Ietswaart Th; Breure AM; Hersbach L; Verhoeven JTA; Portielje R; Boers PCM; Admiraal W; Leslie H; Dankers N; Brinkman B; van Duin W; Dijkema K; Behrends B(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-06-18)
This report contains the literature reviews that have been performed as the basis for a proposal for an indicator system for the life support function 'natural purification of surface waters'. The proposal for the indicator system is given in RIVM report 607605001.<br>
Sijm D; Lijzen J; Peijnenburg W; Sneller E; Traas T; Verbruggen E(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-06-19)
Bioavailability of chemicals in the environment has been the topic of scientific research for a number of years. Following up on requests from within the field of risk assessment and standard setting, the Stearing Group "Integral Standard Setting" (INS) asked for an advice on the future role of biological availability in standard setting and risk assessment. A workshop was organised in response to this request. In this report the main recommendations of the workshop are given. In addition, a number of policyrelated advises are incorporated, including an assessment of the time frames needed. The aim of the report is to review the utility of bioavailability-related research for standard setting and risk assessment and to put the expected applicability of the results of this research in a realistic time frame. It is foreseen that implementation of the topics with potential for future implementation in risk assessment or standard setting, will result in a more realistic risk assessment. The reliability of the present policy on chemical substances will benefit without defecting the environment. An active attitude from regulating bodies is essential for implementing the potentially favourable options and to stimulate researchers to focus their research activities on those topics that are most relevant from a policy making point of make. In addition to these general conclusions, detailed information on all options dealing with bioavailability of metals and organic substances in water, sediment and soil is given in the report.<br>
Titak A; Berg F van den; Boesten JJTI; Kraalingen D van; Leistra M; Linden AMA van der(Alterra Green World Research, 2001-03-22)
The PEARL model is used to evaluate the leaching of pesticide to the groundwater in support to the Dutch and European pesticide registration procedures. PEARL is an acronym for Pesticide Emission Assessment at Regional and Local scales. The model is a joint product of Alterra Green World research and the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment, and it has replaced the models PESTLA and PESTRAS since June first, 2000. Model and data can be accessed through a user-friendly Graphical User Interface for Windows 95/98/NT. All data are stored in a relational database. Both the Dutch standard scenario and the European standard scenarios as suggested by the FOCUS modeling working group can be accessed through the User Interface. This report gives a description of the processes and parameters included in PEARL version 1.1. It also contains a description of the Pearl User Interface and the input and output files. The Dutch standard scenario is described briefly.
Willems WJ; Fraters B; Meinardi CR; Reijnders HFR; van Beek CGEM(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2003-01-15)
This report is one of the background reports of the evaluation report "MINAS en Milieu" It deals with the impact of fertiliser- and manure application in agriculture on the quality of soil (phosphrus) en groundwater (phosphorus/nitrogen). It is based on monitoring data carried out in the period 1984-2000. The report describes the actual status of quality standards with respect to nutrients. The agricultural soils in the Netherlands are in general phosphorus-rich. Nitrate concentrations in groundwater are high in shallow groundwater (in 2000 in sandy areas ca 125 mg/l: more than twice the standard value) but show a decrease since 1995, due to lower N-surpluses in dairy farming. At greater depths, concentrations are lower due to a combination of slow travel time, hydrology and decay (denitrification). In certain areas the abstracted groundwater for public water supply shows an increase of co-products of denitrifiaction e.g. sulphate, metals (nickel) and hardness.<br>
Lembrechts J; Slaper H; Pearce DW; Howarth A(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-09-21)
The economic assessment of priorities for a European environmental policy plan focuses on twelve identified Prominent European Environmental Problems such as climate change, chemical risks and biodiversity. The study, commissioned by the European Commission (DG Environment) to a European consortium led by RIVM, provides a basis for priority setting for European environmental policy planning in support of the sixth Environmental Action Programme as follow-up of the current fifth Environmental Action Plan called 'Towards Sustainability'. The analysis is based on an examination of the cost of avoided damage, environmental expenditures, risk assessment, public opinion, social incidence and sustainability. The study incorporates information on targets, scenario results, and policy options and measures including their costs and benefits. Main findings of the study are the following. Current trends show that if all existing policies are fully implemented and enforced, the European Union will be successful in reducing pressures on the environment. However, damage to human health and ecosystems can be substantially reduced with accelerated policies. The implementation costs of these additional policies will not exceed the environmental benefits and the impact on the economy is manageable. This requires future policies to focus on least-cost solutions and follow an integrated approach. Nevertheless, these policies will not be adequate for achieving all policy objectives. Remaining major problems are the excess load of nitrogen in the ecosystem, exceedance of air quality guidelines (especially particulate matter), noise nuisance and biodiversity loss. This report is one of a series supporting the main report: European Environmental Priorities: an Integrated Economic and Environmental Assessment. The areas discussed in the main report are fully documented in the various Technical reports. A background report is presented for each environmental issue giving an outline of the problem and its relationship to economic sectors and other issues; the benefits and the cost-benefit analysis; and the policy responses. Additional reports outline the benefits methodology, the EU enlargement issue and the macro-economic consequences of the scenarios. This report documents the Nuclear Accidents issue.<br>
At 18 and 19 September 2000 a workshop was organised by the Community Reference Laboratory for Salmonella (CRL-Salmonella) in Bilthoven, the Netherlands. All National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella (NRLs-Salmonella) of the EU Member States and Norway participated (in total 38 participants). The programme of the workshop was divided according to different subjects. First the new draft zoonoses directive was discussed. Subsequently an evaluation was held on the bacteriological collaborative study and activities on bacteriological detection in the Member States. Furthermore the set-up and results of collaborative typing studies and immunological methods were discussed. The background and meaning of (measurements of) antibiotic resistance were presented by a guest speaker.
van Arkel FTh; van Putten EM; Bloemen HJTh; van der Meulen A(Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-06-28)
Automatic FAG 62I-N beta-dust monitors have been used in the National Air Quality Monitoring Network to measure PM10 (particles smaller than 10 um aerodynamic diameter) in the Netherlands. In comparing the 5-method with the European reference method (EN12341) for PM10, this automatic beta-method was found to underestimate the PM10 levels observed using the reference method by about 25%. Laboratory research was then carried out to explore the causes. These laboratory experiments focussed on the influence of moisture on the response of the monitor, and on the influence of the inlet heating on both the volatile ammonium nitrate aerosol and the less volatile ammonium sulphate aerosol. Humidity will only slightly increase the concentrations measured by the beta-dust monitor. At very high humidities (RH over 80%), positive offsetting (overestimation) of the dust concentration of up to about 3-4 ug/m3 was observed when compared to the reference method. Thus humidity can not explain the aforementioned difference of 25% at commonly encountered PM10 levels. The inlet heating of the beta-dust monitor definitively does evaporate volatile ammonium nitrate aerosol. At the maximum set temperature (80 degrees Celcius) of the inlet heating element of the FAG 62I-N beta-dust monitor, ammonium nitrate will be completely evaporated, and so no ammonium nitrate is measured. At the standard setting of 50 degrees Celcius the ammonium nitrate will partly evaporate, i.e. only part of the ammonium nitrate is measured. In contrast, the TEOM (Tapered Element Oscillation Microbalance) evaporates all the ammonium nitrate. The heating efficiencies of the monitors are clearly different. For this reason they can not be compared when volatile aerosol is present. The less volatile ammonium sulphate aerosol does not experience any influence of inlet heating, so the methods of measurement are comparable in this case.<br>
Raesfeld A von; Bakker F de; Groen A(Universiteit Twente (UTw), 2001-12-02)
This report of the MATRIC project investigated 'Eco-efficiency in industrial production'. After a general introduction into the domain of eco-efficiency, the first part of this report further focusses on the organisation of Product-Oriented Environmental Management (POEM), which is defined as the systematic attention of a company for reducing the environmental impact of its products across the entire product lifecycle. The second part of this report focusses on the adoption of eco-efficient construction systems in Dutch house building. After a general description of socio-technical development in Dutch housing construction, the housing construction regime is described, special attention is given to the adoption paths of timber-frame and calcium silicate stone construction systems, and, finally lessons for the governance of socio-technical development in Dutch housing construction are drawn.
Berg Jeths A van den; Peters-Volleberg GWM(Centraal Planbureau (CPB), 2002-04-17)
The report is part of the Public Health Status and Forecast 2002 produced by the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands. The report describes two complex parts of the Dutch Healthcare system: pharmaceuticals and medical devices, and the role of the stakeholders involved. Producers mainly determine the prices, despite regulation by the government and insurance companies. Pharmaceutical companies spend a lot of money to marketing. Marketing makes physicians less sensitive to price. Prescribers of medical devices often have insufficient information to prescribe the most efficient device. Besides the health status of the patient, the attitude and cultural background determine the use of pharmaceuticals. Medical need, participation, patient friendliness and social acceptance partly determine the use of medical devices. If policy remains unchanged, expenditure on pharmaceutical care will rise by 11% and expenditure on medical devices by 7% each year until 2006. This results from an increase in the number of prescriptions and a mean increase in price per prescription. These increases are due to demographic, socio-cultural developments and advances in medical technology. An analysis is given in the report.
On May 13th, 2000, a firework storage facility with 177 tons of heavy fireworks exploded in a residential area in Enschede, The Netherlands. The series of three explosions and subsequent fire killed 22 and injured over 900 people and some 400 homes were destroyed. The Dutch government declared a national disaster and a survey was launched to study potential exposure to substances and psycho-trauma, and to assess current physical and psychological health of victims and relief workers, as part of a larger health care programme for the victims. The data collection was performed between 30th May and 7th June, and the first results were reported within 8 weeks of the disaster. This report addresses the assessment of the body burden of specific disaster-related-components in blood and urine among the full study population of 4000 residents and relief workers. Blood and urine samples were collected and analysed by ICP-MS for barium (Ba), cadmium (Cd), chrome (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), strontium (Sr), titanium (Ti) and zinc (Zn). Measured values were compared with reference values of comparable populations based on the scientific literature. To assess differences in blood and urine levels between potentially different exposed groups (based on questionnaire information) of residents or relief workers, multiple regression analyses were performed with adjustment for potential confounders. No systematic increases of blood and urine levels were found in the residential group (including children) nor in the relief workers. Regression analyses showed no consistent pattern between potential exposure and blood or urine levels. Based on the comparison to reference levels in combination to the regression results, the overall conclusion of the study is that for the elements under study no elevated body burdens due to the firework disaster were demonstrated.
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