In view of the parliamentary elections in May 1994, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection has evaluated the environmental effects of the election programmes of two political parties: D66 and GroenLinks. This report presents the findings of this evaluation. Four chapters deal with the environmental policy proposals of both parties, their results for social developments (primarly traffic, energy and agriculture) and areas of environmental concern and its environmental costs. The outcomes are presented in respect to the first and second National Environmental Policy Plans (NEPP-1 and NEPP-2). The main conclusion of this first electoral environmental outlook is that when the proposed environmental measures are fully implemented and enforced, environmental pressures will be further reduced. However, the intended measures of GroenLinks and D66 are insufficient to achieve the targets for all areas of environmental concern within the fixed time. However, the environmental policy proposals of GroenLinks have more impact than those mentioned in NEPP-1 and NEPP-2, both in 2000 and 2010. The environmental policy proposals of GroenLinks will lead to a substantial reduction of the emissions of CO2 to probably below the 2000 target level. In addition, the emissions of acidifying substances (particularly NOx and SO2) will be strongly reduced even in comparison to NEPP-2 proposals. The most important impact of the environmental policy proposals of D66 is also an additional reduction of the CO2 emissions, but not as large as the reduction, resulting from the GroenLinks election programme.
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-12-31
This 1993 annual report presents the results of biosphere sample measurements by the Laboratory of Radiation Research (LSO) of the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM). The measurements are part of the National Measurement Programme (NMP) of the Coordinating Committee for the Monitoring of Radioactive and Xenobiotic Substances (CCRX) in the Netherlands. The NMP is considered essential for an adequate assessment of radioactivity in the biosphere. The programme of the RIVM/LSO includes samples of airdust and deposition taken at the RIVM premises in Bilthoven. Samples of grass and milk were taken from the surroundings of nuclear installations in the Netherlands and on Dutch territory in the vicinity of such installations situated abroad. An overall country milk sample from four milk factories in the Netherlands was also analyzed. This report also presents the data of the National Radioactivity Monitoring Network (LMR) in 1993. These data are not included in the NMP. In 1993, the yearly average gross alpha- and gross beta-activity concentration of airdust was 0.09 +- 0.01 (SD 0.04) and 0.55 +- 0.04 (SD 0.37) mBq.m-3, respectively. These values were significantly higher than those of previous years. This effect is explained by a change in the procedures for sample taking and sample treatment. The gamma-spectrometric analysis was performed on airdust sampled with a high volume sampler. For Be-7, Cs-137 and Pb-210 the yearly average of the activity concentrations were 3600 +- 50 (SD 1300), 1.7 +- 0.1 (SD 1.3) and 530 +- 10 (SD 500) muBq.m-3, respectively (well detector results). The yearly total gross alpha- and gross beta-activity of the deposition in Bilthoven was 54.3 +- 0.7 and 87.9 +- 0.8 Bq.m-2, respectively, and the deposition of H-3 was 1310 +- 30 Bqm-2. The total activity of Cs-137 in deposition was 0.80 +- 0.03 Bq.m-2, of Pb-210 105 +- 2 Bq.m-2 and Po-210 6.0 +- 0.6 Bq.m-2 (alpha-spectroscopy). These activities are comparable to those of previous years. The yearly average concentrations of Cs-137 and Sr-90 in consumer milk from a nationwide sample mix was 0.09 +- 0.02 and 0.04 +- 0.01 Bq.L-1, respectively, which are about equal to that of the previous year. For the gross alpha-activity concentration, as measured by the aerosol monitors of the LMR, values in the range of 0.3 - 12.1 Bq.m-3 were found (5-percentile - 95-percentile values), with an average value across the country of 2.6 Bq.m-3. This value corresponds to the value of 2.4 Bq.m-3 in 1992. No 'man-made' beta-activity was measured with the LMR monitors. The dose-equivalent rate measured with the LMR monitors was in the range of 54.5 - 95.3 nSv.h-1 (5 percentile - 95 percentile values). The average value of 77.3 nSv.h-1 was in good agreement with the 1992 and 1991 averages (79.3 and 78.9 nSv.h-1, respectively).<br>
The report "Environmental return of the NEPP-2, supplement to the National Environmental Outlook 3" presents in outline the environmental costs and effects of additional policy measures which are proposed in the second National Environmental Policy Plan (NEPP-2) released in December 1993. The report "Environmental return of the NEPP-2, Appendices E to H' underpins its main results in four enclosures. The first enclosure gives for different areas of environmental concern an extensive description of costs and environmental effects of separate proposed measures whose effectiveness is projected for the years 2000 and 2010. Enclosure F describes new national manure policy measures which are focused on the concerns with manure and ammonia. The next enclosure highlights the environmental effectiveness of NEPP-2 measures on the deposition of acidifying substances. The last enclosure deals with the environmental costs of the NEPP-2 measures in proportion to the environmental costs amounted in the last National Environmental Outlook.
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-12-31
In de interimrapportage wordt de huidige stand van zaken beschreven van, hoofdzakelijk, (inter)nationaal epidemiologisch onderzoek naar de relatie tussen PM10 en het optreden van gezondheidseffecten. PM10 ("particulate matter") is de afkorting van de massa van de in de lucht zwevende deeltjes (aerosol) met een diameter kleiner dan ongeveer 10 micrometer (10 mum = 0,01 mm). PM10 wordt in Nederland ook wel "fijn stof" genoemd en geldt als indicator voor de ernst van het wintersmogmengsel. Daarna wordt verslag gedaan van het onderzoek dat tot nu toe is afgerond. Uit de literatuur blijkt dat blootstelling aan wintersmog geassocieerd is met een toename van de dagelijkse sterfte, met ziekenhuisopnamen voor ademhalingsklachten, met een toename van medicijngebruik bij astmatici en met longfunctieverslechtering. Er lijkt geen drempelwaarde voor dergelijke associaties te bestaan waar beneden effecten op mortaliteit en morbiditeit niet meer voorkomen. Gelet op de moeilijkheid een drempelwaarde vast te stellen, wordt een schatting van de gezondheidseffecten uitgedrukt als procentuele toename per 100 mug/m3 verandering in de daggemiddelde concentratie van PM10. Deze toename is voor dagelijkse sterfte 10-15%, voor toename van ziekenhuisopnamen voor respiratoire aandoeningen 20-40% en voor toename van medicijngebruik bij astmatici ongeveer 30%. De longfunctieverslechtering wordt geschat op 2-4% voor 100 mug/m3 toename van de PM10 concentratie. De daggemiddelde PM10-concentraties in Nederland kunnen tijdens wintersmogepisoden oplopen tot 140 mug/m3 en hoger. Er zijn weinig toxicologische gegevens beschikbaar omtrent de gezondheidseffecten en het werkingsmechanisme van deeltjesvormige luchtverontreiniging. Enkele proefdierstudies met gecontroleerde inhalatie van verschillende (redelijk oplosbare) deeltjes suggereren dat de grootte van het oppervlak en de reactiviteit van het oppervlak van ultrafijne deeltjes (< 0,1 mum) een rol spelen in het veroorzaken van pulmonale effecten. Het grootste deel van de massa van alle deeltjes wordt veroorzaakt door deeltjes met een diameter van enige micrometers (mum) tot enige tientallen micrometers. Omdat de hoogte van de PM10-niveaus afhangt van de massa van de deeltjes worden deze PM10-niveaus vooral bepaald door deeltjes groter dan enkele micrometers in diameter. De ultrafijne deeltjes met diameters van enige honderdsten tot tienden van micrometers vormen wel de grootste aantallen deeltjes, maar dragen vrijwel niet bij aan de PM10-niveaus. Deeltjes van tussenliggende diameters bepalen voor het grootste deel het oppervlak. Zij hebben een verwaarloosbaar effect op de PM10-niveaus. Het is momenteel nog onbekend of het toxische werkingsmechanisme van de deeltjes afhangt van de massa dan wel de chemische samenstelling van de deeltjes, of afhangt van het oppervlak van de deeltjes of juist van de aantallen deeltjes. Daarom is de keuze van het juiste bestrijdingsdoel op dit moment niet eenvoudig.
In view of the parliamentary elections in May 1994, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection has evaluated the environmental effects of the election programmes of six political parties: CDA, PvdA, VVD, D66, GroenLinks and RPF. This report presents the findings of the evaluation of the programmes of the first five parties. The main conclusion of this electroral environmental outlook is that the proposed environmental policy proposals have more impact than those mentioned in NEPP-1 and NEPP-2. In the year 2000 most substantial results are seen for emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), the most important greenhouse gas. The environmental policy proposals of GroenLinks lead to a substantial CO2 emissions reduction of the emissions of CO2 to probably below the 2000 target level. The PvdA and D66 proposals also result in an additional reduction of the CO2-emissions, but not as large as that realised by GroenLinks. CDA and VVD proposals have the same impact as NEPP-2 measures. The proposed measures of PvdA and GroenLinks reduce emissions of acidifying substances (particularly) NOx and SO2) in comparison to both the NEPP-2 proposals and the environmental policy proposals of the other parties. However, because of the high emissions from foreign sources and the emissions of NOx in the Netherlands, none of the political parties will achieve the acidification (deposition) target. In the year 2010 environmental measures of all parties (except VVD) have more impact than NEPP-2. PvdA is the only political party able to achieve more environmental benefits for equal spending. The GroenLinks proposals result in the largest reduction of CO2-emissions. In comparison to the NEPP-2, full implementation and enforcement of the election programmes of the different parties will lead to an additional reducton of emissions of acidifyingemissions. GroenLinks is most successful in reducing the emissions of SO2, NOx en NH3. Compared to all other parties the election programma of GroenLinks lead to the highest additional increase in costs of environmental policy: 10 percent in aid of the NEPP-2. In addition, all parties propose more taxes for environmental harmful activities.
In view of the parliamentary elections in May 1994, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection has evaluated the environmental effects of the election programmes of six political parties: CDA, PvdA, VVD, D66, GroenLinks and RPF. In contrast to the quantitative findings concerning the other five parties (RIVM report number 482515002), this note presents the findings of the qualitative evaluation of the election programme of RPF. Three chapters deal with the results of the environmental policy proposals for social developments (primarily traffic, energy and agriculture) and areas of environmental concern and its environmental costs. The outcomes are compared to those of the first and second National Environmental Policy Plans (NEPP-1 and NEPP-2). The main conclusion of this qualitative electroral environmental outlook is that the proposed environmental policy proposals of RPF correspond with those of PvdA and D66. The most outstanding difference between RPF and the two parties is the restructuring of the trafic sector. On this point the RPF policies correspond more closely with GroenLinks. The proposed environmental policy proposals of RPF have more impact than those mentioned in NEPP-1 and NEPP-2, but are insufficient to achieve all targets.
Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieuhygiene RIVM;
Rijksuniversiteit Groningen RUG, 1994-12-31
This report presents a halfway score of the research project "Winter smog and Traffic", one of the themes of the research programme "Air Pollution and Health". A state of the art is presented of the health effects associated with exposure to winter smog and of the toxicological effects caused by the inhalation of particles. A summary of the assessment of air quality and the results of epidemiological research is presented. Some policy questions are answered as far as possible at this stage of the project. Finally, an outline of a plan of activities is presented which is based on the policy needs and the most serious gaps in knowledge.
Amstel AR van (ed); Albers RAW; Kroeze C; Matthijsen AJCM; Olivier JGJ; Spakman J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-09-30)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was ratified by the Netherlands in December 1993. One of the obligations is to provide a National Communication on greenhouse gas emissions, projections and programmes to reduce these emissions. This background report was written at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment as a background report for the first Dutch National Communication for the Framework Convention on Climate Change. It documents the methodologies, both for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and sinks, and for projections. For the most important greenhouse gases, it gives estimates for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1991 and 1992, and projections of possible future emissions in 2000 and 2010 under two scenarios. The short-term aim of the Convention is stabilization of emissions between 1990 and 2000. Therefore 1990 was chosen as the base year for emission estimation and 2000 as the base year for evaluation. Emissions were estimated using internationally agreed IPCC methodology as well as methodology used in the Netherlands. The differences between the methods are explicitly explained. Carbon dioxide emissions were estimated with and without a temperature correction. The original Dutch policy method estimates emissions including feedstock use. For methane and nitrous oxide emissions, Dutch emission factors were applied instead of IPCC defaults. As more sources were found for nitrous oxide in the Netherlands, the Dutch emission was higher than when strictly applying IPCC methodology.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.