• Rotavirus in the Netherlands : Background information for the Health Council

      Verberk JDM; Bruijning-Verhagen P; de Melker H; RVP; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2017-04-06)
      Rotavirus can cause a gastrointestinal infection and is common in young children. There are two vaccines available; both have to be administered via the mouth. The Dutch Health Council will advise the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport on how childhood vaccination against rotavirus will be made available. The Minister makes a decision on the basis of this advice.<br> <br>To support the Health Council, the RIVM has put together background information on rotavirus disease. The information includes the number of people in the Netherlands that become ill from rotavirus every year, the effectiveness and safety of rotavirus vaccines, and how the public thinks about rotavirus vaccination.<br> <br>A gastrointestinal infection caused by rotavirus is common during the winter months, particularly in children between six months and two years old. The disease is characterized by fever, vomiting and diarrhoea. Usually, rotavirus disease resolves by itself without problems, but can be severe resulting in dehydration. This happens more often in young children, premature children, children with low birth weight and children with congenital problems. These severe cases may need to be admitted to the hospital. Treatment for dehydration consists of oral or intravenous rehydration. In rare cases, a child dies.<br>
    • Rotavirus in the Netherlands : Background information for the Health Council

      Verkerk JDM; Bruijning-Verhagen P; de Melker H; RVP; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2017-04-06)
      Het rotavirus kan een maagdarminfectie veroorzaken die veel voorkomt bij jonge kinderen en soms ernstig kan verlopen. Er zijn twee vaccins beschikbaar die beide in druppelvorm via de mond worden toegediend. De Gezondheidsraad gaat de minister van VWS adviseren op welke manier vaccinatie van kinderen tegen het rotavirus oegankelijk wordt. De minister neemt op basis van dit advies een besluit. Om de Gezondheidsraad te ondersteunen heeft het RIVM achtergrondinformatie over het rotavirus bijeengebracht. De informatie betreft onder andere het aantal personen dat er jaarlijks in Nederland ziek door wordt, de effectiviteit en veiligheid van de vaccins, en hoe het publiek denkt over deze vaccinatie. Een door het rotavirus veroorzaakte maagdarminfectie komt veel in de wintermaanden voor, vooral bij kinderen tussen de 6 maanden en 2 jaar. De ziekte gaat gepaard met koorts, braken en hevige, waterdunne diarree. Doorgaans verloopt de ziekte zonder problemen, maar het komt voor dat de ziekte ernstig verloopt. Dit gebeurt vaker bij jonge kinderen, te vroeg geboren kinderen, kinderen met een laag geboortegewicht, of kinderen met aangeboren afwijkingen. De ziekte kan dan uitdrogingsgevaar veroorzaken. In deze gevallen moet een kind in het ziekenhuis worden opgenomen. De uitdroging wordt dan behandeld door via de mond of een infuus vocht toe te dienen. In zeldzame gevallen overlijdt een kind.
    • Rubberverwerking

      Huizinga K; Verburgh JJ; Matthijsen AJCM (1992-06-30)
      This document on rubber processing has been published within the SPIN project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licences.
    • Ruimte en gezondheid, een vanzelfsprekende combinatie? : Een verkenning naar de relatie tussen ruimtelijke ordening en gezondheid vanuit het ruimtelijk, milieu- en volksgezondheidsdomein

      Kruize H; de Bont AWMM; van Dale D; van der Ree J; Wendel-Vos GCW; den Hertog FRJ; IRV; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2015-07-17)
      Efforts have long been made to improve public health through spatial planning. The attention devoted to this topic had decreased slightly, but is now once more on the rise. Smart spatial planning that promotes human health requires close collaboration between professionals in the fields of spatial design, the environment and public health. An exploration of the relationship between these three domains shows that professionals can make much greater use of each other's expertise and skills than they currently do. By combining and sharing knowledge and translating it into practical applications, each domain can gain greater insight into the background, motivations and interests at play in the other domains. Support can be provided by organizations that represent all domains, such as the Platform for Healthy Design. Similar developments For already some time, similar developments have been observed in the three aforementioned domains. For instance, a shift in emphasis may be seen in all three domains from measures that reduce risks (health protection) to measures that encourage healthy behaviour (health promotion). Another example concerns the shift from policy orchestrated at the national level ('top down') to encouraging people to adopt an active role and take more control of their health and their environment ('bottom up'). Finding out what works It is important to establish which measures and policies are effective in practice. Despite the many inspiring examples from practice, the impact of urban structures on health and well-being has not yet been extensively studied. In addition, the three domains assess the effectiveness of measures and policies differently. The spatial planning domain, for instance, focuses mainly on the experiences of the planner rather than on 'proven effectiveness'. By contrast, the evidence-based approach is central in the public health domain. Greater insight may be gained into the effectiveness of measures by combining insights from the three domains and assessing the impact of spatial interventions as a standard procedure. The assessment system for the quality and effectiveness of lifestyle interventions developed by the Dutch Centre for Healthy Living and its partners, for example, can be helpful in this regard. This exploratory study was commissioned by the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, and carried out by RIVM in collaboration with Eindhoven University of Technology.
    • Ruimte voor landelijk wonen

      Bosten JWEL; Crommentuijn LEM; Verhorst J; Dimensus; RIM (Dimensus, 2003-07-24)
      Space for housing on the countryside is the title of this report. This report summarizes several definitions for "countryside", local housing need and future need of land use for dwellings, based on literature and expert judgment. Given some of these definitions, the implications for the countryside have been analyzed. How many dwellings are needed in order to meet local housing need? How much land is needed for these dwellings? What sort of dwellings are needed? These are some of the questions which have been addressed in this report. The countryside can be describes in terms of sentiment. What do people think with regard to countryside, what can be labeled as countryside, what sort of scenery, etc. Furthermore, the countryside can also be described statistically. The number of houses per acre, the type of villages, the number of inhabitants per village, and the way the scenery is perceived, and related characteristics are used to define the countryside. It is very much dependent on the scope of studies and research, what sort of operationalization is used. In this study various definitions will be discussed.Definitions for local housing need also vary, depending the scope of study. In time, the definition has shifted from the number of dwellings needed in one village to accomodate the local population, to the spatial level of municipality, or even several adjacent municipalities. In this latter definition, these municipalities are considered to reflect a regional housing market. These definitions are indicators for what spatial level has to be considered for "local". Furthermore, it has to be considered what "local housing need" really constitutes in terms of what people have to be comprised in the calculations. Generally, operationalizations in forecasts use some sort of compensation of the number of out-migrating persons. Different types of dwellings demand various amounts of acreage. Mansions demand more acreage than multistorey dwellings. Therefore, the qualitative housing demand can give an approximation of the land use demand.
    • Ruimte voor landelijk wonen

      Bosten JWEL; Crommentuijn LEM; Verhorst J; Dimensus; Dimensus; RIM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2003-07-24)
      Het rapport geeft een verkennende analyse naar de mogelijke effecten van het toestaan van extra woningbouw in het landelijke gebied. In het rapport wordt aandacht besteed aan verschillende definities van platteland, lokale woningbehoefte en ruimtebeslag. Daarnaast wordt een kwantitatieve doorrekening gepresenteerd. Hiervoor zijn gegevens gebruikt van enkele gemeenten uit de regio Stedendriehoek in Gelderland. De resultaten van het onderzoek illustreren de onzekerheid omtrent de definities van platteland en lokale woningbehoefte. In het onderzoek wordt een voorbeeld voor definiering uitgewerkt. Deze wordt geillustreerd met resultaten van een door Dimensus gehouden woningbehoefteonderzoek. Hieruit komt naar voren dat de lokale behoefte voor een groot deel bestaat uit huur- en meergezinswoningen. Qua ruimtebeslag betekent dit een betrekkelijk geringe vraag naar ruimte. Deze resultaten zijn weliswaar gebaseerd op een casestudy, de vraag rijst of de lokale woningbehoefte van andere landelijke gebieden op een zelfde manier zal uitpakken?
    • Het ruimtebeslag van Nederlanders, 1995-2030. Achtergronddocument bij de MV5

      Elzenga JG; Ros JPM; Bouwman AF; LAE (2001-04-12)
      This background document describes how the possible developments in the use of space is given substance in the light of the environmental outlooks under the European Co-ordination (EC) and Global Competition (GC) scenarios. The calculation method followed for the base year, 1995, is the same as the one used for the Environmental Balances of 1998 and 1999. Consumption scenarios are used or constructed for the most important products. Technical developments in production chains, particularly for agricultural productivity, are assumed for both inside and outside the country. Main conclusions based on the results of the development analysis described in this report are given here: 1) In both scenarios we can expect a slight increase in land use between 1995 and 2030, from about 10.7 up to 12.3 million ha under EC and 10.7 up to 13.2 million ha under GC. This rise occurs outside the Netherlands. 2) The rise is caused mainly by the increasing demand for timber, with no productivity increases assumed in the natural systems, which serve as the source of this timber. 3) Under the EC scenario we can speak of a more-or-less environmental-friendly consumer behaviour in relation to claim on space; this does not happen under the GC scenario. 4) Profits realised through the development of agricultural productivity is reasonably in balance with the extra demand for agricultural products.
    • De Ruimteclaims en ruimtelijke ontwikkelingen in de zoekgebieden voor de toekomstige nationale luchtvaartinfrastructuur (TNLI). Quick scan met Ruimtescanner

      Velde RJ van de; Schotten CGJ; Waals JFM van der; Boersma WT; Oude Munnik JM; Ransijn M; LBG; VU; Geodan; UU (1997-12-31)
      Building a new national airport demands an analysis of regional spatial effects. This report describes how Spacescanner, a spatial information system, simulates the development of land use in nine areas which will be influenced by a new airport. The Spacescanner, using data on present use and changes in claims for living space attractiveness, calculates how much space is needed for areas in future for living and working on the basis of, for example, the number of (in)direct employment opportunities, the space required for these and the assessment of the attractiveness of the areas for living and working, e.g. lowered by excessive noise. This simulation has resulted in maps that give a first impression of the impact of the airport and possible conflicts with current spatial policy and physical planning principles.
    • Een ruimtelijke analyse van het verband tussen atmosferisch zwavel-depositie en de concentratie van sulfaat in het grondwater

      Dekkers ALM; Barendregt LG (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1993-03-31)
      This report describes a study on the analysis of environmental data from several environmental compartments. Environmental quality of groundwater, rainwater and air is considered in the study. The main issue is to determine if there is a relationship between sulpher (S) deposition and the concentration of sulfate in the groundwater at a depth of 10 m below ground level 10 years after the deposition. First, the data will be described, followed by an exploratory data analysis. To eliminate the strong suspected influence of human intervention, the study will be further restricted to an analysis at the groundwater stations in nature reserves. Since the air and the rainwater measurements are not taken at the same places as the groundwater measurements, one has to make good predictions of the S depositions at the groundwater stations. The spatial interpolation method Kriging is very suitable for examining the relationship of interest here. The relationship proves to be significant. The statistical data analysis carried out in this report also gives some unexpected and striking information about the quality of the measurements. For instance, it was found that in 1991 some of the groundwater measurements were analyzed in a different way with respect to the years previous. The statistical analysis described in this report serves as an example of spatial statistics, useful for (re)optimalization and integration of environmental data from different compartments.<br>
    • Ruimtelijke Beelden. Visualisatie van een veranderd Nederland in 2030

      Borsboom-van Beurden JAM; Boersma WT; Bouwman AA; Crommentuijn LEM; Dekkers JEC; Koomen E; VU Amsterdam; MNP; VU-spinlab (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2005-01-17)
      De ruimtelijke uitwerking van vier wereldbeelden uit de Duurzaamheidsverkenning laat zien dat zowel het stedelijke als het landelijk gezicht van Nederland de komende decennia sterk zal veranderen. De ruimtevraag van wonen, werken en recreeren zorgt voor een verdere verstedelijking, vooral in Midden-Nederland. Afhankelijk van de mate van overheidsbescherming geeft dit een grote druk op en waarschijnlijk aantasting van de natuur- en landschapswaarden. Verdere schaalvergroting en toename van kapitaalsintensieve vormen van landbouw zorgen ook voor een verdere aantasting van landschapswaarden. Als problemen op het gebied van waterberging en wateroverlast opgelost worden door ruimtelijke maatregelen zal dit grote beperkingen opleggen aan zowel de nieuwe verstedelijkingslocaties als aan de landbouw.De ruimtelijke kaartbeelden als illustraties geven een brede reeks van waarschijnlijke toekomstbeelden. Deze variatie in toekomstbeelden kunnen de input vormen voor een maatschappelijke en politieke discussie over de prioritering van beleidsdoelen, zowel nationaal als Europees, ten aanzien van verstedelijking, natuurbehoud en -realisatie, waterbeheer en landschappelijk waarden.
    • Ruimtelijke Beelden. Visualisatie van een veranderd Nederland in 2030

      Borsboom-van Beurden JAM; Boersma WT; Bouwman AA; Crommentuijn LEM; Dekkers JEC; Koomen E; MNP; VU-spinlab (VU Amsterdam, 2005-01-17)
      A spatial elaboration of scenarios developed for the Sustainability Outlook shows that both the rural and the urban physical environment will change thoroughly during the next decades. Increased land use by housing, employment and leisure will contribute to further urbanisation, especially in the centre of the Netherlands. This will result in deterioration of nature areas and valuable landscapes, depending upon the degree of government protection assumed in a scenario. Further scale enlargement and capital-intensification of the mode of production in agriculture may also threaten valuable landscapes. Besides, fairly large areas of arable farming will be superseded by cattle breeding. Finally it appears that spatial measures of water management can pose many restrictions to new urbanisation locations as well as agriculture. A land use model has been used for this elaboration. The spatial impressions in the form of maps and illustrations show the range of possible futures. This information can support political and societal debates about priorities in policy goals on urbanisation, nature development and conservation, water management and landscape values.
    • Ruimtelijke en financiële determinanten van sporten, bewegen en sedentair gedrag : Verkenning van de literatuur en cijfers uit twee Nederlandse studies

      Milder I; Cloostermans L; van den Dool R; Preller L; Wendel-Vos GCW; PZO; vz (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVMMulierInstituutNISB, 2013-08-16)
      Based on international literature reviews, RIVM has provided an overview of potential physical environmental determinants of sports and physical activity. For adults and elderly persons these are, among others, availability of parks and recreational facilities in the vicinity, a pedestrian infrastructure, and the attractiveness of the neighbourhood. For children and adolescents, the presence of formal and informal playing areas, parks, water, road safety, and diversity in cycling and walking routes are of importance. These international reviews provided little information on the influence of the financial environment on sports and physical activity. However, in several studies it was shown that a low socioeconomic status is correlated with a lower level of physical activity, sports and recreational walking.<br> <br>Little research is available on potential physical environmental and financial determinants of sedentary behaviour (activities with a low activity level that are performed while in a sitting or reclining posture), e.g. screen-related activities such as computer work, playing video games or watching television. This research was commissioned by the ministry of Health, Welfare, and Sports. The results can be used to develop policies to stimulate physical activity.<br> <br>Financial factors more often a barrier than physical environmental factors<br>Dutch research using questionnaires shows that costs more often are perceived as a barrier than physical environmental factors. In each age category, less than 8% of respondents indicated that physical environmental factors were a barrier to become physically active. Whereas costs were a barrier for 11% of children, 17% of adolescents, 13 to 17 % of adults, and 7 to 8 % of elderly. However, for the interpretation of these figures, it should be considered that only a limited number of all potential barriers were listed, such as lack of facilities in the vicinity, and safety of facilities. There were no substantial differences in barriers between people who do or do not practise sports on a regular basis, or between people with or without physical limitations.<br>
    • Ruimtelijke en mobiliteitsreacties van werkenden op bedrijfsverplaatsingen. Resultaten van empirisch onderzoek

      Wee GP van; MTV (1995-11-30)
      In 1989 three government offices, located in The Hague and Dordrecht were relocated to one central office in Rotterdam. In 1994 (four and a half year after this relocation) research on the medium term effects on employees was carried out. This report describes the results. Analysis show that more than 50% of the employees did not move nor changed job. Almost 25% moved and did not change job. About 15% of the employees changed jobs, (of which about half moved and the other half did not move. 4% stopped working. After the office relocation travel distances and times have increased. This increase differs between groups of employees (move/no move ; change of job/no change of jobs). The 'moving behaviour' (move/no move) and the 'job behaviour' (change of job/no change of job) is significantly related to person and household variables such as age, household size and income increase and to distance variables such as the distance between the new office and residential locations and the increases in home-work distance (in case of no move or change of jobs). Besides, loglineair analyses show that many person, household and distance variables interact. When in a land use/transport scenario study firms are relocated over 15-25 kilometres, the effects on residential location of employees - and thus mobility effects - should be considered. Effects of employees changing jobs on the overall mobility level are not very important. Finally the analyses show that distances calculated with a network are more useful than airline distances: network distances are more often significantly related to the behaviour of employees.
    • Ruimtelijke gegevensbestanden. Een overzicht van ruimtelijke informatie in gebruik bij milieulaboratoria van het RIVM

      Beurden AUCJ van; Velde RJ van de (eds); Bekhuis FHWM; Kunst JD; Schaap AJ (1992-05-31)
      The amount of spatial data used at RIVM has steadily increased during the last two years. This was mainly caused by the successful introduction of geographical information systems and several new research activities at both national and internatioal scales. This survey summarizes the spatial data to inform researchers of RIVM (and of other institutes as well) about contents and availability of the data. It is also aimed at more intensive exchange of meta-information between users of spatial data in the Netherlands and abroad. The summary contains descriptions of the spatial data, wit several possible entrances: the content page, the data index list and the keyword list. The description is only part of what is stored, for not all technical details will be of use to the general reader. Extensions of descriptors and appended data sets will appear in future on a regular basis; this summary may be regarded as the very first version of what will become a time series of reports.
    • Ruimtelijke interpolatie van NO- en NO2-concentraties en windsnelheden in Nederland voor 1992

      Dekkers ALM; CIM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-10-31)
      The spatial distribution of NO and NO2 concentrations is obtained by spatial interpolation of yearly averaged measurements acquired at a small number of stations. After a methodological introduction of median polish, median-polish kriging and sequential simulation, these interpolation techniques are applied on yearly averaged NO and NO2 concentrations and on yearly averaged wind velocity measurements in the Netherlands. Some statistics of the concentration predictions and their internal confidence factors describe the results. These results are also given in a geographical way on a 5x5 km grid. The external confidence factor of median-polish kriging is approximated by cross-validation. Finally the median-polish kriging results on the NO and NO2 concentrations are compared with the results of "distance interpolation", the interpolation method used to date.<br>
    • Ruimtelijke statistiek voor de optimalisatie van het Landelijk Meetnet Regenwater: van metingen naar natte depositie door kriging

      Dekkers ALM; Buijsman E; CIM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-03-28)
      Dit rapport is het achtergronddocument bij RIVM rapport 723101033 'Een nieuwe meetstrategie voor de metingen van de chemische samenstelling van neerslag in het Landelijk Meetnet Luchtkwaliteit', waarin nieuwe meetstrategieen worden voorgesteld voor de metingen van de chemische samenstelling van neerslag in het Landelijk Meetnet Luchtkwaliteit. Een van de opties betreft het gebruik van Universal Kriging, een geostatistische techniek voor lineaire interpolatie van metingen. Het huidige rapport beschrijft de mathematische en methodologische onderbouwing van de benadering, aan de hand van de resultaten van een pilotstudie voor natte sulfaat, nitraat en ammonuim deposities in Nederland. Bij dit onderzoek vormen de meetresultaten uit het LML en neerslaggegevens uit het KNMI meetnet het basismateriaal. Het onderzoek heeft geleid tot twee afzonderlijke ruimtelijke modellen: 1 voor sulfaat en 1 voor nitraat, waarbij is gebleken dat bij een terugbrengen van 15 tot 8 meetpunten deze ruimtelijke modellen in de toekomst niet meer zijn af te leiden door de te geringe dichtheid van het geoptimaliseerde meetnet. Tevens blijkt dat het huidige meetnet van 15 meetpunten een te geringe dichtheid heeft om het ruimtelijk gedrag van ammonium te kunnen beschrijven met een ruimtelijk lineair interpolatie model dat alleen op meetgegevens is gebaseerd. Het onderzoek heeft verder geresulteerd in een eenvoudige methode om kaarten met elkaar te vergelijken. Deze methode is in een S-PLUS programma geimplementeerd zodat op basis van de twee afgeleide modellen direct de invloed op de natte deposities voor sulfaat en nitraat van een nieuwe meetnetconfiguratie van het LML kan worden doorgerekend.
    • Ruimtelijke statistiek voor de optimalisatie van het Landelijk Meetnet Regenwater: van metingen naar natte depositie door kriging

      Dekkers ALM; Buijsman E; CIM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-03-28)
      Two proposals are made in RIVM report 723101033 called (in Dutch) "Een nieuwe meetstrategie voor de metingen van de chemische samenstelling van neerslag in het Landelijk Meetnet Luchtkwaliteit" for redefining the measurement strategy of the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network. One of the options concerns the use of universal kriging, a spatial statistical method for linear interpolation, to produce a monitoring network comprising approximately eight sites for measuring sulphate and nitrate. The spatial statistical models for each compound enable an objective spatial translation of the measurements at the resulting monitoring stations into deposition fields. The underlying report gives the mathematical and methodological background for this approach, describing the results of a pilot study for wet sulphate, nitrate and ammonia deposition in the Netherlands. The precipitation measurements of the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network and the meteorological measurements of the Royal Dutch Meteorological Institute functioned as the basic data. Spatial behaviour was studied for each compound; spatial models were estimated for sulphate and nitrate for several years. Next, a more general spatial model was described for each of the two compounds, which will allow almost automatic prediction of the deposition fields in future. However, it will be impossible to construct these spatial statistical models if the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network for precipitation is reduced from 15 to 8 locations. The spatial density of the 15 locations of the Dutch National Air Quality Monitoring Network for precipitation has already been found too small to describe the spatial correlation of ammonia. A spin-off of the pilot study is an S-PLUS tool for comparing maps containing the results of different spatial models of different configurations of the network. The comparisons can be made interactively in a few minutes. The S-PLUS tool can be seen as a small decision-support system for finding the optimal configuration of the network for sulphate and nitrate.<br>