that emit fibres through the washing machine and microbeads used for personal care and cosmetic purposes. <br> <br>For the primary microplastics, which are intentionally added to products for specific functions, the highest priorities were assigned to cosmetics and pigments and paints (score 7), followed by abrasive cleaning agents (score 6).<br> <br>A complete socio-economic analysis could not be performed on short notice because of limited availability of data. Moreover, the impacts of microplastic exposure for man and environment are not clear. The priorities were assigned based on the Dutch situation by expert judgement offered by representatives of RIVM, Deltares, Rijkswaterstaat and the Dutch Pollutant Release and Transfer Register.<br>
    • Quick scan effectiviteit en doelmatigheid van het natuurbeleid

      Lammers W; Kruitwagen S; Kuindersma W; Oostenbrugge R van; Stolwijk H; Veeneklaas F; MNV (AlterraCPB, 2002-07-24)
      This report presents the results of a quick scan of the effectivitiy and efficiency of the implemented and proposed measures which are part of the nature policy of the Dutch government. It concentrates on the questions of the Ministry of Agriculture, Nature management and Fisheries and the Ministry of Finance which are the result of a motion accepted by the Dutch parliament. After a short description of a number of (autonomous) trends in society and environment, five policy instruments are evaluated: the National Ecological Network, nature in and around cities, management of small natural elements in rural areas, optimization of environmental conditions for nature areas and legal protection of existing nature areas. For each policy instrument an overview is presented of the objectives, results, and strong and weak points in the process of implementation of the instruments. The efficiency aspect has only been touched upon. With the data that are currently available it is not possible to systematically assess the efficiency of each of the policy instruments. The report is completed by discussing a number of alternative options for realisation of the national nature policy objectives.
    • Quick scan effectiviteit en doelmatigheid van het natuurbeleid

      Lammers W; Kruitwagen S; Kuindersma W; Oostenbrugge R van; Stolwijk H; Veeneklaas F; Alterra; CPB; MNV (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-07-24)
      Er is een quick scan van de effectiviteit en doelmatigheid van uitgevoerde en voorgenomen maatregelen in het Nederlandse natuurbeleid uitgevoerd. Het beantwoordt vragen die zijn gesteld door het ministerie van Landbouw, Natuurbeheer en Visserij en het ministerie van Financien, mede naar aanleiding van de door de Tweede Kamer aangenomen motie over het Natuuroffensief. Na een korte beschrijving van een aantal (autonome) maatschappelijke trends wordt een vijftal beleidsinstrumenten geanalyseerd: de ecologische hoofdstructuur, groen in en om de stad, agrarisch natuurbeheer, effectgerichte milieumaatregelen en bescherming van bestaande natuur. Per instrument is nagegaan wat de doelstelling is, wat is bereikt en wat de sterke en zwakke punten zijn die bij de uitvoering van het beleid naar voren komen. De vraag naar de doelmatigheid (kosteneffectiviteit) is summier beantwoord. Met de nu beschikbare gegevens kan deze vraag niet systematisch per beleidsinstrument worden geanalyseerd. Het rapport sluit af met een aantal alternatieve opties voor het realiseren van de doelen van het natuurbeleid.
    • Quick scan milieu-effecten Nota Mobiliteit

      Geurs KT; Annema JA; Brink RMM van den; RIM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-11-25)
      Dit rapport beschrijft een quick scan van de milieu-effecten van beleidsvarianten uit de Nota Mobiliteit om de bereikbaarheid en betrouwbaarheid van het wegennet te verbeteren. De belangrijkste conclusies zijn als volgt. De twee prijsvarianten uit de Nota Mobiliteit leveren bereikbaarheidswinst op en in beperkte mate milieuwinst. De vormgeving van de variabilisatie-variant is van grote invloed op de uiteindelijke omvang van de milieuwinst. Daarnaast wil het rijk investeren in het onderliggende wegennet als dit een oplossing biedt voor bereikbaarheidsproblemen op snelwegen en als het kosteneffectief is. Het verdient aanbeveling om in de besluitvorming over investeringen in het onderliggende wegennet ook expliciet rekening te houden met de ruimtelijke, milieu en sociale effecten van deze investeringen om mogelijke afwenteling van problemen naar het onderliggend wegennet te voorkomen. In de uitwerking van de Nota Mobiliteit in de plannen van de decentrale overheden lijkt het verder van belang aandacht te besteden geluidsknelpunten. Het aantal geluidsknelpunten langs provinciale wegen neemt zonder aanvullende maatregelen fors toe. Tenslotte is nader onderzoek aan te bevelen naar de prioritering van bouwprojecten binnen de onderzochte investeringspakketten in combinatie met prijsbeleid. Goed gekozen combinaties van beprijzen en benutten kunnen de noodzaak tot aanleg van nieuwe traces mogelijk beperken, negatieve effecten op natuur/landschap beperken, en hogere netto maatschappelijke baten opleveren.
    • Quick scan milieu-effecten Nota Mobiliteit

      Geurs KT; Annema JA; Brink RMM van den; RIM (2004-11-25)
      This report documents an analysis of the environmental impacts of policy proposals taken up in the new Dutch National Transport Policy Document for improvement of accessibility and reliability of the main motorway network in the Netherlands. Major conclusions drawn from this analysis are that pricing policies proposed in the policy document effectively improve accessibility and reduce environmental impacts due to road traffic. The size of environmental benefits of the proposed kilometre charge, however, is determined by the final design of the policy measure. Furthermore, the policy document proposes secondary road expansion be state-funded if this would mean a contribution to reducing congestion on the main motorway network. However, before state-funding is decided, more research on the costs and benefits of secondary road network expansion is necessary, including the transfer of environmental and social problems from the main motorway network to the secondary road network. Furthermore, it would seem important to have local and regional authorities pay attention to noise hotspots in their transport policy development, since without additional measures, the number of noise hotspots along secondary roads will sharply increase. Finally, further research on giving priority to infrastructure projects within the proposed infrastructure investment in combination with pricing policies packages is recommended. Combinations of pricing and expanding existing infrastructure may reduce the need to construct new motorway links, reduce negative impacts on nature conservation areas and rural landscapes, and result in higher net economic benefits.
    • Quick Scan van de Beleidsnota Verkeersemissies

      Brink RMM van den; Bree L van; Annema JA; Hoen A; MNP (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-10-01)
      Het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP-RIVM) heeft een evaluatie uitgevoerd van de Beleidsnota Verkeersemissies. Deze nota is op 18 juni 2004 door het kabinet aangenomen en is in november 2004 behandeld in de Tweede Kamer. De belangrijkste conclusies van de evaluatie zijn: - NOx-doel sector verkeer haalbaar, maar onder veel voorbehouden; - Stimulering van biobrandstoffen is niet kosteneffectief; - Stimulering van roetfilters is kosteneffectief.
    • Quick Scan van de Beleidsnota Verkeersemissies

      van den Brink RMM; van Bree L; Annema JA; Hoen A; MNP (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-10-01)
      Evaluation of the Dutch policy document 'Transport emissions' by the Environmental Assessment Agency has led to three conclusions. First, the NOx goal for the transport sector for 2010 is achievable with the adopted policy proposals, but implementation is uncertain (for example, it is uncertain if all policy plans will be implemented between now and 2010). Secondly, the proposal to stimulate biofuels is not cost-effective. Thirdly, monetized health benefits in the proposal to stimulate particle filters in passenger cars are cost-effective, particularly in built-up areas.
    • Quick scan van mogelijke gevolgen en effectiviteit van zoneringsvarianten rond VHR en WAV

      Hinsberg A van; Noordijk H; Esbroek MLP van; Pul WAJ van; Lammers W; NLB; LDL (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2003-09-19)
      Dit rapport evalueert met een quick scan methode een aantal beleidsvarianten voor zonering rond VHR en WAV-gebieden, wat betreft de effectiviteit inzake de bescherming van natuurgebieden. Tevens wordt ingegaan op de mogelijke risico's van de beleidsvarianten. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat voor realisatie van de gestelde natuurdoelen (inclusief Habitatrichtlijn verplichtingen), los van de discussie over zoneringsmaatregelen, het terugdringen van de hoge achtergronddepositie met generiek beleid een conditio sine qua non is. De zoneringsvarianten kunnen wel een afwaartse beweging van landbouw ten opzichte van natuur ingang zetten. Bovendien kan zonering, mits resulterend in emissiereductie, een bijdrage leveren aan de aanpak van lokale 'hot spots', waar hoge natuurwaarde worden beinvloed door hoge lokale emissiebronnen.
    • Quick scan van mogelijke gevolgen en effectiviteit van zoneringsvarianten rond VHR en WAV

      van Hinsberg A; Noordijk H; Esbroek MLP; van Pul WAJ; Lammers W; NLB; LDL (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2003-09-19)
      Dit rapport evalueert met een quick scan methode een aantal beleidsvarianten voor zonering rond VHR en WAV-gebieden, wat betreft de effectiviteit inzake de bescherming van natuurgebieden. Tevens wordt ingegaan op de mogelijke risico's van de beleidsvarianten. Uit de resultaten blijkt dat voor realisatie van de gestelde natuurdoelen (inclusief Habitatrichtlijn verplichtingen), los van de discussie over zoneringsmaatregelen, het terugdringen van de hoge achtergronddepositie met generiek beleid een conditio sine qua non is. De zoneringsvarianten kunnen wel een afwaartse beweging van landbouw ten opzichte van natuur ingang zetten. Bovendien kan zonering, mits resulterend in emissiereductie, een bijdrage leveren aan de aanpak van lokale 'hot spots', waar hoge natuurwaarde worden beinvloed door hoge lokale emissiebronnen.<br>
    • Quick Scan, Groen/Blauwe effecten woningbouwlocaties Deltametropool

      Kuiper R; Niet de R; Nijs de ACM; RIM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-02-24)
      Het Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau (MNP-RIVM) heeft in overleg met het Ministerie van VROM een Quick Scan verricht van de groen/ blauwe effecten van verschillende verstedelijkingsopties voor de Deltametropool. De conclusie stemt overeen met die uit de grote hoeveelheid studies die reeds eerder op dit terrein zijn verricht: bouwlocaties in het Groene Hart en verspreide verstedelijkingsvarianten leveren de meeste aantasting van groene en blauwe waarden op.
    • Quick Scan, Groen/Blauwe effecten woningbouwlocaties Deltametropool

      Kuiper R; de Niet R; de Nijs ACM; RIM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2004-02-24)
      In consultation with the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment (VROM), the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (MNP) has carried out a QuickScan of the nature, landscape and water-management effects of different urban housing options in the Delta Metropolis, the area in the west of the Netherlands dominated by the Rhine and Meuse River deltas, also known as the Randstad conurbation. The outcome of this Quick Scan, namely, that building locations (and especially the urban sprawl) in the Green Heart will have the most serious effects on the green (nature & landscape) and blue (water management) values, agrees with conclusions from a large number of earlier studies done in this field.
    • Quickscan gezondheidsrisico's van werken met grond die hergebruikte bouwstoffen bevat : Quick scan on human health risks of working with soil that contains recycled building materials

      Versluijs CW; Bakker J; Janssen PJCM; Dekkers S; Brand E; MBW; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2013-04-25)
      Construction workers who come into contact with contaminated soil may be exposed to hazardous substances. This may lead to adverse health effects. This situation can also occur if soil contains recycled building materials. Recycled building materials consist of by-products from production processes or processed waste materials and may contain contaminants. Based on a quick scan of the RIVM there appears to be limited data to evaluate the nature and extent of the occurrence of adverse health effects amongst workers who work with soil that contains recycled building materials. So far, the health risks seem to be particularly high in those situations where a large amount of particles, such as dust, are dispersed into the air, or where soil comes in direct contact with the skin. Further research on measures needed Whether and to which extent health effects actually occur depends on the extent of the contamination of the recycled building materials, the level of exposure and the measures taken to reduce the exposure. An example of such a measure is keeping the soil humid to prevent dispersion of particles in the air. It is therefore important that employers know in which situations and with which measures the exposure of workers can be reduced. Further research on the use of exposure reducing measures is needed. Six important recycled building materials This quick scan provides an overview of the six most important recycled building materials and the contaminants therein. It concerns asphalt granules, MSWI bottom ash and slag (residues from municipal solid waste incineration plants), sludge, mixed granulates (of concrete or rubble), crusher- or sieved sand (residual products when crushing rubble), slightly contaminated soil, and E-fly ash (residue of pulverized coal-fire power plants). Activities with high risks Furthermore, an inventory is made of those activities with the highest risk of adverse health effects. The highest risks of adverse health effects are expected when insufficient risk management measures are taken when E-fly ash, crusheror sieved sand are lifted, loaded and unloaded. A similar situation can occur if land is sprayed with dredged sludge. Finally, the risk is also high if insufficient measures are being taken when manually digging of MSWI bottom ash, sludge, E-fly ash or contaminated soil takes place.
    • Quickscan interventies voor sportblessurepreventie

      Hoogendoorn M; Wendel-Vos W; Schaars D; van den Berg M; P&V; V&Z (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2015-12-14)
      To reduce the increasing amount of sports injuries in The Netherlands, the importance of effective injury prevention programs is emphasized. Therefore, research on the effectiveness of these interventions is recommended and more effort is needed to enhance the reach and uptake of sports injury prevention. This is the result of a quickscan of the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in collaboration with the Netherlands Institute for Sport and Physical Activity. Among the Dutch population, 75% practice sports at least once a month. However, annually, more than 4.5 million sports injuries occur and this number is rising. To reverse this negative trend, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport commissioned ZonMw to develop a sports injury prevention program. In the context of this program a concise overview was made reporting recent (scientific) literature and expert experiences on the topic of sports injury prevention with a specific focus on the sports in which most injuries occur: soccer, running, fitness, tennis and volleyball. Based on experiences in The Netherlands as well as findings in international literature, our findings suggest that the number of interventions for which evidence of effectiveness is present, is low. For successful implementation, prevention activities need to match athletes' perceptions. Presenting preventive exercises using a ball for soccer players for example or providing specific exercises aiming to improve running techniques for runners. The negative image injuries seem to have represents a major barrier to gaining attention for injury prevention and addressing injury prevention interventions. To address this barrier, 'positive framing' pointing out fun and performance enhancement, is advised. This can be done, for instance, with intervention programs aiming to reduce injuries, as well as enhance performance or by incorporating preventive exercises in a game.
    • Quickscan van stoffen met niet gerealiseerde emissiereducties uit het Doelgroepbeleid Milieu en Industrie

      Bakker J; IMG (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2011-12-19)
      In a Quickscan study the RIVM has examined how much the Dutch industry contributes to the release of 14 substances to air or water. Furthermore the RIVM has investigated to what extent the measured concentrations of these substances in the environment exceed the environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The Quickscan was requested because the government and industry sectors had agreed by contract to reduce the release of priority substances to air and water in 2010. The industry sectors have not yet been able to achieve the agreed reduction levels for the 14 substances. Four out of the fourteen substances do not meet the maximum permissible concentration level or the limit value for air quality on the regional or national level. It concerns fine particulate matter (PM10), nitrogen oxides, polycyclic aromatic compounds and copper. The Dutch industry contributes approximately about 20 percent to the national emission to air of fine particulate matter as well as polycyclic aromatic compounds. For both nitrogen oxides (air) and copper (water) the share in the national emission is less than ten percent. For four substances, namely sulphur dioxide, arsenic, benzene and carbon monoxide, the target value is exceeded. The other six substances do not cause difficulties in terms of air or water because they hardly exceed the environmental quality standards, if at all.
    • &quot;De kwaliteit van het drinkwater in Nederland, in 1992&quot;

      Versteegh JFM; Wetsteyn FJ; LWD; RIMH/NH-FL (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-06-30)
      The minister for Housing, Physical Planning and Environment promised to inform The Parliament every year about the quality of the drinking water in the Netherlands. The report "the drinking water quality in the Netherlands in 1992" is based on the information from the Water Supply Companies to the Inspectorates for Public Health and Environmental Protection. This information is used to prepare nine regional reports which are used as background information for this national report. Non-compliance of drinking water samples to the drinking water standards are incidentally. Only non-complaince of bacteriological parameters has impact on public health, however there have been no hazardous situations at all. Most case of non-compliance deal with ethic and easthetic standards. Non-complaince of drinking water standards were taken away with adequate measures.<br>
    • Een &quot;enzyme-linked immunosorbent&quot; assay van ratte-antilichamen van de klassen M, G en A tegen schape-erythrocyten: een functietest voor humorale immuniteit

      Verlaan APJ; Vos JG; van Loveren H (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1987-10-31)
      Dit rapport beschrijft "Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assays" (ELISA's) voor IgM, IgG en IgA antilichamen tegen schape-erythrocyten (SRBC). De resultaten die met deze methode worden verkregen zijn goed reproduceerbaar. In vergelijking met een andere veel gebruikte test voor de bepaling van antilichaamtiters tegen SRBC, de haemagglutinatietest, is de ELISA specifieker en gevoeliger. Met behulp van deze methode is het mogelijk om een effect van blootstelling aan toxische verbindingen op de humorale immuunrespons vast te stellen. Als modelstudie is in dit rapport beschreven het effect van blootstelling aan bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide in het voer op de IgG en IgM anti-SRBC respons. Met name semichronische blootstelling aan deze verbinding verminderde de IgG respons.<br>
    • &quot;Impurity profiling&quot; van testosteron-undecanoaat met behulp van vloeistofchromatografie-fourier transform infraroodspectrometrie

      Somsen GW; Visser T (1992-12-31)
      Reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) has been coupled to Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR) by means of a spray jet interface. The usefulness of the interface for impurity profiling of steriods has been demonstrated by the analysis of two samples of testosterone undecanoate. Valuable structural information on impurities >=5% was obtained either by library searching of the produced FTIR spectra, or by interpretation. Identification of two of the impurities, testosterone enanthate and testosterone decanoate, was hampered by the fact that both compounds may occur in a crystalline and in an amorphous state. The spectra of the compounds recorded in the amorphous state appeared to be highly similar.
    • &quot;On the Move&quot;. Concept voor een nationaal effecten model voor de vegetatie (MOVE)

      Latour JB; Reiling R (1991-09-30)
      This report discusses a conceptual model for the vegetaiton (MOVE), that predicts on a national scale the possibility that plant species will (dis)appear in the year 2015 in perspective of national scenario's for acidification, eutrofication and dessiccation. The model combines existing models for abiotic environmental conditions and information on the ecological tolerance of individual species by means of a risk assessment approach. Important features of the conceptual model are: a national scope, use of risk-assessment, applicable for both common and more rare plant species and multiple stress. Results can be visualised in a so-called AMOEBE figure. MOVE can be used for scenario studies that support the State of the Environment documents.