Amstel AR van (ed); Albers RAW; Kroeze C; Matthijsen AJCM; Olivier JGJ; Spakman J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-09-30)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was ratified by the Netherlands in December 1993. One of the obligations is to provide a National Communication on greenhouse gas emissions, projections and programmes to reduce these emissions. This background report was written at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment as a background report for the first Dutch National Communication for the Framework Convention on Climate Change. It documents the methodologies, both for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and sinks, and for projections. For the most important greenhouse gases, it gives estimates for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1991 and 1992, and projections of possible future emissions in 2000 and 2010 under two scenarios. The short-term aim of the Convention is stabilization of emissions between 1990 and 2000. Therefore 1990 was chosen as the base year for emission estimation and 2000 as the base year for evaluation. Emissions were estimated using internationally agreed IPCC methodology as well as methodology used in the Netherlands. The differences between the methods are explicitly explained. Carbon dioxide emissions were estimated with and without a temperature correction. The original Dutch policy method estimates emissions including feedstock use. For methane and nitrous oxide emissions, Dutch emission factors were applied instead of IPCC defaults. As more sources were found for nitrous oxide in the Netherlands, the Dutch emission was higher than when strictly applying IPCC methodology.
Bouwman AF (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-09-30)
This analysis was based on a review of published measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fertilized fields. From the literature data selections were made to analyze the importance of factors that regulate N2O production, including soil conditions, type of crop, nitrogen (N) fertilizer type and soil and crop management. Reported N2O losses from anhydrous ammonia and organic forms of N fertilizers or combinations of organic and synthetic N fertilizers are higher than those for other types of N fertilizer. However, the management and environmental conditions represented by the set of measurement data is too limited to be used for estimating emission factors for each fertilizer type individually. The literature data are appropriate for estimating the order of magnitude of emissions. The fertilizer-induced N2O emission is higher for measurements covering longer periods than for measurements which represent short periods. Therefore, a simple method to estimate the total annual direct N2O emission from fertilized fields was based on those measurements covering periods of one year, resulting in the following equation: N2O emission (kg N ha-1.yr-1) = 1 + 1.25 +/- 1% of the N application (kg N ha-1.yr-1). The relation is independent of the type of fertilizer. Although the above regression equation includes considerable uncertainty , it may be appropriate for global analyses.
Amstel AR van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-09-30)
This report was written at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment to comply with the European Unions Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism (Council Decision 93/389/EEC). The member states of the European Community have adopted the objective of stabilising CO2 emissions in the Community as a whole by 2000 at 1990 levels. The monitoring mechanism provides a means whereby the Commission can monitor progress towards this target on the basis of annual emission inventories supplied by the member states and national programmes which set out emission trajectories and policy measures to limit CO2 or to increase sinks. It also requires member states to report inventories of other greenhouse gases. Under the monitoring mechanism each member state reports its greenhouse gas emissions by the 31st of July each year. By each reporting deadline member states should supply inventories based on provisional data for the previous year and final data for the year previous to that. The first submission of provisional inventories in 1995 should also include data for the base year 1990. A review will be carried out under the responsibility of the European Commission. This report is also written to comply with the obligations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The inventory is compatible with the reporting requirements under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. It contains a greenhouse gas emissions inventory for the years 1993 and 1994, together with a short description of how the internationally adopted IPCC Guidelines have been applied in the Netherlands. Temperature corrected carbon dioxide emissions in 1993 and emissions of methane and nitrous oxide were slightly higher than 1990. A dip in the economic development especially in the chemical industry sector prevented a further growth in emissions. Provisional data for 1994 suggest a significant increase in carbon dioxide emissions due to the prosperous economic developments. Energy efficiency improvements prevented an even further growth in emissions.
Berdowski JJM; Auweraert RJK van der; Most PFJ van der; Thomas R; Zonneveld EA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-10-31)
In this report a survey is presented of the emission of approximately 60 compounds to the air and the surface-water in the Netherlands for the year 1992. For the year 1993 the emissions are estimated. For each compound specific information is given on the sources of emissions, on the relative contribution to the total emission in the Netherlands, and on the relation with the Dutch Environmental Policy Plans.
Elzenga JG (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-06-30)
This document reporting on environmental aspects of "Crematoriums" has been published within the WESP cooperative project of the Working Group on Emissions from Service Industries and Product Use. In this project information was collected on processes found in the target groups: consumers, construction, service industries, environmental cleanup, and consulting firms and recreational services. The aim was to reach an agreement on the data used by various institutes and to provide support for governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology, and standards and permits.
Hoek KW van der (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-05-31)
The report presents the RIVM methodology for calculating the emission of ammonia. Four ammonia sources, animal manure, application of fertilizer, industrial processes and households, are distinguished. The ammonia emissions in the Netherlands in the period 1990-1992 are respectively 215, 221 and 170 million kg. The 1992 emissions are presented on a 5 x 5 km grid in the report. The enforced legislation for low emission techniques both for grassland and arable land forms the main reason for the decrease of the 1992 ammonia emission by 50 million kg.
Brink RMM van den; Wee GP van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-05-31)
The aim of the study reported was to establish a basis for a realistic comparison of energy- efficiency to emissions from the different passenger and freight transport modes. Besides this report will also focus on of a modal shift on the effects on energy use and emissions. The energy use and emissions applied in the calculations arose from the production of fuels and electricity and yielded the following main conclusions: (1) Passenger transport by electric trains shows the lowest emission factors in 1995 compared to the other passenger transport modes. The city bus shows slightly higher energy efficiency than the passenger car used for city trips. The emissions of NOx and particles from the city bus are three times as high as those from the passenger car. The touring bus has the highest energy efficiency, followed by electric rail transport. (2) As mentioned above, a comparison of energy use with emissions per passenger kilometre using different passenger transport modes does not say anything about the effect on energy use and emissions of a modal shift from passenger cars towards public transport. Every increase in city-bus use at the cost of passenger-car use leads, at the current occupation rates, to avoiding an emission and energy use as large as the emission and energy use of one passenger car. (3) As a result of a further tightening of emission standards for road traffic combined with the delay of emission standards for diesel passenger trains, the environmental lead of electric passenger transport is declining. (4) With the current differences in type of transported goods, freight transport by road vehicles is 2 to 2.5 times less energy efficient than inland shipping or rail transport. However, the same can be concluded where transport of similar goods (containers) by the different modes is concerned. The emissions from electric rail transport are much lower than those from inland shipping or road transport. (5) In view of the coming tightening of the emission standards for road vehicles, combined with the delay of emission standards for freight trains (with diesel engines) and inland ships, there will be a much smaller gap between road and rail-freight transport in 2010.
Quarles van Ufford CHA; Gels H (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-02-28)
This document on Graphics industry has been published within the SPIN-project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licences.
Schipper-Zablotskaja M (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-07-31)
Environmental policy should be based on good information on the sources of pollution. Such information is essential, not only for an optimum diagnosis of the present situation, but it is also the basis for future scenarios. The standard form for an information document is a "process description". Such process descriptions are made for many economic activities in the Netherlands: industrial processes, agriculture, traffic, energy sector. The process description "Municipal Waste Incineration Plant" has been compiled in a series of descriptions in the framework of the Energy Project on request of the Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment. An integral approach in processes is crucial for the current scheme of the process description. A general flow-diagram of an MSWI plant with an energy recovery boiler, including a flue-gas treatment plant is given. The most efficient parts of the plant (refuse pit, grate, oven, flue-gas cleaning equipment) are described in more detail. An influence of incineration conditions on flue-gas emissions and the quality of residues is focused on. The possibilities of different types of gas cleaning systems are also given. The waste streams from MSWI plants are taken in consideration as well. From the point of view of of environmental pollution and energy possible improvements are suggested. A short inventory of currently operating MSWI plants in the Netherlands and plants to be built in the near future is given. Information on the current Dutch emission legislation is presented.
Spakman J; Olivier JGJ; Loon MMJ van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-12-31)
This inventory of greenhouse gas emissions in the Netherlands has been prepared according to the IPCC Guidelines and complies with the obligations under the European Union's Greenhouse Gas Monitoring Mechanism and the UN-FCCC for emission reports on greenhouse gases not covered under the Montreal protocol. The temperature corrected total emissions of non-ODP greenhouse gases were found to increase by 7% from 1990 to 1996, mainly due to increasing emissions of CO2. In 1996, the temperature-corrected carbon dioxide emissions were 7.6% higher than in 1990. In the period 1990-1996, methane emissions decreased by 9%, but nitrous oxide emissions increased by 13%. The emissions of HFCs were 47% higher in 1996 than in 1990, while the CO2-equivalent emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and (potential) SF6 increased by 26%. In 1996, CO2 contributed 75% to all CO2-equivalent emissions in the Netherlands, CH4 contributed about 11%, N2O about 9% and the non-ODP halocarbons about 5%. A short description is given on how the Guidelines have been applied in the Netherlands. Differences between IPCC sectors and Target Groups in the Netherlands are addressed and resulting emission differences accounted for.
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