In view of the parliamentary elections in May 1994, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection has evaluated the environmental effects of the election programmes of two political parties: D66 and GroenLinks. This report presents the findings of this evaluation. Four chapters deal with the environmental policy proposals of both parties, their results for social developments (primarly traffic, energy and agriculture) and areas of environmental concern and its environmental costs. The outcomes are presented in respect to the first and second National Environmental Policy Plans (NEPP-1 and NEPP-2). The main conclusion of this first electoral environmental outlook is that when the proposed environmental measures are fully implemented and enforced, environmental pressures will be further reduced. However, the intended measures of GroenLinks and D66 are insufficient to achieve the targets for all areas of environmental concern within the fixed time. However, the environmental policy proposals of GroenLinks have more impact than those mentioned in NEPP-1 and NEPP-2, both in 2000 and 2010. The environmental policy proposals of GroenLinks will lead to a substantial reduction of the emissions of CO2 to probably below the 2000 target level. In addition, the emissions of acidifying substances (particularly NOx and SO2) will be strongly reduced even in comparison to NEPP-2 proposals. The most important impact of the environmental policy proposals of D66 is also an additional reduction of the CO2 emissions, but not as large as the reduction, resulting from the GroenLinks election programme.
The report "Environmental return of the NEPP-2, supplement to the National Environmental Outlook 3" presents in outline the environmental costs and effects of additional policy measures which are proposed in the second National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP-2) released in December 1993. The report "Environmental return of the NEPP-2, Appendices E to H' underpins its main results in four enclosures. The first enclosure gives for different areas of environmental concern an extensive description of costs and environmental effects of separate proposed measures whose effectiveness is projected for the years 2000 and 2010. Enclosure F describes new national manure policy measures which are focused on the concerns with manure and ammonia. The next enclosure highlights the environmental effectiveness of NEPP-2 measures on the deposition of acidifying substances. The last enclosure deals with the environmental costs of the NEPP-2 measures in proportion to the environmental costs amounted in the last National Environmental Outlook.
As part of the Evaluation and Monitoring Programme for Schiphol airport, a questionnaire on the prevalence of self-rated annoyance, sleep disturbance, perceived general health, respiratory complaints, use of medication, and the perception of risks and the quality of life in the study area was sent to a randomly selected sample of 30,000 people living within 25 kilometers around Schiphol airport. The purpose of this study was to assess these factors in relation to the exposure to aircraft noise and air pollution. Exposure to aircraft noise was based on model calculations. The airport's proximity of the respondent's home was used as a proxy for air pollution caused by aircraft. The survey response rate was 39%. The results of this study show that annoyance from aircraft noise is greater than expected, also when the effect of selective non-response is taken into account. There is a relation between aircraft noise and noise annoyance, sleep disturbance, perceived health, the use of medication, and the perception of risks and the quality of life in the study area. The proximity of the airport was related to annoyance due to odors and soot from aircraft, respiratory complaints, and the use of medication for asthma and/or allergy. The result of this study will be used in developing a system to monitor the health status of those living in the vicinity when Schiphol airport is expanded.
Milieu- en Natuurplanbureau MNP - RIVM, 2004-10-20
The quest for sustainability is about the quality of life and the possibilities for maintaining this quality in the future. The extent to which this quest is fulfilled will depend both on the public opinion with respect to the desired quality of life and the distribution of this quality of life across the globe (reflected in four world views), and the scientific understanding of the functioning of humans and natural systems. The intention of this sustainability outlook then is to contribute to an ensuing public debate on the sustainability issue, through analysis of societal values and scientific insights.
In view of the parliamentary elections in May 1994, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection has evaluated the environmental effects of the election programmes of six political parties: CDA, PvdA, VVD, D66, GroenLinks and RPF. This report presents the findings of the evaluation of the programmes of the first five parties. The main conclusion of this electroral environmental outlook is that the proposed environmental policy proposals have more impact than those mentioned in NEPP-1 and NEPP-2. In the year 2000 most substantial results are seen for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most important greenhouse gas. The environmental policy proposals of GroenLinks lead to a substantial CO2 emissions reduction of the emissions of CO2 to probably below the 2000 target level. The PvdA and D66 proposals also result in an additional reduction of the CO2-emissions, but not as large as that realised by GroenLinks. CDA and VVD proposals have the same impact as NEPP-2 measures. The proposed measures of PvdA and GroenLinks reduce emissions of acidifying substances (particularly) NOx and SO2) in comparison to both the NEPP-2 proposals and the environmental policy proposals of the other parties. However, because of the high emissions from foreign sources and the emissions of NOx in the Netherlands, none of the political parties will achieve the acidification (deposition) target. In the year 2010 environmental measures of all parties (except VVD) have more impact than NEPP-2. PvdA is the only political party able to achieve more environmental benefits for equal spending. The GroenLinks proposals result in the largest reduction of CO2-emissions. In comparison to the NEPP-2, full implementation and enforcement of the election programmes of the different parties will lead to an additional reducton of emissions of acidifyingemissions. GroenLinks is most successful in reducing the emissions of SO2, NOx en NH3. Compared to all other parties the election programma of GroenLinks lead to the highest additional increase in costs of environmental policy: 10 percent in aid of the NEPP-2. In addition, all parties propose more taxes for environmental harmful activities.
In view of the parliamentary elections in May 1994, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection has evaluated the environmental effects of the election programmes of six political parties: CDA, PvdA, VVD, D66, GroenLinks and RPF. In contrast to the quantitative findings concerning the other five parties (RIVM report number 482515002), this note presents the findings of the qualitative evaluation of the election programme of RPF. Three chapters deal with the results of the environmental policy proposals for social developments (primarily traffic, energy and agriculture) and areas of environmental concern and its environmental costs. The outcomes are compared to those of the first and second National Environmental Policy Plans (NEPP-1 and NEPP-2). The main conclusion of this qualitative electroral environmental outlook is that the proposed environmental policy proposals of RPF correspond with those of PvdA and D66. The most outstanding difference between RPF and the two parties is the restructuring of the trafic sector. On this point the RPF policies correspond more closely with GroenLinks. The proposed environmental policy proposals of RPF have more impact than those mentioned in NEPP-1 and NEPP-2, but are insufficient to achieve all targets.
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