In view of the parliamentary elections in May 1994, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection has evaluated the environmental effects of the election programmes of two political parties: D66 and GroenLinks. This report presents the findings of this evaluation. Four chapters deal with the environmental policy proposals of both parties, their results for social developments (primarly traffic, energy and agriculture) and areas of environmental concern and its environmental costs. The outcomes are presented in respect to the first and second National Environmental Policy Plans (NEPP-1 and NEPP-2). The main conclusion of this first electoral environmental outlook is that when the proposed environmental measures are fully implemented and enforced, environmental pressures will be further reduced. However, the intended measures of GroenLinks and D66 are insufficient to achieve the targets for all areas of environmental concern within the fixed time. However, the environmental policy proposals of GroenLinks have more impact than those mentioned in NEPP-1 and NEPP-2, both in 2000 and 2010. The environmental policy proposals of GroenLinks will lead to a substantial reduction of the emissions of CO2 to probably below the 2000 target level. In addition, the emissions of acidifying substances (particularly NOx and SO2) will be strongly reduced even in comparison to NEPP-2 proposals. The most important impact of the environmental policy proposals of D66 is also an additional reduction of the CO2 emissions, but not as large as the reduction, resulting from the GroenLinks election programme.
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-12-31
This 1993 annual report presents the results of biosphere sample measurements by the Laboratory of Radiation Research (LSO) of the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM). The measurements are part of the National Measurement Programme (NMP) of the Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substances (CCRX) in the Netherlands. The NMP is considered essential for an adequate assessment of radioactivity in the biosphere. The programme of the RIVM/LSO includes samples of airdust and deposition taken at the RIVM premises in Bilthoven. Samples of grass and milk were taken from the surroundings of nuclear installations in the Netherlands and on Dutch territory in the vicinity of such installations situated abroad. An overall country milk sample from four milk factories in the Netherlands was also analyzed. This report also presents the data of the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network (LMR) in 1993. These data are not included in the NMP. In 1993, the yearly average gross alpha- and gross beta-activity concentration of airdust was 0.09 +- 0.01 (SD 0.04) and 0.55 +- 0.04 (SD 0.37) mBq.m-3, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those of previous years. This effect is explained by a change in the procedures for sample taking and sample treatment. The gamma-spectrometric analysis was performed on airdust sampled with a high volume sampler. For Be-7, Cs-137 and Pb-210 the yearly average of the activity concentrations were 3600 +- 50 (SD 1300), 1.7 +- 0.1 (SD 1.3) and 530 +- 10 (SD 500) muBq.m-3, respectively (well detector results). The yearly total gross alpha- and gross beta-activity of the deposition in Bilthoven was 54.3 +- 0.7 and 87.9 +- 0.8 Bq.m-2, respectively, and the deposition of H-3 was 1310 +- 30 Bqm-2. The total activity of Cs-137 in deposition was 0.80 +- 0.03 Bq.m-2, of Pb-210 105 +- 2 Bq.m-2 and Po-210 6.0 +- 0.6 Bq.m-2 (alpha-spectroscopy). These activities are comparable to those of previous years. The yearly average concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in consumer milk from a nationwide sample mix was 0.09 +- 0.02 and 0.04 +- 0.01 Bq.L-1, respectively, which are about equal to that of the previous year. For the gross alpha-activity concentration, as measured by the aerosol monitors of the LMR, values in the range of 0.3 - 12.1 Bq.m-3 were found (5-percentile - 95-percentile values), with an average value across the country of 2.6 Bq.m-3. This value corresponds to the value of 2.4 Bq.m-3 in 1992. No 'man-made' beta-activity was measured with the LMR monitors. The dose-equivalent rate measured with the LMR monitors was in the range of 54.5 - 95.3 nSv.h-1 (5 percentile - 95 percentile values). The average value of 77.3 nSv.h-1 was in good agreement with the 1992 and 1991 averages (79.3 and 78.9 nSv.h-1, respectively).<br>
This report describes the research methodology of the RIVM as a response to recent criticism that too little measuring is done, that there is too much reliance on models and that RIVM does not communicate the uncertainties of data and model results sufficiently to politicians. The methodolgy described demonstrates that recommendations from the RIVM are based on a well-balanced combination of scientific knowledge, mathematical models and monitoring data. Theoretical concepts are validated by measurements or experiments. Validated models are used to optimize the measurement efforts and to interpolate monitoring data. Furthermore, the models give the measurements an extra dimension, describing the processes and causal relationships behind the monitoring results as they do. Uncertainties are part and parcel of any scientific research and this is well communicated to the scientific community. In policy-oriented reports uncertainties are normally described qualitatively rather than quantitatively, except where uncertainties can affect the policy conclusions. In these cases quantitative uncertainty margins are reported and (the need for) additional research is mentioned.The report describes the uncertainties in measurements and model results for the main environmental problems: climate change, ozone layer, acidification, tropospheric ozone, particulate matter, eutrophication, noise pollution and external risks related to airport developments. Further to this is an outline on how environmental data are gathered and what models are used.
The report "Environmental return of the NEPP-2, supplement to the National Environmental Outlook 3" presents in outline the environmental costs and effects of additional policy measures which are proposed in the second National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP-2) released in December 1993. The report "Environmental return of the NEPP-2, Appendices E to H' underpins its main results in four enclosures. The first enclosure gives for different areas of environmental concern an extensive description of costs and environmental effects of separate proposed measures whose effectiveness is projected for the years 2000 and 2010. Enclosure F describes new national manure policy measures which are focused on the concerns with manure and ammonia. The next enclosure highlights the environmental effectiveness of NEPP-2 measures on the deposition of acidifying substances. The last enclosure deals with the environmental costs of the NEPP-2 measures in proportion to the environmental costs amounted in the last National Environmental Outlook.
As part of the Evaluation and Monitoring Programme for Schiphol airport, a questionnaire on the prevalence of self-rated annoyance, sleep disturbance, perceived general health, respiratory complaints, use of medication, and the perception of risks and the quality of life in the study area was sent to a randomly selected sample of 30,000 people living within 25 kilometers around Schiphol airport. The purpose of this study was to assess these factors in relation to the exposure to aircraft noise and air pollution. Exposure to aircraft noise was based on model calculations. The airport's proximity of the respondent's home was used as a proxy for air pollution caused by aircraft. The survey response rate was 39%. The results of this study show that annoyance from aircraft noise is greater than expected, also when the effect of selective non-response is taken into account. There is a relation between aircraft noise and noise annoyance, sleep disturbance, perceived health, the use of medication, and the perception of risks and the quality of life in the study area. The proximity of the airport was related to annoyance due to odors and soot from aircraft, respiratory complaints, and the use of medication for asthma and/or allergy. The result of this study will be used in developing a system to monitor the health status of those living in the vicinity when Schiphol airport is expanded.
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1998-04-30
As laid down by Dutch national law the fundamental selection instrument (Basis Selectie Document, BSD) is to be used in national and regional government archives to separate records that should be preserved from records for which destruction is warranted. New archival legislation promulgated in 1995 compels archives' administrators to deposit records not warranted for destruction with the Dutch national archives, the Rijksarchiefdienst (RAD), upon the twentieth year after their year of closing. The old law (1962) enforced a fifty-year period. This BSD is a product of the PIVOT method. This method is designed by the RAD to control the tidal wave of records the RAD anticipated after promulgation. The BSD establishes a valuation for all terms of reference the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) and it's predecessor , the National Institute of Public Health (RIV), were commissioned with from 1940 up to and including 1995. These terms of reference are referred to as acts (handelingen). They are also described in the RIVM report 840701001 titled 'Healthy again tomorrow; an institutional investigation of the tasks and terms of reference of the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection 1940-1995.' The acts are grouped by actor, the authority responsible, and are detailed by their valuation, scope, period of execution, laboratory in charge, basic law, source of information, policy phase and, if warranted for destruction, their preservation period. The nine fundamental criteria that governed the valuation of the acts are also specified.<br>
In view of the parliamentary elections in May 1994, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection has evaluated the environmental effects of the election programmes of six political parties: CDA, PvdA, VVD, D66, GroenLinks and RPF. This report presents the findings of the evaluation of the programmes of the first five parties. The main conclusion of this electroral environmental outlook is that the proposed environmental policy proposals have more impact than those mentioned in NEPP-1 and NEPP-2. In the year 2000 most substantial results are seen for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most important greenhouse gas. The environmental policy proposals of GroenLinks lead to a substantial CO2 emissions reduction of the emissions of CO2 to probably below the 2000 target level. The PvdA and D66 proposals also result in an additional reduction of the CO2-emissions, but not as large as that realised by GroenLinks. CDA and VVD proposals have the same impact as NEPP-2 measures. The proposed measures of PvdA and GroenLinks reduce emissions of acidifying substances (particularly) NOx and SO2) in comparison to both the NEPP-2 proposals and the environmental policy proposals of the other parties. However, because of the high emissions from foreign sources and the emissions of NOx in the Netherlands, none of the political parties will achieve the acidification (deposition) target. In the year 2010 environmental measures of all parties (except VVD) have more impact than NEPP-2. PvdA is the only political party able to achieve more environmental benefits for equal spending. The GroenLinks proposals result in the largest reduction of CO2-emissions. In comparison to the NEPP-2, full implementation and enforcement of the election programmes of the different parties will lead to an additional reducton of emissions of acidifyingemissions. GroenLinks is most successful in reducing the emissions of SO2, NOx en NH3. Compared to all other parties the election programma of GroenLinks lead to the highest additional increase in costs of environmental policy: 10 percent in aid of the NEPP-2. In addition, all parties propose more taxes for environmental harmful activities.
In view of the parliamentary elections in May 1994, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection has evaluated the environmental effects of the election programmes of six political parties: CDA, PvdA, VVD, D66, GroenLinks and RPF. In contrast to the quantitative findings concerning the other five parties (RIVM report number 482515002), this note presents the findings of the qualitative evaluation of the election programme of RPF. Three chapters deal with the results of the environmental policy proposals for social developments (primarily traffic, energy and agriculture) and areas of environmental concern and its environmental costs. The outcomes are compared to those of the first and second National Environmental Policy Plans (NEPP-1 and NEPP-2). The main conclusion of this qualitative electroral environmental outlook is that the proposed environmental policy proposals of RPF correspond with those of PvdA and D66. The most outstanding difference between RPF and the two parties is the restructuring of the trafic sector. On this point the RPF policies correspond more closely with GroenLinks. The proposed environmental policy proposals of RPF have more impact than those mentioned in NEPP-1 and NEPP-2, but are insufficient to achieve all targets.
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