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dc.contributor.authorSlooff W
dc.contributor.authorBont PFH
dc.contributor.authorHesse JM
dc.contributor.authorLoos B
dc.date.accessioned2012-12-12T21:57:36Z
dc.date.available2012-12-12T21:57:36Z
dc.date.issued1992-10-31
dc.identifier710401020
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10029/261256
dc.description.abstractAbstract niet beschikbaar
dc.description.abstractThis report contains general information on Antimony and antimony compounds concerning the existing standards, emissions, exposure levels and effect levels. The document is to be considered as a start for the national discussion during an exploratory meeting on integrated criteria documents. Many antimony-emitting sources are known but the emission figures are often lacking. The most important known sources of emissions to air are light bulb production and pigment industry, and possibly the burning of fire retardants, whereas hunting, shooting and sport fishing contribute significantly to emissions to soil and water. Concentration levels of antimony in the environment are, relative to other heavy metals, scarcely available. With regard to the carcinogenic effect of antimony, it seems as yet justified to use at threshold extrapolation method for risk assessment. The risk of antimony in food and drinking water for humans is small, considering the difference between the tolerable daily intake of 0.86 mug.kg-1 bw and the actual estimated daily intake of 0.17 to 0.33 mg.kg. bw. The risk of current antimony concentrations in air for humans is also considered small. An average exposure concentration in urban areas of 23 ng Sb.m-3 has been reported, which is below the tentative maximum tolerable concentration of 3200 ng Sb.m-3. For aquatic organisms a tentative maximum tolerable concentration of 3 mug.l-1 was derived (as "dissolved" Sb; < 0.45 mum). The average concentrations (total Sb) in Dutch surface waters are usually below 1 mug.l-1. The risk to aquatic organisms is within acceptable limits, possibly localities in the vicinity of waste water outlets excepted. Also in soil the current antimony levels are considered not to present a risk to soil organisms in general. A point that may need attention is the contamination of the environment as a result from shooting, hunting and sport fishing. It is recommended to determine antimony concentrations near some point sources in surfacewater and to evaluate the effects of shooting, hunting and sport fishing in combination with the effects of other contaminants such as lead.
dc.description.sponsorshipDGM/SVS
dc.formatapplication/pdf
dc.format.extent44 p
dc.format.extent2058 kb
dc.language.isoen
dc.relation.ispartofRIVM Rapport 710401020
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/710401020.html
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/710401020.pdf
dc.subject12nl
dc.subjectantimoonnl
dc.subjectblootstellingnl
dc.subjecttoxiciteitnl
dc.subjecteffectennl
dc.subjectgezondheidnl
dc.subjectmilieunl
dc.subjectrisiconl
dc.subjectnormnl
dc.subject92-4nl
dc.subjectantimonyen
dc.subjectexposureen
dc.subjecttoxicityen
dc.subjecthealth effectsen
dc.subjectenvironmenten
dc.subjectrisk analysisen
dc.subjectstandardsen
dc.titleExploratory report Antimony and antimony compoundsen
dc.title.alternativeScopingsrapport Antimoon en antimoonverbindingennl
dc.typeReport
dc.date.updated2012-12-12T21:57:36Z
html.description.abstractAbstract niet beschikbaar
html.description.abstractThis report contains general information on Antimony and antimony compounds concerning the existing standards, emissions, exposure levels and effect levels. The document is to be considered as a start for the national discussion during an exploratory meeting on integrated criteria documents. Many antimony-emitting sources are known but the emission figures are often lacking. The most important known sources of emissions to air are light bulb production and pigment industry, and possibly the burning of fire retardants, whereas hunting, shooting and sport fishing contribute significantly to emissions to soil and water. Concentration levels of antimony in the environment are, relative to other heavy metals, scarcely available. With regard to the carcinogenic effect of antimony, it seems as yet justified to use at threshold extrapolation method for risk assessment. The risk of antimony in food and drinking water for humans is small, considering the difference between the tolerable daily intake of 0.86 mug.kg-1 bw and the actual estimated daily intake of 0.17 to 0.33 mg.kg. bw. The risk of current antimony concentrations in air for humans is also considered small. An average exposure concentration in urban areas of 23 ng Sb.m-3 has been reported, which is below the tentative maximum tolerable concentration of 3200 ng Sb.m-3. For aquatic organisms a tentative maximum tolerable concentration of 3 mug.l-1 was derived (as &quot;dissolved&quot; Sb; &lt; 0.45 mum). The average concentrations (total Sb) in Dutch surface waters are usually below 1 mug.l-1. The risk to aquatic organisms is within acceptable limits, possibly localities in the vicinity of waste water outlets excepted. Also in soil the current antimony levels are considered not to present a risk to soil organisms in general. A point that may need attention is the contamination of the environment as a result from shooting, hunting and sport fishing. It is recommended to determine antimony concentrations near some point sources in surfacewater and to evaluate the effects of shooting, hunting and sport fishing in combination with the effects of other contaminants such as lead.


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