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van den Berg HHJL
Docters van Leeuwen AE
de Roda Husman AM
Series/Report no.RIVM rapport 703719049
MetadataShow full item record
TitleEmerging pathogenen in oppervlaktewater
Translated TitleEmerging pathogens in surface water
PubliekssamenvattingIn grote Nederlandse rivieren zijn twee virussen en een bacteriesoort aangetroffen die schadelijk kunnen zijn voor de gezondheid van de mens. Het betreft het hepatitis E virus (HEV), het humaan parechovirus (HPeV) en de methicilline-resistente Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacterie. Dit blijkt uit verkennend onderzoek van het RIVM. Deze ziekteverwekkende micro-organismen worden 'emerging' pathogenen genoemd. Het gaat daarbij om nieuwe ziekteverwekkers (MRSA) en ziekteverwekkers waarvan het bestaan pas relatief kort bekend is (HEV en HPeV). De aanwezigheid van emerging pathogenen in oppervlaktewater kan schadelijk zijn als mensen aan dit water worden blootgesteld, bijvoorbeeld door recreatie. Om in te kunnen schatten in welke mate dit schadelijk is, is onderzoek nodig naar deze pathogenen op dergelijke recreatielocaties.
Het RIVM heeft het onderzoek in samenwerking met Rijkswaterstaat Waterdienst uitgevoerd voor het VROM-Inspectie-project 'Emerging substances and pathogens'. Hiervoor zijn van mei 2008 tot en met mei 2009 drie meetlocaties onderzocht, te weten de Rijn bij Lobith, de Maas bij Eijsden en de Nieuwe Maas bij Brienenoord. In deze wateren is elke vier weken gekeken of HPeV, HEV en MRSA aanwezig waren.
HEV en HPeV zijn in de Maas, de Rijn, en de Nieuwe Maas aangetroffen. Beide virussen zijn vooral in de Maas en het minst vaak in de Nieuwe Maas gevonden. HPeV werd vaker gevonden dan HEV. MRSA is in de Maas en de Rijn maar niet in de Nieuwe Maas gevonden.
In large Dutch rivers, two virus species and a bacterial species were detected that can be detrimental to public health. It concerns hepatitis E virus (HEV), human parechovirus (HPeV) and the bacterium methicillin-resistent Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This was demonstrated in an exploratory study performed at the RIVM. These pathogenic micro-organisms are called emerging pathogens. This can be newly evolved human pathogens (MRSA) or pathogens that have just recently been identified (HEV en HPeV). The presence of these pathogens in surface water can be harmful when people get exposed to these waters, for instance during recreation. To be able to estimate the magnitude of the health risk, the prevalence of these pathogens needs to be investigated in specific surface waters, such as those used for recreation.
The research was performed in collaboration with 'Rijkswaterstaat Waterdienst' as part of the project 'Emerging substances and pathogens' for the VROM-Inspectorate. For this purpose, three locations have been sampled from May 2008 to May 2009: the Rhine at Lobith, the Meuse at Eijsden, and the New Meuse at Brienenoord. Every four weeks these waters were screened for the presence of HPeV, HEV en MRSA.
HEV en HPeV were detected in the Meuse, Rhine and New Meuse. Both viruses were most often detected in the Meuse, and least in the New Meuse. Overall, HPeV was found more frequently than HEV. MRSA was observed in the Meuse and the Rhine, but not in the New Meuse.
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Assessment of odour annoyance in chemical emergency managementRuijten MWMM; Doorn R van; Harreveld AP van; SIR (CrisisTox ConsultMunicipal Health Service Rotterdam (GGD)OdourNet BV, 2009-06-11)In chemical emergencies the exposed community is likely to interpret the presence of an unusual odour not common to the normal 'odour landscape' as a potential health risk. This report describes a methodology for assessing the airborne concentration level at which the exposed community is likely to become aware of the presence of a chemical by detecting its odour, which in turn may require communicative emergency response activities, even in the absence of toxicological health risks. The presented methodology will help emergency response organizations to improve the understanding of odour driven public concerns in chemical emergencies, and improve their ability to assess if and which type of response is adequate. The methodology builds on consensus reached within the Acute Exposure Guideline Levels (AEGL) program that an airborne concentration producing a distinct odour perception in more than half of an accidentally exposed, distracted population would qualify as significant odour awareness. This concentration is designated as 'Level of distinct Odour Awareness (LOA)'. The LOA is determined in three steps: 1. Select an appropriate odour threshold, for instance from one of the suggested sources. 2. Derive a distinct odour level based on the Weber-Fechner equation. 3. Adjust for field circumstances such as age, head cold and the usual exposure pattern. The LOA must be developed on a chemical-by-chemical basis. The availability of high quality chemical specific information for steps 1 and 2 is a major hurdle, which has been partly overcome by introducing default values.
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