Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-12-31
In de interimrapportage wordt de huidige stand van zaken beschreven van, hoofdzakelijk, (inter)nationaal epidemiologisch onderzoek naar de relatie tussen PM10 en het optreden van gezondheidseffecten. PM10 ("particulate matter") is de afkorting van de massa van de in de lucht zwevende deeltjes (aerosol) met een diameter kleiner dan ongeveer 10 micrometer (10 mum = 0,01 mm). PM10 wordt in Nederland ook wel "fijn stof" genoemd en geldt als indicator voor de ernst van het wintersmogmengsel. Daarna wordt verslag gedaan van het onderzoek dat tot nu toe is afgerond. Uit de literatuur blijkt dat blootstelling aan wintersmog geassocieerd is met een toename van de dagelijkse sterfte, met ziekenhuisopnamen voor ademhalingsklachten, met een toename van medicijngebruik bij astmatici en met longfunctieverslechtering. Er lijkt geen drempelwaarde voor dergelijke associaties te bestaan waar beneden effecten op mortaliteit en morbiditeit niet meer voorkomen. Gelet op de moeilijkheid een drempelwaarde vast te stellen, wordt een schatting van de gezondheidseffecten uitgedrukt als procentuele toename per 100 mug/m3 verandering in de daggemiddelde concentratie van PM10. Deze toename is voor dagelijkse sterfte 10-15%, voor toename van ziekenhuisopnamen voor respiratoire aandoeningen 20-40% en voor toename van medicijngebruik bij astmatici ongeveer 30%. De longfunctieverslechtering wordt geschat op 2-4% voor 100 mug/m3 toename van de PM10 concentratie. De daggemiddelde PM10-concentraties in Nederland kunnen tijdens wintersmogepisoden oplopen tot 140 mug/m3 en hoger. Er zijn weinig toxicologische gegevens beschikbaar omtrent de gezondheidseffecten en het werkingsmechanisme van deeltjesvormige luchtverontreiniging. Enkele proefdierstudies met gecontroleerde inhalatie van verschillende (redelijk oplosbare) deeltjes suggereren dat de grootte van het oppervlak en de reactiviteit van het oppervlak van ultrafijne deeltjes (< 0,1 mum) een rol spelen in het veroorzaken van pulmonale effecten. Het grootste deel van de massa van alle deeltjes wordt veroorzaakt door deeltjes met een diameter van enige micrometers (mum) tot enige tientallen micrometers. Omdat de hoogte van de PM10-niveaus afhangt van de massa van de deeltjes worden deze PM10-niveaus vooral bepaald door deeltjes groter dan enkele micrometers in diameter. De ultrafijne deeltjes met diameters van enige honderdsten tot tienden van micrometers vormen wel de grootste aantallen deeltjes, maar dragen vrijwel niet bij aan de PM10-niveaus. Deeltjes van tussenliggende diameters bepalen voor het grootste deel het oppervlak. Zij hebben een verwaarloosbaar effect op de PM10-niveaus. Het is momenteel nog onbekend of het toxische werkingsmechanisme van de deeltjes afhangt van de massa dan wel de chemische samenstelling van de deeltjes, of afhangt van het oppervlak van de deeltjes of juist van de aantallen deeltjes. Daarom is de keuze van het juiste bestrijdingsdoel op dit moment niet eenvoudig.
Jaarsveld JA van; Bleeker A; Hoogervorst NJP (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-08-23)
Ammonia emissions in the Netherlands are estimated using a method in which statistical information on the number of animals is combined with emission factors per animal species, stable type and type of manure application in the field. In the Netherlands' Environmental Balance of 1997 the ammonia emissions were concluded to have been reduced by 35% between 1990-1997. However, in the measurements of ammonia concentrations no trend was observed. The measurements were interpreted using the atmospheric transport model, OPS, as an aid to identifying the reasons for these discrepancies. The ammonia concentrations were calculated by OPS, taking into account the estimated emissions of ammonia and its transport and deposition for the measurement period 1993-1997. The ammonia concentration for this period was thus concluded to be relatively high due to lower rainfall and a lower conversion from ammonia to ammonium aerosol. The latter is caused mainly by the decreasing SO2 concentrations. In view of these two effects, the ammonia concentration could have been reduced in this period by 12%. An optimalization of the comparison between measurements and model calculations by adjusting the ammonia emissions shows an increase in the emissions by manure application in the field as leading to the best results. The factor by which manure application emissions should be increased falls somewhere between 2 and 8, with 3 being a typical value. A better comparison between measurements and modelling results can also be obtained by decreasing the deposition velocity of ammonia. By applying this combination of measurements and modelling it can be concluded that only 45-70% of the foreseen reduction in ammonia by abatement measures has taken place in the period 1993-1997. Explaining the remaining differences between measurements and modelling results will require more research into a) ammonia emissions from manure application in the field, b) spatial distribution of ammonia concentrations over the Netherlands and c) the dry deposition process of ammonia, particularly for dominant land-cover types.
Smeets CJPP; Beck JP (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2002-04-10)
In recent years thresholds set by the current Council Directive 92/72/EEC on air pollution by ozone have been exceeded substantially in all Member States. The EU obligates all its Member States to carry out a principal investigation of the reduction potential of short-term measures for ozone maxima during episodes. In accordance with this request we conducted a model study and imposed five different short-term scenarios on a nation-wide scale for emissions from 1995 and 2003. The short-term measures solely concerned road traffic since other sectors appeared not very effective in reducing ozon precursor emissions and/or with considerable economic consequences. The nation-wide averaged results suggest an increase of a few percentage points in the ozone maxima in both 1995 and 2003 as a result of short-term measures. It appears that mainly the highly industrialised and populated areas clearly show increased ozone maxima (+5% in 2003), while in the less populated and industrialised areas the maxima vary between -1% and +1%. According to our model study the 10% minimum effectiveness of short-term abatement measures aimed at in the Ozone Position Paper will not be realised in the Netherlands. Permanent and large-scale measures appear to be the only means for realising substantial reductions in the ozone maxima.
Vissenberg HA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-05-17)
This report is based on reports from provinces and municipalities on exceedances of the air quality standards for the compounds sulphur dioxide, suspended particles (black smoke), nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, lead and benzene. No exceedances of air quality standards were reported for industrial areas. By seven municipalities exceedances were reported: thirteen times of nitrogen dioxide and nine times of benzene.
Velze K van; Diederen HSMA; Maat HW ter; Bree L van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-09-01)
The regulations and administrative provisions in the Netherlands will have to comply with the new EU directives on Air Quality by 2001. Governmental institutions on national, provincial and local levels have to harmonise their tasks in implementing and carrying out the new legislation. This process will be supported by the information presented here on current and future air quality, and on resultant health risks to the population. Major areas with air quality bottlenecks are busy city roads and streets. Here NO2 PM10, black smoke, CO, benzene and B(a)P levels are not always in compliance with air quality limit values. These values are exceeded for NO2 even in city background levels in the Randstad (the densely populated western part of the Netherlands), as well as on an incidental basis outside these cities. PM10 levels exceed limit values in the whole southern part of the Netherlands. By 2010 the air quality should be improved and only NO2and PM10 will be out of compliance. Health risks will occur where limit values are exceeded and sometimes even at lower levels. The expected improvement in air quality by 2010 will also result in a decrease in health risks to the population.
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-02-28
The report highlights major problems encountered when trying to derive policy-relevant environmental information from underlying core data sets. Major data gaps and shortcomings are identified for reporting on global environment problems and sustainable development. Issues of data integration, processing and mapping are described and exemplified by various assessment examples, such as land degradation, climate change and water stress.
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM;
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen RUG, 1994-12-31
This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the inhalation of particles. A summary of the assessment of air quality and the results of epidemiological research is presented. Some policy questions are answered as far as possible at this stage of the project. Finally, an outline of a plan of activities is presented which is based on the policy needs and the most serious gaps in knowledge.
Rombout PJA; Bloemen HJTh; Bree L van; Buringh E; Eerens HC; Fischer PH; Marra M (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1999-03-01)
Current concentrations of air pollution during episodes of winter-type smog are now lower than in the late eighties. Traffic is a major contributor to the particulate and gaseous air pollution. There are indications that hospital admissions, mortality and other less severe health effects are associated with particulate and gaseous air pollution during episodes of winter-type smog. As an example an estimate has been made of the expected effects on daily health after exposure to extreme 24 h concentration of 230 microg/m3 PM10. The health impact varied for different endpoints, of which high and low values will be presented. During such an extreme episode acute mortality is expected to rise by approximately 20%, while use of medication by asthmatic children is expected to rise threefold. Other health endpoints showed increases between these two. Current knowledge indicates that (even a modest) decrease in yearly average concentrations has a greater positive effect on health effects than stopping all traffic emissions in the Netherlands during such an extreme episode. Therefore a more permanent policy of curbing (traffic) air pollution is probably more effective in reducing public health risks than a one-off termination of all urban traffic in the Netherlands during a winter-type smog episode.
Hoekstra JA; Heuberger PSC; Haan BJ de; Eijkeren JCH van; Janssen PHM; Dekkers ALM; Kusse AAM; Hoek KW van den; Beurden AUCJ van; Egmond PM van; et al. (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-04-30)
This report discusses the reliability of environmental indicators obtained from calculations, used by RIVM in the composition of reports on the state of the environment. The considered calculation chain (for the Netherlands) starts at the emission of nitrogen compounds in 1992 and ends with forecasts of the nitrate concentration in untreated water in 2100. To this end the notion of reliability is specified in terms of a reliability factor and a confidence interval. The structure of the chain is depicted with flow diagrams. It is composed of measurement data, registration data, model operations and GIS operations. The primary data with respect to the nitrogen load are obtained from sources outside RIVM. They are based on registrated data, for example agricultural surveys. For the nitrogen emissions a reliability was postulated. The applied RIVM models are respectively OPS (atmospheric transport), DEADM (atmospheric deposition), NLOAD (nitrate leaching from agricultural soils), BOSMODEL (nitrate leaching from forest soils and heathland) and FLOPZ1 (groundwater streamlines and residence times). The measurement data are obtained from the National Monitoring Networks for Air Quality (LML, wind velocities and NOy concentrations) and Groundwater Quality (LMG, nitrate concentration in deep groundwater). Applying uncertainty analyses on models and using statistical techniques, uncertainties in the various indicators are determined, where uncertainties are propagated through the chain. The reliability of the indicators, as reported for 1992, is calculated on the basis of the resulting uncertainties. Most of the calculations are performed on three different scales, 5 x 5 km blocks, Acidification Areas (20 areas in the Netherlands) and on national scale. The reliability of nitrate concentration in untreated water is assessed for two different drinking water stations. Results of the project are presented in the form of tables and graphics, such as histograms and geographical plots of indicators and reliability factors. Table 7.1 on page 73 summarizes the reliability of the investigated indicators. A subsequent goal of this report is to contribute to a (discussion about a) generally applicable method to determine the reliability in the calculation of environmental indicators.
Somhorst MHM; Stolk AP (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-10-31)
This report presents tabulated National Air Quality Monitoring Network results for the city and street stations in all regions in the Netherlands for the calendar year 1994, summer 1994, winter 1993-1994 and 1 April 1993 - 31 March 1994 (tropical year: EC reference period). The components monitored were: fine dust (PM10), CO, Ox (=NO2+O3), O3, NO2, NO, NOx (=NO2+NO), black smoke (= suspended matter measured by the black-smoke method) and SO2. The fine dust (PM10) measurements were corrected for a systematic underestimation caused by the sampler. In a check made at all stations in the network for exceedance of Dutch limit values in 1994, exceedances for black smoke, PM10 and O3 were observed. The limit values for SO2, NO2 and CO were not exceeded.
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