Zwart D de (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-04-30)
In general terms the problems with the existing water quality monitoring approach concern effective and efficient monitoring strategies. In 1993 the project "Monitoring water quality in the future" started in order to address these problems which will only increase in the future. In the framework of this project five reports have been produced, focussing on: Chemical Monitoring (Volume 1) ; Mixture toxicity parameters (Volume 2) ; Biomonitoring (Volume 3) ; Monitoring strategies for complex mixtures (Volume 4); and Organizational aspects (Volume 5). The specific objectives were to produce concise reviews of methods to signal changes in and control water quality (Volumes 1-3), to give a review of testing strategies for complex mixtures of chemical substances which can give more complete information at less costs (Volume 4) and to review existing practices and make recommendations concerning standardization, optimization and organization of monitoring activities in the European Union, with a focus on effectiveness and efficiency (Volume 5). In an executive summary overall recommendations are also made by drawing these together from the individual studies. The present report (Volume 3) includes a short description of existing biomonitoring methodologies and measurement strategies, as well as a discussion on possibilities, developments, limitations and financial consequences.
Zwart D de; Trivedi RC; Kruijf HAM de (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-01-31)
This manual for integrated water quality evaluation is based on the experiences gained in a six year collaboration between the Central Pollution Control Board in India and the RIVM. The Dutch part of this study was financed by the Directorate General for International Cooperation, while the Indian committment was taken care of by the Department of Environment and Forests. Next to the scientific justification, the manual contains a "cook book" description of the many methods and procedures which should be applied for sampling, analysis and data evaluation. As an annex, interpretation examples are given of the 1993-1994 monitoring results for a number of Indian river systems.
Notenboom J; Eijsackers HJP; Swartjes FA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-01-31)
In the framework of the Dutch "Woningwet" (housing law) an approach is developed with the aim of assessing ecological risks of contaminated land. This approach is part of a more general decision support system, on which the assessment of soil quality in granting a building permit for a parcel will be based. Theoretical backgrounds of ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites are given. Within the context of the housing law there are very important limitations with respect to data availability and time available for decision making. This restricts very strongly the possibilities for ecological risk assessment of building parcels and forces to make a choice for a very pragmatic approach. Consequently, one is compelled to accept considerable sources of uncertainty. The proposed approach consists of three elements that are integrated in an assessment scheme. (1) The amount of pollution induced toxic stress on the ecosystem. This is estimated by adding pollution units of the individual contaminating chemicals. A pollution unit consists of the soil concentration of a chemical divided by its Hazardous Concentration 50% (HC50). (2) An estimate of exposure judged by the land-use type of the parcel. (3) An estimate of ecological accessibility based on the land-use in the neighbourhood of the parcel. The assessment scheme is based on the supposition that higher pollution induced stress is acceptable in situations with low chance of exposure and scarce ecological accessibility. Risk levels in this scheme should be given by policy makers because reliable technical and scientific arguments are lacking. Uncertainties of the proposed method are discussed and possibilities are given how improvements in reliability can be made.
Wal JT van der; Luttik R; Vaal MA; Hoekstra JA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-11-30)
In this study the variation in sensitivity of birds and mammals for pesticides is analyzed. It is part of a project aimed at the development of Quantitative Species-Sensitivity Relationships (QSSRs). A statistical technique is used to detect sensitivity patterns in sets of acute toxicity data of birds and mammals. As in previous studies, patterns in compound toxicity are less complex than patterns in species sensitivity. Ranking of compounds by their over all species averaged toxicity explains most of the variation in the data set. Sensitivity differences within the birds and mammals are limited. For risk assessment purposes this indicates that testing of more than one bird or mammal will have little influence on the outcome of the final assessment, due to other sources of uncertainty in the assessment procedures.
Rorije E; Muller M; Peijnenburg WJGM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-05-31)
Estimates of (bio)degradation kinetics for 1073 compounds in various environmental compartments have been made as a part of the EU-project 'Fate and Activity Modelling of Environmental Pollutants using Structure-Activity Relationships' (FAME). These estimates have been made for all single compounds on the High Production Volume Chemicals (HPVC) list of the European Union (as of June 4th 1995). No predictions can be made for the large amount (> 50 %) of mixtures and ill-defined compounds on the HPVC-list. The models that have been applied are Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs), which were selected from literature. An indication of the precision of the estimates is given, either based on available validation studies of the models, and/or based on the statistical quality of the models. Given the large amount of compounds for which no or very few experimental degradation kinetics are available, these estimates can serve as supplementary information for the priority setting and the risk assessment of existing chemicals in the EU that is now being performed as a part of EU Regulation (EEC) 793/93 on existing chemical substances. In the future the estimates, and therefore the selected QSAR models, will be validated using new data on the HPVC that are being collected by the EU at this moment, from the European industries.
Brandes LJ; Hollander H den; Meent D van de (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-12-31)
SimpleBox is a nested multimedia box model of the 'Mackay type'. The environment is modeled as consisting of a set of well-mixed homogeneous compartments (air, fresh water, sea water, sediments, three soil compartments and two vegetation compartments) in regional, continental and global spatial scales. The model takes emission rates and rate constants for transport and transformation of micropollutants as input and computes steady-state concentrations in the environment as output. SimpleBox is a generic model which can be customised to represent specific environmental situations. In its default setting, the SimpleBox computation represents the behaviour of micropollutants in a regional and continental spatial scale; representing a densely populated Western European region, and the whole of the European Union, respectively. The present version of the model was produced as a starting point for a project aimed at validation of the intended use of the model in harmonisation of environmental quality objectives of air, water, and soil in the Netherlands. SimpleBox 2.0 has also served as a basis for the regional/continental distribution module into the European Union System for Evaluation of Substances (EUSES). This report is meant to provide the technical documentation that is necessary to serve these purposes.
Notenboom J; Posthuma L (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-04-30)
In 1993 bioassays with several organisms (bacteria, plants, arthropods, oligochaetes) have been performed in metal contaminated soils originating from the neighbourhood of a zinc smelter works at Budel. Results are compared with those of experiments performed with the same organisms in standardized (artificial) soils spiked with metals. Moreover, abundance and diversity of nematoda along a gradient of contaminated soils near Budel is studied. A start has been made with the organization of an experimental field, above all for the study of abiotic factors influencing the sensitivity of soil organisms. The report gives a general enumeration of results obtained, additionally an evaluation and integration of results is persued and a strategy is designed for the next phase of the project.
Peijnenburg WJGM; van de Hoop MAGT; van de Meent D; Struijs J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-01-31)
In some cases natural background concentration of heavy metals exceeds levels named in present environmental quality objectives, and thus poses a risk to the ecosystem of interest. This observation led to a survey study among a number of experts, aimed at deriving new, scientifically based, methods for incorporating both natural background concentrations of heavy metals and the availability of heavy metals for uptake by organisms, into the environmental quality objectives. A proposal for a new, scientifically sound, method for deriving environmental quality objectives incorporating background concentrations and availability resulted from the extensive consultations of the experts: the so-called method of "effect-limitation". The method is based on a distinction that can be made between a bioavailable and a non-available fraction of the background concentration. The bioavailable fraction will result in a so-called background effect, defined as the fracton of all species in a given ecosystem that is not fully protected due to the available background concentration. The maximum permissible effect is added to this background effect. The maximum permissible concentration can be obtained on the basis of the cumulative dose-effect curve.
Hoop MAGT van den; Hollander HA den; Kerdijk HN (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-06-30)
Within the framework of the project Exposure Assessment, Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) and Simultaneously Extracted Metal (SEM) contents of Dutch marine and freshwater sediments were determined. For the present set of fifteen marine and six freshwater sediments AVS levels vary between non-detectable (<0.1) and approximately 50 notmol per gram dry sediment. The SEM/AVS ratio was found to be smaller than one in nineteen cases. Furthermore, seasonal variations in AVS and SEM concentrations were observed that may change the potential toxicity of metals in sediments. Seasonal changes in the SEM/AVS ratio were found to be different for various sediments.
Struijs J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-01-31)
The spreadsheet SimpelTreat 3.0 is a model to predict the distribution and elimination of chemicals by sewage treatment. Simpeltreat 3.0 is an improved version of SimpleTreat, applied in the Netherlands in the Uniform System for the Evaluation of Substances (USES version 1.0, 1994). Although in the very beginning strong reservations were encountered, the model has become accepted as a useful tool for generic exposure assessment. It is now recognized that the accuracy of exposure assessment, in particular for the water compartment in urban regions, is largely determined by the accuracy with which the chemical fate in sewage treatment plants (STP) can be predicted. This model includes a wider range of operation modes of wastewater purification to account for the variety of communal wastewater scenarios across the EU. Chemical transport and transformation processes also cover a wider range of applications both for compound properties and scenarios. Emission of substances via sludge production was modified to account for the presence and absence of primary sedimentation. The first scenario applies to the urban areas where usually large installations purify the raw wastewater ; the second is more representative for rural regions, where a high percentage of the wastewater goes through treatment installations, for example in Denmark. Mathematical expressions of individual processes, which chemicals may undergo in a STP were critically reviewed. Emission to the air compartment, due to stripping in the aeration tank, has been re-assessed by taking into account the gas-phase resistance. This correction is necessary to better predict the behaviour of semi-volatile chemicals. However, the input of biodegradation data and the way this information is processed have been altered the most. Modifications are partly motivated by the discussions in the course of developing a risk assessment system for "new" and "existing" chemicals in the European Community. Also, results, presented in recent literature, have been implemented. A second version of USES to be applied in the EU, is currently being developed. Since a sewage treatment chemical fate model should cover many scenarios to play its key role in exposure assessment, it was decided to use Simpeltreat 3.0 for this purpose in USES 2.0, instead of SimpleTreat. This report may serve as a reference manual for Simpeltreat 3.0. The electronic version of this spreadsheet file (on accompanying diskette) is written in MicroSoft EXCEL.
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