Notenboom J; Eijsackers HJP; Swartjes FA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-01-31)
In the framework of the Dutch "Woningwet" (housing law) an approach is developed with the aim of assessing ecological risks of contaminated land. This approach is part of a more general decision support system, on which the assessment of soil quality in granting a building permit for a parcel will be based. Theoretical backgrounds of ecological risk assessment of contaminated sites are given. Within the context of the housing law there are very important limitations with respect to data availability and time available for decision making. This restricts very strongly the possibilities for ecological risk assessment of building parcels and forces to make a choice for a very pragmatic approach. Consequently, one is compelled to accept considerable sources of uncertainty. The proposed approach consists of three elements that are integrated in an assessment scheme. (1) The amount of pollution induced toxic stress on the ecosystem. This is estimated by adding pollution units of the individual contaminating chemicals. A pollution unit consists of the soil concentration of a chemical divided by its Hazardous Concentration 50% (HC50). (2) An estimate of exposure judged by the land-use type of the parcel. (3) An estimate of ecological accessibility based on the land-use in the neighbourhood of the parcel. The assessment scheme is based on the supposition that higher pollution induced stress is acceptable in situations with low chance of exposure and scarce ecological accessibility. Risk levels in this scheme should be given by policy makers because reliable technical and scientific arguments are lacking. Uncertainties of the proposed method are discussed and possibilities are given how improvements in reliability can be made.
Swartjes FA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-09-30)
An inventory has been made of compounds and compound groups to be used for selection of compounds for deriving a 'proposal for an intervention value'. To be able to select these compounds and compound groups, four criteria have been defined: i) toxicity, ii) presence in soil and/or groundwater, iii) residence time of a contaminant in soil and leaching into groundwater; iv) existence of other assessment frameworks. The compounds and compound groups have been categorised into compounds for which no, possible, or in the framework of the fourth series a 'proposal for an intervention value' will be derived. To ensure that the choice of compounds corresponds with the needs in soil survey practice reactions are welcomed from provinces, local governments, water boards, Regional Environmental Protection Inspections, consultants, industry and other parties involved in soil and sediment quality survey.
Kreule P; Berg R van den; Waitz MFW; Swartjes FA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1995-08-31)
Recently implemented have been the thoroughly revised intervention values for soil clean-up. In this report, proposals will be presented for intervention values for 15 additional compounds on the basis of an ecotoxicological and a human-toxicological evaluation. For all compounds the human-toxicological serious soil contamination concentration was calculated using the CSOIL model and the human-toxicological maximum permissible risk levels. The ecotoxicological serious soil contamination concentration was determined by the methodology of Denneman and Van Gestel (1990, 1991), updated by Crommentuijn et al. (1994). Proposals for intervention values are determined by means of integrating the ecotoxicological and the human-toxicological serious soil contamination concentrations. The ecotoxicological serious soil contamination concentrations and the Maximum Permissible Risk levels in this report have been described in detail in report nos. 715810008 and 715810009, respectively. The proposals for the intervention values are derived according to the procedures described for the first and second series of compounds in a number of previous reports. Depending on sensitivity and reliability of the input parameters, various efforts have been made to obtain reliable input parameter values. In this report, intervention values for soil and groundwater are proposed for silver, ethylene glycol, diethylene glycol, acrylonitrile, formaldehyde, methanol, 1-butanol, butylacetate, methyl tert-butyl ether, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, cis- & trans-1,2-dichloroethene and a mixture of aromatic solvents (containing high concentrations of C3 en C4 alkyl benzenes). For dodecylbenzene a risk evaluation is executed but no intervention value is proposed because of lack of an ecotoxicological serious soil contamination concentration and reliable physicochemical data.
Lijzen JPA; Baars AJ; Crommentuijn GH; Otte PF; Plassche E van de; Rikken MGJ; Rompelberg CJM; Sips AJAM; Swartjes FA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1999-01-01)
This report documents the important aspects in deriving the intervention values for lead (Pb) for soil/sediment and groundwater as part of a current ongoing running evaluation of existing intervention values. Reported for lead are the physical-chemical properties, the ecotoxicological serious soil-contamination concentration (ECOTOX SCC), the human toxicological Maximal Tolerable Risk (human MTR), human toxicological serious soil contamination concentration (HUM-TOX SCC) and proposals for the intervention value for soil and groundwater. It is recommended to use an equation derived for field soils (with pH, organic matter and clay content)for the soil type correction of the intervention values derived. If it is decided to use only the organic-matter and clay content, we advise proceeding with the current correction of Van den Berg/Roels. Based on the current toxicological information, ECOTOX SCC is recalculated with the current soil type correction (490 mg/kg d.m.) and the proposed soil type correction with pH (450 mg/kg d.m.). If it is decided to use the 'added risk-approach', the ECOTOX SCC for lead will be 575 and 535 mg/kg d.m., respectively. The ECOTOX SCC calculated for sediments is much higher (64.000 mg/kg d.m.).The human-toxicological maximal tolerable risk (human MTR) is maintained at 3.6 microg/kg b.w./day, which is also supported by the World Health Organisation (WHO). The human exposure to lead is mainly determined by the ingestion of soil particles, the intake of contaminated crops and the bioavailability of lead from soil in the human body. Prior to completing the research on bioavailability in the human body, a relative bioavailability factor for lead in soil of 0.6 was deduced. An average of 100 mg of soil per day is proposed for soil ingestion by children (1 to 6), instead of the current 150 mg per day. The average crop consumption can be slightly reduced. If it is decided to use a general background, the background exposure for lead is estimated to be 25% of the human MTR. The recalculated HUMTOX EBVC is found between 450 and 670 mg/kg, depending on the choices made and the extent to which new data are used. Integration of the HUMTOX SCC value with that of ECOTOX SCC leads to a proposal for the intervention value soil/sediment of 450-575 mg/kg d.m. and 32-41 microg/l for groundwater
Bockting GJM; Koolenbrander JGM; Swartjes FA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-05-31)
Analogous to the CSOIL model, which estimates human exposure to contaminated soils, an exposure model called SEDISOIL has been developed to quantify human exposure to sediments. When using this model it should be kept in mind that calculations are not very accurate, certainly when measurements in surface water and on fish have not been performed. SEDISOIL can be used for determinating the urgency of remediation in the case of seriously contaminated soils.
Lijzen JPA; Swartjes FA; Otte P; Willems WJ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2003-10-24)
In 1997 the Dutch Government decided to change the approach of the Soil Clean-up policy concerning soil contamination prior to 1987. One of the decisions was to change the multifunctional approach for soil clean-up objectives to objectives dependent on the current or future use of the soil, distinguishing between mobile and immobile soil contamination. The RIVM was asked to develop soil clean-up objectives for immobile soil contamination, with the goal of creating a situation in which the human and environmental risks are of an acceptable level. In the ensuing investigation, four classes of soil use were distinguished: I. residential and recreational green areas; II. non-recreational green areas; III. built-up and paved areas; IV. agricultural and nature areas. For each class of soil use requirements were formulated and soil quality criteria selected to meet the requirements as adequately as possible. Soil-use specific clean-up objectives (abbreviated in Dutch as BGW) were derived by choosing the lowest value of these quality criteria. These objectives are based on the human-toxicological quality criteria, general ecotoxicological quality criteria (for organisms, soil processes and plants) and quality criteria for other specific requirements (for agricultural functions). For the classes I and II, BGWs have been derived for seven heavy metals, arsenic, poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), DDTs and drins. No BGWs have been derived for class III because in accordance with policy no requirements have been formulated for this type of soil use. For the agricultural functions within class IV, quality criteria already applied in agricultural practice can be used. Revision of these quality criteria will lead to BGWs for agricultural and nature areas in the near future. For nature areas a location-specific risk assessment will be required, along with a tailored approach to soil remediation.
Kreule P; Swartjes FA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1998-04-30)
Proposals for Intervention Values for soil and groundwater have been derived for the fourth series of compounds. This fourth series consists of the following 15 additional compounds and compound groups: 1) metals: um, selenium, tellurium, thallium, tin; 2) aromatic hydrocarbons: monochloroanilines to pentachloroanilines, 4-chloro-methylphenol; 3) chlorinated hydrocarbons: 1,1,2-trichloroethane, dichloropropanes, 1,1-dichloroethene; 4) pesticides: MCPA and 5) other contaminants: tribromomethane, isopropanol, ethylacetate, 1,2-butylacetate. Intervention Values were derived by integrating the ecotoxicological and human-toxicological serious soil contamination concentration (ECOTOX SCC and HUM-TOX SCC, respectively). The HUM-TOX SCC is subject of this report and was derived using the CSOIL exposure model, the standard potential exposure data set, selected contaminant specific physicochemical input parameters and the Maximal Permissable Risk levels for human intake (MPRhuman). In general, the proposals for Intervention Values for groundwater and to a lesser extent the Intervention Values for soil are characterised by a limited accuracy.
Elzinga EJ; Berg B van den; Grinsven JJM van; Swartjes FA; Vissenberg HA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-04-30)
Freundlich equations (Freundlich isotherms) were derived for the three heavy metals, cadmium, copper and zinc, by regression in an extensive literature data set. The Freundlich constants were described as a function of such soil characteristics as pH, CEC and organic matter content. Freundlich isotherms were derived using both the total concentration in solution and the activity of the free metal ions in solution. The Freundlich isotherms were applied to field data for 20 Dutch soils. In general, the isotherms seem to underestimate measured values. The isotherms may provide a supplement to presently available partition data sets for estimating mobility and bioavailability of metals in soils.
Otte PF; Lijzen JPA; Otte JG; Swartjes FA; Versluijs CW (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 2001-06-09)
Intervention Values are generic soil quality standards used to classify historically contaminated soils, sediments and groundwater (i.e. before 1987) as seriously contaminated in the framework of the Dutch Soil Protection Act. In 1994 Intervention Values were published for 70 (groups of) compounds. Intervention values are based on potential risks for both human health and ecosystems. Human toxicological Serious Risk Concentrations for soil, sediment and groundwater (SRChuman) are determined using the human exposure model CSOIL. This report presents an evaluation and revision of the CSOIL parameter set as part of the technical evaluation of the Intervention Values. The evaluation of the CSOIL parameter set comprises the physicochemical data of all compounds for the first series, as well as the soil, site and exposure parameters. The evaluation results in a revised CSOIL data set with an improved underpinning and traceability of the data set. Another improvement concerns the revision of the soil-water partition coefficients. The report also provides insight into the impact of the revised data set on the SRChuman and resulted in a better insight into the uncertainties and variation of the model input parameters.
Waitz MFW; Freijer JI; Kreule P; Swartjes FA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1996-05-31)
The CSOIL exposure model was developed for derivation of ntervention Values for soil and groundwater clean-up. These Intervention Values are based on potential risks to humans exposed to soil contaminants. Theoretical evaluation of the CSOIL's volatilization module has shown to be not suitable for actual risk-assessment. For this reason, the VOLASOIL model has been developed for actual risk assessment in case of volatile soil contaminants. The VOLASOIL model calculates the indoor air concentration for the Dutch situation in buildings situated on soils contaminated with volatile compounds. The VOLASOIL model can be seen as an optimum between scientifically sound and applicable in practice. The model can be used for site-specific risk assessment because of the possibility of flexible combination of modelling and measurements and calculations being made for several specific contamination cases. Some of these are floating contaminant layers, pure contaminant in the open capillary zone, contaminated groundwater in crawl spaces, et cetera. The VOLASOIL model could be used as a decision-support tool within the framework of soil clean-up priority (Soil Protection Act), construction permit issues (Housing Act), and soil quality management (spatial planning). A user-friendly Windows-application has been developed for using the VOLASOIL model in practice. This computer program can be obtained at the RIVM.
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