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TitleLifestyle and cancer of the reproductive organs
Translated TitleLeefstijl en kanker van de geslachtsorganen
PubliekssamenvattingDe incidenties van borstkanker, testiskanker en prostaatkanker nemen in de westerse wereld toe. Er is sprake van zorg dat blootstelling van de mens aan stoffen in het leefmilieu met endocriene activiteit betrokken zouden kunnen zijn bij deze trends, maar ondersteunend bewijs voor een dergelijke relatie ontbreekt tot dusverere. Anderzijds heeft de twintigste eeuw diepgaande veranderingen in leefstijl te zien gegeven, die ongetwijfeld invloed hebben gehad op de incidenties van ziekten en aandoeningen. Het rapport vat huidige kennis samen omtrent de relatie tussen hormoon-afhankelijke kankers bij de mens en leefstijldeterminanten. Belangrijke leefstijldeterminanten betrokken bij deze kankers worden gevonden op de gebieden van consumptief en sexueel gedrag. Specifieke determinanten daarbinnen zijn calorische inname, lichamelijke activiteit, alcoholconsumptie, kindertal, hormoonmedicatie, sexuele activiteit en hygiene.
The incidence of breast cancer, testicular cancer and prostate cancer is increasing in Western societies. Concern has been expressed that human exposure to environmental xenobiotic compounds coupled with endocrine activity may play a role in these cancers, but supporting evidence for the existence of such a relationship is lacking. On the other hand, the twentieth century has seen profound changes in lifestyle, which have undoubtedly influenced the incidence of diseases. This report summarises present knowledge on the relationship between hormone-dependent cancers in humans and lifestyle determinants. Major lifestyle determinants related to reproductive cancer appear to be found in eating and reproductive behaviour. Specific determinants within these areas include caloric intake, physical activity, alcohol consumption, parity, exogenous hormone treatments, sexual activity and hygiene. Dramatic changes in eating patterns in the twentieth century with increased caloric intake in the presence of decreased physical activity, and increased alcohol intake and increased female smoking are thought to have promoted reproductive cancers. In addition, profound changes in reproductive behaviour with decreased parity, increased maternal age, increased sexual activity, wide application of various types of sex hormone therapy and contraceptive measures are thought to have contributed to increased reproductive cancer incidences. Current knowledge on determinants of reproductive cancer suggests that lifestyle determinants may play a more prominent role in determining trends in reproductive cancer incidences than exposure to environmental xenobiotic compounds acting on the endocrine. However, data on human exposure to environmental endocrine-active compounds are needed to allow an analysis of the actual risk of exposure to these compounds in relation to reproductive organ cancer.
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Lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and risk of pancreatic cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study.Naudin, Sabine; Li, Kuanrong; Jaouen, Tristan; Assi, Nada; Kyrø, Cecilie; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Rebours, Vinciane; Védié, Anne-Laure; et al. (2018-03-09)Recent evidence suggested a weak relationship between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer (PC) risk. In this study, the association between lifetime and baseline alcohol intakes and the risk of PC was evaluated, including the type of alcoholic beverages and potential interaction with smoking. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study, 1,283 incident PC (57% women) were diagnosed from 476,106 cancer-free participants, followed up for 14 years. Amounts of lifetime and baseline alcohol were estimated through lifestyle and dietary questionnaires, respectively. Cox proportional hazard models with age as primary time variable were used to estimate PC hazard ratios (HR) and their 95% confidence interval (CI). Alcohol intake was positively associated with PC risk in men. Associations were mainly driven by extreme alcohol levels, with HRs comparing heavy drinkers (>60 g/day) to the reference category (0.1-4.9 g/day) equal to 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.95) and 1.63 (95% CI: 1.16, 2.29) for lifetime and baseline alcohol, respectively. Baseline alcohol intakes from beer (>40 g/day) and spirits/liquors (>10 g/day) showed HRs equal to 1.58 (95% CI: 1.07, 2.34) and 1.41 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.94), respectively, compared to the reference category (0.1-2.9 g/day). In women, HR estimates did not reach statistically significance. The alcohol and PC risk association was not modified by smoking status. Findings from a large prospective study suggest that baseline and lifetime alcohol intakes were positively associated with PC risk, with more apparent risk estimates for beer and spirits/liquors than wine intake. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Which cancer survivors are at risk for a physically inactive and sedentary lifestyle? Results from pooled accelerometer data of 1447 cancer survivors.Sweegers, M G; Boyle, T; Vallance, J K; Chinapaw, M J; Brug, J; Aaronson, N K; D'Silva, A; Kampshoff, C S; Lynch, B M; Nollet, F; et al. (2019-08-16)
Dietary intake of different types and characteristics of processed meat which might be associated with cancer risk--results from the 24-hour diet recalls in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).Linseisen, Jakob; Rohrmann, Sabine; Norat, Teresa; González, Carlos Alberto; Dorronsoro Iraeta, Miren; Morote Gómez, Patrocinio; Chirlaque, María-Dolores; Pozo, Basilio G; Ardanaz, Eva; Mattisson, Irene; et al. (2006-06-01)OBJECTIVE: There is increasing evidence for a significant effect of processed meat (PM) intake on cancer risk. However, refined knowledge on how components of this heterogeneous food group are associated with cancer risk is still missing. Here, actual data on the intake of PM subcategories is given; within a food-based approach we considered preservation methods, cooking methods and nutrient content for stratification, in order to address most of the aetiologically relevant hypotheses. DESIGN AND SETTING: Standardised computerised 24-hour diet recall interviews were collected within the framework of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), a prospective cohort study in 27 centres across 10 European countries. SUBJECTS: Subjects were 22,924 women and 13,031 men aged 35-74 years. RESULTS: Except for the so-called 'health-conscious' cohort in the UK, energy-adjusted total PM intake ranged between 11.1 and 47.9 g day(-1) in women and 18.8 and 88.5 g day(-1) in men. Ham, salami-type sausages and heated sausages contributed most to the overall PM intake. The intake of cured (addition of nitrate/nitrite) PM was highest in the German, Dutch and northern European EPIC centres, with up to 68.8 g day(-1) in men. The same was true for smoked PM (up to 51.8 g day(-1)). However, due to the different manufacturing practice, the highest average intake of NaNO2 through PM consumption was found for the Spanish centres (5.4 mg day(-1) in men) as compared with German and British centres. Spanish centres also showed the highest intake of NaCl-rich types of PM; most cholesterol- and iron-rich PM was consumed in central and northern European centres. Possibly hazardous cooking methods were more often used for PM preparation in central and northern European centres. CONCLUSIONS: We applied a food-based categorisation of PM that addresses aetiologically relevant mechanisms for cancer development and found distinct differences in dietary intake of these categories of PM across European cohorts. This predisposes EPIC to further investigate the role of PM in cancer aetiology.