Matthijsen AJCM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-11-30)
Use and emissions in the Netherlands of CFCs, HCFCs, HFCs, tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, methyl bromide en halones in 1993 and 1994. The use and emissions of CFCs, halons, tetrachloromethane and 1,1,1,-trichloroethane are decreasing. In view of the ban on CFCs (per 1 January 1995), halons (per 1 March 1994) and 1,1,1-trichloroethane (per 1 January 1996), the only possible sources of emissions, besides production for third world countries, are current stockpiles ; no new compounds will be produced. The emissions of these substances will therefore sharply decrease in the coming years and will only issue from mainly foam and, to a limited extent, from installations (fire extinguishers and cold storage). The use of HCFCs as subsitutes for CFCs is still on the increase. According to European legislation there is a ceiling placed on their use until 2003 ; this will be followed by a phasing-out, ending with a ban on their use in 2015. Possible substitutes for HCFCs are HFCs. In contrast to HCFCs, HFCs do not break down the ozone layer but make a larger contribution to the greenhouse effect. Little is known about the use and emissions of HFCs. Particularly the future use of the latter demands further investigation.
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