Literatuurstudie naar de invloed van structuur van organisch materiaal op sorptie van hydrofobe organische verbindingen
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TitleLiteratuurstudie naar de invloed van structuur van organisch materiaal op sorptie van hydrofobe organische verbindingen
Translated Title[Literature study on the relation between composition of organic matter on sorption capacity for hydrophobic organic compounds.]
PubliekssamenvattingLiterature research is done on the composition of organic material along soil profiles in relation to sorption capacity for non-ionic hydrophobic organic compounds. Organic matter of deeper soil layers is mostly better humified and therefore less polar than the organic matter of superficial soil layers. Several studies illustrate that sorption of non-ionic hydrophobic organic compounds decreases with increasing polarity of the soil organic matter. Other factors that affect sorption are the aromaticity and the 'open' structure of the material. Sorption coefficients will improve when qualitative differences of soil organic matter are taken into account. This is feasible by relating sorption coefficients to both organic oxygen and organic carbon content. Another suggestion in order to eliminate qualitative differences is normalization of sorption coefficients on a reference compound.<br>
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Metingen in het kader van het Biologisch Monitoring Programma van RWS/RIZA naar de toxiciteit van oppervlaktewaterconcentraten van rijkswateren in 1993de Zwart D; Polman HJG; ECO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-06-30)This report presents the results of a repeated evaluation of the organic toxicity contained in water of the rivers Rhine and Meuse, the lakes "Ketelmeer" and "Wolderwijd", and the canal "Noordzeekanaal" in 1993. The toxicity of untreated water samples as well as selectively concentrated organic constituents was measured with the luminescent bacteria test, Microtox. The toxicity is expressed as the so-called pT-value (10log (EC20, t=.../100)), relating toxicity to environmental acceptability criteria. According to preformulated acceptability criteria, hardly any of the observed pT-values reflects favourable conditions.<br>
Verslag workshop "In-situ Bodemreiniging" Bilthoven, 7 mei 1991Bosch H van den (1991-11-30)On May 7, 1991 a workshop on 'In-situ soil remediation techniques' was organized by the Laboratory for Waste Materials and Emissions of the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection and the Netherlands Integrated Soil Research Programme. The aim of the workshop was to make an inventory of the problems related to the development of in-situ soil remediation techniques and to discuss the desired research strategy in this field. About 35 people from research institutes, consultancy agencies, soil remediation companies and government service were invited to participate in this discussion. The workshop concluded that technical problems, which frustrate the further development and optimalization of in-situ remediation techniques, are related to soil heterogenity and the spatial distribution of the contamination. This heterogenity hinders the monitoring of the remediation process and the assessment of the final situation. A thorough preliminary inquiry of the location may diminish the negative effects of heterogenity. To achieve better control and optimalization of the process, simulation models, sampling strategies and procedures for extraction and analysis should be further developed and/or standardized. Focal points for each in-situ remediation technique have been defined as a guide to future research.
Bioconcentration of gaseous organic chemicals in plant leaves: comparison of experimental data with model predictionsPolder MD; Hulzebos EM; Jager DT; CSR; ECO (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-03-31)Chemical substances are distributed in the environment between compartments such as soil, water, air, and biota. Chemicals may be concentrated by plants from soil and air, and therefore plants may contribute substantially to the total daily intake of humans. This study was performed to support the implementation of two models in USES 1.0 and in the European version EUSES, which will become available in May this year. The Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances, USES 1.0, was developed to assess the lifetime risk of indirect exposure of man and top predators. One of the exposure pathways of plants included in USES 1.0 is the transfer of gaseous substances from air to plant leaves by means of the model of Riederer. A model similar to that of Riederer but having a more refined approach is carried out by Trapp and Matthies. The model of Trapp and Matthies takes the dynamics of the uptake processes into account, and will be implemented in the new European version EUSES. Purpose of this literature study is to evaluate the models of Riederer and Trapp and Matthies by comparing their results with experimental data on leaf-air partition coefficients (K l/a) found in the literature. The data set was limited and therefore conclusions can only be drawn with reservations. For herbaceous plants both models give good estimations for the leaf-air partition coefficient up to 1.0 E+7, with deviations for most substances within a factor 5. For substances for which Riederer predicts a leaf-air partition coefficient above 1.0 E+7, the approach of Trapp and Matthies may be more adequate.<br>