Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-12-31
This 1993 annual report presents the results of biosphere sample measurements by the Laboratory of Radiation Research (LSO) of the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM). The measurements are part of the National Measurement Programme (NMP) of the Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substances (CCRX) in the Netherlands. The NMP is considered essential for an adequate assessment of radioactivity in the biosphere. The programme of the RIVM/LSO includes samples of airdust and deposition taken at the RIVM premises in Bilthoven. Samples of grass and milk were taken from the surroundings of nuclear installations in the Netherlands and on Dutch territory in the vicinity of such installations situated abroad. An overall country milk sample from four milk factories in the Netherlands was also analyzed. This report also presents the data of the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network (LMR) in 1993. These data are not included in the NMP. In 1993, the yearly average gross alpha- and gross beta-activity concentration of airdust was 0.09 +- 0.01 (SD 0.04) and 0.55 +- 0.04 (SD 0.37) mBq.m-3, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those of previous years. This effect is explained by a change in the procedures for sample taking and sample treatment. The gamma-spectrometric analysis was performed on airdust sampled with a high volume sampler. For Be-7, Cs-137 and Pb-210 the yearly average of the activity concentrations were 3600 +- 50 (SD 1300), 1.7 +- 0.1 (SD 1.3) and 530 +- 10 (SD 500) muBq.m-3, respectively (well detector results). The yearly total gross alpha- and gross beta-activity of the deposition in Bilthoven was 54.3 +- 0.7 and 87.9 +- 0.8 Bq.m-2, respectively, and the deposition of H-3 was 1310 +- 30 Bqm-2. The total activity of Cs-137 in deposition was 0.80 +- 0.03 Bq.m-2, of Pb-210 105 +- 2 Bq.m-2 and Po-210 6.0 +- 0.6 Bq.m-2 (alpha-spectroscopy). These activities are comparable to those of previous years. The yearly average concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in consumer milk from a nationwide sample mix was 0.09 +- 0.02 and 0.04 +- 0.01 Bq.L-1, respectively, which are about equal to that of the previous year. For the gross alpha-activity concentration, as measured by the aerosol monitors of the LMR, values in the range of 0.3 - 12.1 Bq.m-3 were found (5-percentile - 95-percentile values), with an average value across the country of 2.6 Bq.m-3. This value corresponds to the value of 2.4 Bq.m-3 in 1992. No 'man-made' beta-activity was measured with the LMR monitors. The dose-equivalent rate measured with the LMR monitors was in the range of 54.5 - 95.3 nSv.h-1 (5 percentile - 95 percentile values). The average value of 77.3 nSv.h-1 was in good agreement with the 1992 and 1991 averages (79.3 and 78.9 nSv.h-1, respectively).<br>
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2007-07-20
Met ingang van 2005 is het nationale meetprogramma "Radioactiviteit en straling in het milieu" uitgebreid met radioactiviteitsbepalingen in een standaard voedselpakket en controlemetingen in melk. Het meetprogramma voldeed daarmee voor het eerst aan de Europese aanbevelingen uit 2000, die een nieuwe uitleg geven aan de meetverplichting voor lidstaten van de EU zoals vastgelegd in het EURATOM-verdrag uit 1957. Metingen in lucht en omgeving lieten voor 2005 een spreiding zien die geheel verklaard kan worden door de normale variaties in de natuurlijke achtergrond. In voedsel en melk zijn geen radioactiviteitniveaus aangetroffen boven de in Europees verband vastgestelde limieten voor export en consumptie. In oppervlaktewater is op een aantal locaties voor een aantal radionucliden de streefwaarde overschreden zoals vastgelegd in de Vierde Nota Waterhuishouding. De streefwaarden zijn mede gebaseerd op achtergrondwaarden voor oppervlaktewater in Nederland. Streefwaarden zijn waarden die bij voorkeur niet overschreden worden, maar het zijn geen limieten.
Jacobs JEM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-10-30)
This report presents the results of radioactivity measurements in the environment in the Netherlands carried out by four organisations in 1998. The yearly averaged gross alfa- and gross beta-activity concentrations in air dust in Bilthoven were 0.0812 and 0.398 mBq4m-3, respectively. The yearly averaged activity concentrations in air dust for the nuclides 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb were 4020, 1.26 and 325 uBq4m-3, respectively. The yearly total gross alfa- and gross beta-activities deposited in Bilthoven were 31.1 and 106 Bq4m-2, respectively. The yearly total activities of the nuclides 3H, 137Cs, 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in deposition were 1200, 0.60, 1840, 163 and <16 Bq4m-2, respectively. The ambient dose equivalent rate averaged across the country over the year was 75.2 nSv4h-1. The yearly averaged activity concentration in surface water for 3H was less than 10.5 Bq4L-1 and for residual beta less than 82 mBq4L-1. The yearly averaged activity of 137Cs in suspended solids in surface water was less than 27 Bq4kg-1. In sea water yearly averages for 3H varied between 0.6 and 4.9 Bq4L-1 and for residual 5 between 43 and 45 mBq4L-1. Typical activities found in drinking water were 1-10 Bq4L-1 for 3H activity and 0.1-1 Bq4L-1 for gross beta and residual beta activity. All these values are comparable to those of previous years. Food was measured when suspected of having an abnormal level of radioactivity. Only in one sample of mushrooms the limit of 600 Bq4kg-1 for cesium from Chernobyl was exceeded. Comparison of the Dutch monitoring programme with the recommendation of the CEC on the application of Article 36 of the Euratom Treaty shows that it is not in full compliance with the recommendation.
Pruppers MJM; Blaauboer RO; Hiemstra YS; Janssen MPM; Matthuisen AJCM; Pennders RMJ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-09-01)
In 1997 the Laboratory of Radiation Research explored the possibilities for an information system for monitoring the radiation protection sitiuation in the Netherlands and the influence of the radiation protection policy on this situation, as commissioned by the Radiation, Nuclear and Biosafety Directorate of the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. We are primarily concerned with the environmental policy, aimed at the protection of members of the public. Besides this, the radiation protection policy includes the policies of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment for the protection of exposed workers and of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport for the protection of persons who undergo medical examinations or treatments using radiation. The demands and wishes of representatives of both policy directorates and inspectorates of the three commissioning ministries were compiled on the basis of data collected through interviews, with a few plenary meetings with these representatives taking place to discuss data. Several information sources relevant to the desired policy monitoring, were investigated thoroughly. In addition, detailed data of a few typical radiation sources were collected and processed. The most important recommendations in the definition study of 1997 are elaborated further here, i.e. the exploration of information sources and making agreements with suppliers of necessary data. One of the conclusions from the interviews is that the system should be limited to enhanced radiation exposures due to human action. Some of these exposures can be influenced by policy measures, some cannot, and in some cases no policy is designed or planned. It is also concluded that for data on actual emissions, permit holders will themselves have to be approached. Finally, advice is given not to design a large automated system yet, but to gain more experience with separate collections for each radiation source category to store and process the data collected. A first version of the annual report on 'policy monitoring for radiation' is planned for the end of 2000.
Blaauboer RO; Pruppers MJM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-08-31)
The so-called 'radiation performance standard' (in Dutch: Stralings Prestatie Norm, SPN) is being developed in the framework of the radon policy in the Netherlands. The radiation performance of a living area results from a calculation of the effective dose rate by external radiation. In the discussions about necessary simplifications in the calculations there is a need for estimates of the actual contribution to the dose rate of external radiation from building materials. Two questions play an important role. How do building type and dimension influence the dose rate? And which parts of a dwelling contribute to the dose rate in specific rooms? This report contains the results of detailed calculations for several versions of a reference dwelling using the model MARMER. From calculations in which type and thickness of a dividing wall between two bedrooms was varied, it was found that the wall shields as much radiation from walls in adjacent rooms as it contributes itself. Between 2% and 30% of the dose rate is due to building materials in other rooms. If adjacent dwellings were included in the calculations, the dose rate for most of the versions of the reference dwelling was estimated to increase by only 5%. For the version with a timber frame this increase could be considerably higher.
Eleveld H; Pruppers MJM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-08-17)
Here, consumer products refer to products in which radionuclides have been intentionally incorporated and which can be supplied to members of the public without special surveillance. This group of products includes, for instance, ionisation smoke detectors and timepieces with radium-painted dials. These products can cause a radiation dose to members of the public in various stages of life. In 1996 the European Council laid down basic safety standards in Directive 96/29/Euratom for protecting the health of the general public from the dangers arising from ionising radiation. The Directive contains activity concentrations and total activity per radionuclide, the so-called exemption levels, below which a practice using this radionuclide is exempted from the duty to report. Implementing the Directive in the framework of Dutch legislation, the proposed policy for consumer products is to show a distinction between products with activity concentrations and total activity above and below the exemption levels. Besides the exemption levels being used as activity criteria for the consumer products, two dose criteria - an individual dose of 10 microSv/a and a collective dose of 1 manSv/a - are also employed. In the study leading to this report, the most recent information on consumer products was first collected and the activity per product, and in some cases also the activity concentration, was tested against the exemption levels. Next, the expected individual and collective doses for members of the public were calculated in the storage and trade phase, as well as the user and disposal phase of the consumer products. In the storage and trade phase, the dose for shop personnel was also estimated. Finally, the doses ware tested against the dose criteria. Gas mantles, static elimination devices, gaseous tritium light sources (GTLS), ceramic tiles, welding rods and camera lenses and eyepieces (belongs to the consumer products for which at least one of the activity criteria is exceeded) are also expected to exceed at least one of the dose criteria. Consumer products which do not exceed the activity criteria, but which may exceed at least one of the dose criteria, are smoke detectors with Ra-226, timepieces with Pm-147, electronic components with Co-60 and electrical discharge safety devices.
Lembrechts J; Halteren AR van; Peters-Volleberg GWM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-09-28)
Discussed here is the state of the art and future developments of radiation application for diagnosing and treating several frequently occurring cancers. This report constitutes part of the Public Health Status and Forecast 2002, produced by the National Institute for Public Health and the Environment in the Netherlands. A variety of modern diagnostic imaging techniques such as dynamic MRI and computed tomography actually facilitate identification and treatment of tumours, along with the follow-up after treatment. The driving force behind this flourishing development is formed by the advancements in microelectronics and ICT. Information on the morphology of these disorders is being increasingly supplemented with visualized functional aspects. For most tumours simple screening techniques are, however, lacking. The dominant radiation-based cancer-treatment modality for this decade is still radiotherapy. Full exploitation of current radiotherapeutic know-how may clearly enhance cure rates. The future of such treatment modalities as radioimmunotherapy and photodynamic therapy remains uncertain. Increased implementation of cost-effectiveness analyses must reduce the risk of introducing ineffective new diagnostic techniques and treating cancer. Growing interest in quality-of-life assessments will improve the evaluation of alternative treatment modalities.
Plas M van der (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-10-20)
An inventory was made of the kind of laser applications used for entertainment purposes and the extent to which they are used. The aim was to check whether the use of lasers for displays in funfairs and discotheques might lead to health risks for the public and, if so, to what extent. The four producers dominating the laser display market operated a total of 45 lasers in 1999. The number of displays per producer per year varies from 20 to 450. The number of visitors varies between 20 and 350,000 per display. Class 4 lasers constitute the major category used for laser displays. If these lasers are used injudiciously, they may pose a risk to the public. Incidents, however, rarely occur in the Netherlands. Safety measures employed by laser show producers are, for example, stopping the beam by means of a shutter in the case of a technical malfunction. Contrary to foreign countries, no rules exist in the Netherlands for operating laser displays to guarantee the safety of the public and aviation. Measurements have shown that maximum permissible exposure values can be exceeded when audience scanning (focusing the laser beams on the public) is used. A British study recently started up may provide a decisive answer to the question on whether additional safety measures should be advised for this specific application.
Plas M van der; Lembrechts J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2000-11-13)
A limited inventory was taken among Dutch health-care practitioners on the use of lasers, including the type and extent of their applications. This inventory arose from the consideration on whether certain medical laser applications should be reserved for treatment according to the Act on Occupations in individual health care (BIG Act). Here, the focus was on applications used outside hospitals. On the basis of this inventory it can be concluded that practitioners, like physicians and dentists, who are registered according to the BIG Act, use class 2, 3 and 4 lasers. Practitioners from non-registered occupations in individual health care use lasers relatively less frequently. Since the use of class 4 lasers was not recorded in this inventory, the chance of harmful effects from the non-registered use will, in principle, be smaller and the effects less serious. The threshhold for using class 4 lasers is, however, being constantly lowered since lasers are becoming more versatile and less costly. In view of this development it would be wise to avoid incompetent use of the high-risk class 4 lasers (and possibly class 3B). The observation that laser safety heterogeneously, both in intramural and extramural use, is regulated and that their use is not insensitive to serious consequences, was found to support this standpoint. The balanced support given to this standpoint, leading to a completely justifiable solution to the research problem will, nevertheless, require a more extensive inventory on the extramural use and applications of lasers.
Uijt de Haag P; Post J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-04-27)
A generic, quantitative risk assessment was carried out according to the standard method in the 'Purple Book' to determine the risks posed by pontoons used for supplying fuel to watercraft. The pontoon is assumed to be situated in a yacht basin accessible only to pleasure boats, and the tank lorry during unloading assumed to be protected against external impact from passing traffic. The reference system defined consists of a concrete pontoon with a relatively large capacity and a high volume of trade. Applying the reference pontoon system led to individual risk contours of 10-5 and 10-6 per year, which almost coincide. The distance of these risk contours to both the pontoon and the tank lorry is about 20 metres. The risk posed by the pontoon is largely determined by the pool fire within the pontoon and a rupture in the loading hose, which could take place during transhipment from the tank lorry to the pontoon.
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