• The use of disinfectants in livestock farming

      Montfoort JA; van der Poel P; Luttik R; LAE; ACT (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-02-29)
      In 1993 an evaluation system for non-agricultural pesticides was presented. This method was completely incorporated in the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES). USES 1, the first version, can be used as a tool in making rapid risk assessments and setting priorities for new and existing substances, plant protection products and biocides within the scope of the Dutch Chemical Substances Act and the Dutch Pesticides Act. In 1996 a second national version of USES (USES 2) will be presented. This report describes models for the use of disinfectant in livestock farming in addition to the existing models for the evaluation of non-agricultural pesticides. The models, to be incorporated in USES, describe the following emission scenarios: disinfection of animal housing ; disinfection of footwear and animal paws ; disinfection of milk extraction systems ; disinfection of means of transport and disinfection of hatcheries.<br>
    • The use of dyes in reagents for radioimmunoassays

      Elvers LH; Loeber JG (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1985-11-26)
      Door het toevoegen van kleurstoffen aan reagentia van RIA systemen is controle op het pipetteren en eventueel morsen (van radioactiviteit) eenvoudig. Een twaalftal in de voedingsmiddelen industrie veel gebruikte kleurstoffen werd in acht in eigen beheer ontwikkelde RIA systemen getest met betrekking tot verstoring van initiele en aspecifieke binding. Vrijwel alle kleurstoffen zijn bruikbaar in een concentratie van 50 mg/l incubatievolume.<br>
    • The use of outer membrane proteins as an exposure surface for foreign antigens in AIDS vaccine methodology and AIDS diagnostics

      Soede WWD; Hegger I (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1992-03-31)
      A live recombinant bacteria or virus with HIV determinants exposed at the outermembrane is one strategy for AIDS vaccine development. Two HIV determinants that showed neutralization capacity in in- vitro experiments were tested for their expression in PhoE outer membrane protein of E coli K12. Determinants, located on HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120, were inserted into the unique Nru I restriction site created in the fourth exposed region of PhoE. Partial insertion of one of the envelope determinants into the PhoE gene, having an inserted length of 27 amino acid residues, was succesfully done. The level of expression of the hybrid protein was however decreased compared to literature. Correct insertion of the other HIV derterminant, having an inserted length of 22 amino acid residues, couldn't be well determined yet. Experiments to enhance protein synthesis with lamoda promotor controlled expression were not succesful yet. Further research has to be done to improve expression of HIV determinants in PhoE as well as other outer membrane proteins, like Lam B, have to be tested as expression vector.<br>
    • The use of quantum chemically derived descriptors for QSAR modelling of reductive dehalogenation of aromatic compounds

      Rorije E; Richter J; Peijnenburg WJGM; ECO; IHE Delft (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-04-30)
      In this study, quantum-chemically derived parameters are developed for a limited number of halogenated aromatic compounds to model the anaerobic reductive dehalogenation reaction rate constants of these compounds. It is shown that due to the heterogeneity of the set of compounds used, no single descriptor or combination of descriptors was able to adequately model the reaction under investigation. Thus subsets had to be created out of the group of compounds. For these subsets it is shown that the assumed reaction mechanism was correct as indicated by the relatively good correlations established between the reaction rate constants and descriptors that can be explained in terms of the reaction mechanism. The database of reaction rate constants for halogenated heterocyclic aromatic compounds was too small to enable the creation of subsets. Therefore no satisfying relationships could yet be obtained ; it may be anticipated that upon additional data becoming available, similar results will be obtained for these compounds as well.<br>
    • The use of thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in multi-residue analysis of anabolic compounds in biological samples

      Sterk SS; Ginkel LA van; Stephany RW; Schothorst RC (eds.); ARO (1995-12-31)
      Proceedings of the EU-workshop organised at RIVM, May 8-12, 1995.
    • The usefulness of Gasterosteus aculeatus -the three-spined stickleback- as a testorganism in routine toxicity tests

      van den Dikkenberg RP; Canton JH; Mathijssen-Spiekman EAM; Roghair CJ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1989-04-30)
      De stekelbaars (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is een algemeen voorkomende vissoort in Europa, grote delen van Azie en Noord-Amerika in veel typen wateren. De gevoeligheid van de stekelbaars voor enkele toxische stoffen is vergeleken met een viertal (inter)nationaal erkende (tropische) vissoorten. Uit dit vergelijkende onderzoek bleek dat de stekelbaars net zo gevoelig en soms zelfs gevoeliger was dan de andere vier vissoorten. Op grond van deze resultaten, zijn algemeen voorkomen in wateren van de gematigde zone en het feit dat de stekelbaars makkelijk te kweken is wordt aanbevolen de stekelbaars op te nemen als aanbevolen toetsorganisme in OECD-guidelines en EG-testmethoden.<br>
    • A user friendly spreadsheet program for calibration using weighted regression. User&apos;s Guide

      Gort SM; Hoogerbrugge R; LOC (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-03-31)
      An interactive user friendly computer spreadsheet for calibration is described. This spreadsheet application (developed in Excel from Microsoft) enables analytical chemists to apply linear regression analysis using weighted least squares. Several types of calibration functions - as well as various variance models - are available. The calculated calibration function with confidence intervals and standardized residuals are graphically displayed. F-tests are preformed in order to distinguish between "simple" and more "complex" calibration functions. Maximum likelihood can be used to select between variance models. Traceability of the calibration procedures is obtained by a built-in LOG-function.<br>
    • User guide for MIDAS

      Heisterkamp SH; Downs AM; Poos MJJC (1990-07-31)
      This report is a user guide for MIDAS, a collection of stand-alone programs running on MS-DOS. MIDAS is an acronym for Modelling Incidence and Delay Adjusting Simultaneously. The main program estimates the AIDS incidence from reported data, taking into account the delay in reporting. Details of the algorithm used are published (Heisterkamp et al., 1989). The program is menu driven and a graphical representation is possible on screen and plotter. A link with a popular spreadsheet program is provided. This report is a result of collaboration with the WHO Collaborating Centre in Paris, and the Center for Mathematical Methods, and was funded by the EC Concerted Action on Mathematical Modelling.
    • User&apos;s manual METROPLOT

      de Vries WJ; Sauter FJ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1988-04-30)
      Het Metroplot programama verwerkt de uitvoer van een numeriek stromingsprogramma tot grafische uitvoer in de vorm van plaatjes van isolijnen, snelheidsvelden of stroombanen. Metroplot is geschreven voor het eindige elementenpakket Metropol, maar kan ook gebruikt worden voor andere numerieke programma's.<br>
    • User&apos;s manual METROPOL. Mathematical description

      Sauter FJ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1987-06-30)
      In dit rapport wordt een wiskundige beschrijving gegeven van de theorie voor het computer-programma METROPOL. Dit programma simuleert grondwaterstroming met variabele dichtheid en is gebaseerd op de eindige elementenmethode. De basisvergelijkingen voor grondwaterstroming worden gegeven en de wiskundige technieken om deze vergelijkingen op te lossen worden beschreven. Daarnaast worden technieken als netwerkgeneratie en het berekenen van stroombanen besproken.<br>
    • User&apos;s manual of FLSTAT3D ; Version 1.0 Computer Program FLSTAT3D; Pathlines in Quasi-Three-Dimensional Groundwater Flow in a System of Layered Aquifers on the Basis of Stationary Hydraulic Heads

      Verlouw JGW (1990-03-31)
      The computer program FLSTAT3D (FLow STATionary in 3 Dimensions) calculates the quasi-three-dimensional discontinuous velocity field in a system of coupled semi-confined anisotropic heterogeneous aquifers, based upon two-dimensional isohypses for every aquifer, on a regional scale. The Dupuit-Forchheimer assumption is supposed to be valid. The model area is subdivided into distorted cubic shaped elements. Hydraulic conductivities (k) or a vertical flow resistance (c) and a value of porosity (n) must be given for every element. A hydraulic head (phi) must be given for every nodal point of one layer in an aquifer. These data and the mesh coordinates are organized in the data generator RDARR. The post-processing program METROPART calculates flow paths starting from a point somewhere in the flow field. Cartesian coordinates and travel times are the results of the calculations in both printable and graphics processable output. The program can be instatlled on every computer with a FORTRAN compiler.
    • USES 2.0, The Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances, version 2.0 ; supplement to EUSES

      Linders JBHJ; Jager DT (eds.); CSR; ECO (1997-08-31)
      This interim report describes the updated risk assessment system for agricultural and non-agricultural pesticides. It will be integrated with the European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances, EUSES 1.0, into USES 2.0, the second version of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances. The report is primarily made as preparation to the programming and testing of USES 2.0.
    • USES 2.0, The Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances, version 2.0 ; supplement to EUSES

      Linders JBHJ; Jager DT; CSR; ECO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-08-31)
      Dit interimrapport beschrijft het risicobeoordelingssysteem voor landbouw- en niet-landbouwbestrijdingsmiddelen. Het zal worden geintegreerd met het European Union System for the Evaluation of Substances, EUSES 1.0, tot USES 2.0, de tweede versie van het Uniforme Beoordelingssysteem voor Stoffen. Dit rapport is primair bedoeld als tussenstap in de programmeer- en testfase van USES 2.0.
    • UV straling in Nederland: indicatie van de invloed van een verandering in ozonkolom

      de Leeuw FAAM; Slaper H (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1989-07-31)
      Een modela voor stralingsoverdracht in de atmosfeer is toegepast om een indicatie te krijgen van de toekomstige ontwikkelingen van UV-straling op grondniveau als gevolg van veranderingen in ozonkolom. Bij vergelijking van het hier gebruikte model met (schaarse) metingen en met ander theoretisch werk, wordt een redelijke overeenstemming gevonden. Metingen in Nederland en Zweden worden door het model enigszins onderschat. Bij vergelijking met ander theoretisch werk is echter geen sprake van een systematische onderschatting. Een afname in ozonkolomdichtheid leidt tot een toename in UV-intensiteit die des te sterker is voor kortere golflengten. De toename in effectieve dosis is afhankelijk van het veronderstalde actiespectrum. Mondiale 2-dimensionale modellen voorspellen dat bij een ongewijzigd beleid t.a.v. de emissies van chloorfluorkoolwaterstoffen de ozonkolom met circa 10% is afgenomen omstreeks het jaar 2035. Voor deze situatie wordt de toename in effectieve dosis geschat op 11-19% (0.2-0.4% toename per jaar). De trend in UV-belasting die het gevolg is van verandering in ozonkolomdichtheid kan zowel versterkt als verzwakt worden door simultaan optredende veranderingen in meteorologische parameters (bijvoorbeeld bewolking) en/of concentraties aan aerosol en andere sporegassen.<br>
    • UV-straling en gezondheid : Probleemveld en kennisbasis bij het RIVM

      Slaper H; van Dijk A; den Outer P; van Kranen H; Slobbe L; VLH; M&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2017-06-29)
      Every year more than 51,000 new cases of skin cancer are diagnosed in the Netherlands and over 900 fatalities are reported. The number of new skin cancer cases is rising rapidly and since 1990 a fourfold increase has been observed. This increase is much stronger than for other types of cancer, and a further increase is expected (with a factor of 2-5). The incidence of melanoma of the skin in the Netherlands is among the highest in Europe. Exposure of the skin to UV-radiation is the primary cause of skin cancer, and sun-exposure is the primary source of UV-exposure. The increase in skin cancer incidence that has been observed is only partly explained by the ageing of the Dutch population and the depletion of the ozone layer. A change in exposure behaviour is probably the most dominant factor that could explain a major part of the increased skin cancer incidence. Changes in fashion, with more of the body exposed, shorter working hours and longer vacations, including an increase in summer holidays spent in southern Europe are likely causes. Climate change and the use of artificial tanning devices may also contribute. Skin cancer prevention should be focused on the avoidance of UV-induced erythema (sunburn) in solar and artificial exposures. Limiting the chronic exposure of the most exposed skin parts is also very important, because damage to the skin also occurs below the threshold of erythemal doses. It is, therefore, important to provide additional protection for the parts of the skin that are chronically exposed. Solar exposure is the most important UV-source and protection is most needed when the sun is high in the sky, in the summer months between 11:00 am and 16:00 (4 pm). The UV-index is a good indicator; it is much lower in the early morning or late afternoon/early evening. UV-exposure also contributes to the incidence of cataract and causes skin ageing and snow blindness (photokeratitis). Exposure of the skin to solar UV from the sun should not be completely avoided, however, as it is an important source of vitamin D. Vitamin D is essential for healthy bones and muscles, and there are indications that a high vitamin D status lowers the risk of developing colon cancer, and may also be a factor in the development of a number of other cancers and chronic diseases. At present, a scientific debate is ongoing regarding the minimally required and optimal levels of vitamin D, and how to best achieve them. In the Netherlands the estimated costs for medical treatments of skin cancer and precancerous skin lesions amount to 325 million Euro (250-400). Estimated medical costs for the UV-contribution to cataract formation are 75-150 million Euro per year. These costs can be substantially reduced if (solar) UV-exposure is restricted. Prevention is supported by Solar UV-index measurements (www.rivm.nl/zonkracht), and improved knowledge on UV-radiation exposure and associated health effects. Strengthening the knowledge building and dissemination of information about UV-radiation protection is vitally important.
    • UVB and infectious diseases: exposure assessment by means of a retrospective questionnaire for epidemiological study. Presentation of first results

      Termorshuizen F; Garssen J; Maas JJ; Goettsch WG; Matthijsen J; Houweling H; Loveren H van; CIE; LPI; LSO (1999-02-01)
      To assess the effect of environmental and day-to-day exposure to UVB on the human immune system a two-year retrospective questionnaire on exposure to sunlight and artificial UV sources was held among the HIV-infected participants of the cohort study for homosexual men of the Municipal Health Service in Amsterdam. The selfreported data on exposure (the number of hours, dress, activity, country, season) during holidays, occupation and leisure time were used to estimate the individual exposure. This report presents the results of the questionnaire. In a future study we will examine whether a higher exposure to UVB is associated with a less favourable disease progression from HIV to AIDS. In total, 73 participants filled out the questionnaire and reported 191 holiday periods in the two preceding years, of which 89 in sunny countries between 400N and 250S. Although the greatest number (70%) of hours exposed concerned exposure during leisure activities, the percentage decreased in favour of the exposure during holidays, after weighting the hours exposed for the effect of latitude, and season and dress, and activity on the UVB dose. Furthermore, during holiday periods the highest mean number of hours exposed per day was observed. Including the effect of latitude and season in the estimation of the individual UVB exposure hardly modified the classification of participants with respect to their exposure. This was in contrast to the inclusion of the effect of dress and activity. A clear correlation between exposure to UVB as assessed on the basis of this questionnaire and the reporting of sunburn was also shown. Sunscreen use was shown to modify this correlation. No relationship between exposure to UVB and the recurrence of labial herpes simplex could be established. By checking the answers given to comparable questions it was revealed that participants were often not able to give consistent information on their exposure. We conclude that this two-year retrospective questionnaire is not enough to obtain a precise and valid estimation of the individual exposure to UVB. Because holiday periods are associated with a high exposure per day, they may be very important for establishing the effect of UVB on the human immune system. The modification of the classification of the participants with respect to exposure after including the effect of dress and activity may indicate that taking these behavioural characteristics into account is a requirement for a valid estimate of exposure. However, the weakening of the relationship between exposure and the reporting of sunburn after inclusion of this effect suggests that some error was introduced. This may even have caused a decrease in the validity of the estimate. We suggest that a prospective study, in which participants are followed under close supervision, allow a more accurate estimation of the individual exposure to UVB.
    • V3-serotyping programme evaluated for HIV-1 variation in the Netherlands and Curacao

      Wolf F de; Akker R van den; Valk M; Bakker M; Goudsmit J; Loon AM van; VIR; UVA/HRL (1995-01-31)
      To obtain insight into the variation of the HIV-1 V3 neutralization domain of variants circulating in the Netherlands, 126 Dutch, 70 Curacao and 45 African serum samples from HIV-1 infected individuals were screened for antibody reactivity to a set of 16 to 17 mer synthetic peptides, representing the central part of the V3-loop of gp120 of HIV-1 variants circulating in the US, Europe and Africa. These peptides were used in an ELISA and antibody reactivity to the peptides was compared to the actual amino acid sequence of viral RNA circulating in a subset of the same serum samples. In conclusion, we found a relatively high genetic and antigenic homogeneity of the V3 gene of HIV infections in the Netherlands and Curacao during the years 1988-1990. Antibody reactivity to synthetic V3 peptides, as well as sequence analysis confirmed the prevalence of B subtype HIV-1 among the Dutch and Curacaon samples and the prevalence of A/D subtypes among the Tanzanian samples. Screening of HIV-1 positive serum samples for genetic typing by using a set of well defined synthetic V3 peptides appeared to be feasible. In combination with molecular analysis (V3 sequencing and/or hetroduplex mobility assay) of this method can be applied to obtain insight in changes in genetic and antigenic variation of HIV-1 in a population: changes within subtype B HIV-1 variants, as well as introduction of other (new) HIV-1 variants can this be surveyed. This is of importance to obtain insight in the (molecular) epidemiology of HIV-1 as well as with respect to the development and the eventual use of an HIV-1 vaccine.
    • V3-serotyping programme evaluated for HIV-1 variation in the Netherlands and Curacao

      Wolf F de; Akker R van den; Valk M; Bakker M; Goudsmit J; Loon AM van; VIR; UVA/HRL (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-01-31)
      Doel van het onderzoek was om inzicht te verkrijgen in de antigene en genetische variatie van het in Nederland en Curacao circulerende humane immunodeficientie virus type 1 (HIV-1). De genetische variatie tussen HIV-1 isolaten is aanzienlijk. De genetische variatie doet zich vooral voor op een vijftal gebieden van het deel van het virale genoom, dat codeert voor het externe envelop eiwit gp120 van HIV-1. Van deze vijf gebieden is het derde variabele domein (V3) gelegen tussen aminozuur-positities 269 en 331 van gp120 het meest uitvoerig bestudeerd. Van de Nederlandse serummonsters reageerde 54.8% specifiek tegen een van de peptiden p108, p109 of p110, welke representatief zijn voor het genotype B. Voor wat betreft de monsters afkomstig uit Curacao werd een vergelijkbaar resultaat gevonden, met dit verschil dat ten opzichte van de Nederlandse monsters een relatief hoge frequentie van serum reactiviteit tegen p110 werd gevonden. Op grond van de serologische reactiviteit in het V3 gebied kan worden geconcludeerd dat in de periode 1988 - 1990 in Nederland en Curacao subtype B HIV-1 varianten het meest prevalent waren. De V3-loop reactiviteit bleek vergelijkbaar met die gemeten in de Amsterdamse cohortstudies onder homoseksuele mannen en druggebruikers. De resultaten van de specifieke antistofreactiviteit werd in het algemeen bevestigd door de resultaten van het V3 sequentie-onderzoek, maar subtiele sequentieverschillen tussen de V3 loop reactiviteit en circulerend viraal V3 werden in een aantal gevallen aangetoond. Aanbevolen wordt in 1995 een tweede survey uit te voeren, te meer daar inmiddels meer bekend is over verschillende subtypen van HIV-1 en recent het zogeheten subtype O is beschreven.
    • Vaardigheidseisen voor veilig toepassen van medische technologie in de ziekenhuiszorg : Een praktijkverkenning

      de Vries CGJCA; Pot JWGA; Koudijs-Siebel EA; Geertsma RE; van Drongelen AW; PRV; V&Z (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2014-03-21)
      In health care, the use of complex medical technology, such as a surgical robot, increases. The safe use of these technologies requires special skills of health care professionals. Therefore, the Dutch Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sports has requested the RIVM to make recommendations for skill requirements that are in line with the activities of the hospitals and professional societies and associations. Findings Results from this study revealed that there is awareness within hospitals and health care professionals for the need for specific skill requirements for the safe use of complex medical technology. There are several initiatives in this area. However, the extent to which this occurs varies per profession and hospital. A uniform approach is missing. Several initiatives are identified, so-called best practices, where skill requirements are established. For instance, a system in which all users of medical equipment are trained and certified. Recommendations This exploratory study provides general recommendations. These recommendations could serve as a starting point for discussion on the need for specific skill requirements for the safe use of medical technology. Safe use of medical technology should play a more prominent role in the safety management systems of hospitals. It is recommended that hospital boards facilitate multidisciplinary collaboration of various health care professionals. The scientific associations can also contribute, for example by explicitly including skill requirements for medical technology in visitations and making the results of the visitations less noncommittal. Furthermore, the refresher courses attended should be better related to the activities performed. It should be investigated whether the best practices are more widely applicable.
    • Vaccinatiegraad en jaarverslag Rijksvaccinatieprogramma Nederland 2016

      van Lier EA; Geraedts JLE; Oomen PJ; Giesbers H; van Vliet JA; Drijfhout IH; Zonnenberg-Hoff IF; de Melker HE; RVP; I&V (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2017-06-22)
      The RIVM annually describes the developments within the Dutch National Immunisation Programme (NIP), both substantively and organisationally. From this year, the most important events and developments in the field of immunisation coverage have been bundled. Important events In 2016, there were no significant outbreaks of NIP diseases. However, since October 2015, the number of meningococcal disease patients by a different serogroup (W) than the serogroup C which is vaccinated against within the NIP, has risen. Striking was the vigorous debate that was conducted in various media in November 2016 between advocates and opponents of immunisation. Furthermore, the RIVM has made factsheets for professionals as well as the public with information on vaccines against diseases that are available but not included in the NIP. Examples include varicella, herpes zoster and rotavirus (www.rivm.nl/vaccinations). Immunisation coverage The immunisation coverage, i.e. the proportion of newborns, toddlers and schoolchildren who receive vaccinations within the NIP is still high. The immunisation coverage for mumps, measles and rubella (MMR) has declined slightly for a few years. The 95 per cent threshold of the World Health Organization (WHO) needed to eliminate measles is no longer achieved in the Netherlands for the first MMR vaccination. For the second MMR vaccination this has been for longer. Also for other NIP vaccinations there is a slight decrease in participation. The participation in HPV vaccination against cervical cancer has decreased for the first time, from 61 to 53 per cent. A high immunisation coverage ensures that vulnerable and not (yet) vaccinated children are protected against diseases (herd protection). A decreasing immunisation coverage increases the likelihood that diseases such as measles cause outbreaks in the future.