Prioritaire stoffen in het milieu. Analyse van de milieudruk en -kwaliteit in Nederland over de periode 1990 - 2005
Cast your vote
You can rate an item by clicking the amount of stars they wish to award to this item.
When enough users have cast their vote on this item, the average rating will also be shown.
Your vote was cast
Thank you for your feedback
Thank you for your feedback
Series/Report no.RIVM rapport 607880005
MetadataShow full item record
TitlePrioritaire stoffen in het milieu. Analyse van de milieudruk en -kwaliteit in Nederland over de periode 1990 - 2005
Translated TitlePriority pollutants in the environment. Pressure and state of the environment 1990 - 2005
PubliekssamenvattingDe afgelopen vijftien jaar is de problematiek over de aanwezigheid van prioritaire stoffen in het Nederlandse milieu afgenomen. De milieudruk (emissies van schadelijke stoffen naar lucht, water en bodem) is afgenomen en de milieukwaliteit (concentraties van schadelijke stoffen in het milieu) is verbeterd. Voor een aantal stoffen is het verbetertempo echter te laag om de beleidsdoelstellingen in 2010 te kunnen halen.
Prioritaire stoffen zijn milieuschadelijke stoffen, die in het milieubeleid met voorrang worden behandeld en waarvoor beleidsdoelstellingen voor het jaar 2010 zijn opgesteld. Er zijn nog steeds stoffen waarvan de emissies hoger zijn dan het voor 2010 gestelde maximum. Ook zijn concentraties nog vaak hoger dan de gestelde streefwaarden, die vanaf 2010 niet meer mogen worden overschreden.
Dit blijkt uit het verloop van berekende milieudruk- en milieukwaliteitsindicatoren. Met dergelijke indicatoren wordt getalsmatig uitgedrukt hoever de huidige milieudruk en milieukwaliteit afwijken van de beleidsdoelstellingen ('distance to target').
Wat betreft emissie blijkt dat vooral voor cadmium het emissieplafond naar lucht, water en bodem wordt overschreden. Voor de zware metalen koper en zink is vaak de uitstoot naar water en bodem te hoog.
Concentraties van zwaveldioxide, stikstofdioxiden, koolmonoxide, lood en ozon in lucht liggen vaak boven de streefwaarden. Dit geldt ook voor concentraties van koper in oppervlaktewater. In het grondwater liggen de concentraties van chroom, cadmium en nikkel regelmatig boven de streefwaarden.
In the past fifteen years, the problem of environmental pollution due to the presence of priority pollutants has decreased considerably in The Netherlands. The environmental pressure (emissions of substances to air, surface water and soil) has decreased and concomitantly the environmental state (concentrations of substances in the environment) has improved. However, for a number of substances the problem of environmental pollution by priority pollutants is not decreasing at a rate which ensures the achievement of policy goals formulated for 2010.
Priority substances are chemicals that are harmful to the environment and that are addressed with priority by the environmental policy. For these substances policy goals have been formulated for 2010. For some of these the emissions have remained higher than the maximum value set for 2010. Moreover, also the concentrations are still higher than the policy goals that must not be exceeded after 2010.
This appears from the course in time of the environmental pressure and state indicators that have been calculated from emission and concentration data. These indicators express numerically how far the present environmental pressure and environmental state differ from the policy goals ('distance to target').
With regards to the emissions, it has appeared that especially for cadmium the emission maximum to air, surface water and soil is still being exceeded. The heavy metals copper and zinc are often being emitted at too high amounts to the surface water and the soil.
The concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrous oxides, carbon monoxide, lead and ozone in the air are often found above the goal values. This also goes for the copper concentrations in the surface water. Regularly, chromium, cadmium and nickel are being found in the groundwater at concentrations above the goals for the environmental state
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Environmental Risk Assessment for Veterinary Medicinal Products Part 3. Validation of environmental exposure modelsMontforts MHMM; Verschoor AJ; SEC (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2003-11-07)This report investigates the validity of exposure and distribution models for soil, groundwater and surface water for the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) at registration. The functional validations with (oxy)tetracycline and sulphonamides indicate that it is impossible to analyse the contribution of every single model parameter to the variability in the model predictions using random field samples. It can be concluded that the available field data do not allow for validation of the parameter selection in the models investigated.A lysimeter study with sulphachloropyridazine was used for a functional validition of the groundwater model PEARL. A simulation error of 0.02 was established, which means that computed values underestimated the measured values by a factor 50. In this study two major factors for uncertainty in the simulation are discerned. First, the untimely ending of the lysimeter hampered the full expression of downward transport. Second, the uncertainty in the sorption process and parameter is of major importance for a reliable simulation. Despite the shortcomings of the case study the potential of pesticide leaching models in general and of PEARL in particular is demonstrated.<br>
European Environmental Priorities: an Integrated Economic and Environmental AssessmentWieringa K; MNV (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-04-23)The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium led by RIVM, provides a basis for priority setting for European environmental policy planning in support of the sixth Environmental Action Programme as follow-up of the current fifth Environmental Action Plan called 'Towards Sustainability'. The analysis is based on an examination of the cost of avoided damage, environmental expenditures, risk assessment, public opinion, social incidence and sustainability. The study incorporates information on targets, scenario results, and policy options and measures including their costs and benefits. Main findings of the study are the following. Current trends show that if all existing policies are fully implemented and enforced, the European Union will be successful in reducing pressures on the environment. However, damage to human health and ecosystems can be substantially reduced with accelerated policies. The implementation costs of these additional policies will not exceed the environmental benefits and the impact on the economy is manageable. This requires future policies to focus on least-cost solutions and follow an integrated approach. Nevertheless, these policies will not be adequate for achieving all policy objectives. Remaining major problems are the excess load of nitrogen in the ecosystem, exceedance of air quality guidelines (especially particulate matter), noise nuisance and biodiversity loss.<br>
Monitoring of exposures, body burdens and health effects of environmental pollutants in the Netherlands; position paper from the perspective of environmental epidemiologyLebret E; Fischer PH; Staatsen BAM; Franssen EAM; de Hollander AEM; Houthuijs DJM; CCM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-03-31)Environmental health monitoring is defined as the combination of routine measurements and collection, analysis and interpretation of data, required to produce information on (the distribution of) predefined indicators of exposures, body burdens and related public health impact. Examples of indicators and of public health impact are presented. Five types of monitoring activities are described, each with a different type of underlying question. Furthermore, existing data sources, mainly health registries, are critically evaluated on potential usefulness as data sources for environmental health monitoring. An evaluation of monitoring activities abroad, shows that health monitoring programmes are world-wide numerous, however, in almost none of the programmes a direct link is made between environmental factors and health indicators. To design a monitoring system with the desired functionality, the effect-size to be detected by the system needs to be specified first. Next, the number of people to be studied can be assessed by the use of statistical power analysis. The stipulation of an effect size involves value judgements about the biological (or economic) importance of an effect of a certain magnitude and lies in the domain of the risk managers. Before setting up a monitoring activity, policy makers and researchers have to agree on what effects should be minimally detectable and within what time period. It is concluded that the current monitoring activities in the Netherlands and abroad appear to have limited functionality, due to the relative small sample sizes involved, and a lack of integration of information from different disciplines involved in monitoring activities. Future monitoring programmes can be improved by a more intensive interaction among scientists of different disciplines involved in the phase of model formulation and development. Recommendations for such an integrated framework are specified.<br>