Freijer JI; Bloemen HJTh; Loos S de; Marra M; Rombout PJA; Steentjes GM; Veen MP van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-12-31)
Analysis of inhalatory exposure to air pollution is an important area of investigation when assessing the risks of air pollution for human health. Inhalatory exposure research focuses on the exposure of humans to air pollutants and the entry of these pollutants into the human respiratory tract. The principal grounds for studying the inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollutants are formed by the need for realistic exposure/dose estimates to evaluate the health effects of these pollutants. The AirPEx (Air Pollution Exposure) model, developed to assess the time- and space-dependence of inhalatory exposure of humans to air pollution, has been implemented for use as a Windows 3.1 computer program. The program is suited to estimating various exposure and dose quantities for individuals, as well as for populations and subpopulations. This report describes the fundamentals of the AirPEx model and provides a user manual for the computer program. Several examples included in the report illustrate the possibilities of the AirPEx model in exposure assessment. The model will be used at the National Institute of Public Health and the Environment as a tool in analysing the current exposure of the Dutch population to air pollutants.
Latour JB; Staritsky IG; Alkemade JRM; Wiertz J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-09-30)
The Natureplanner is essentially a computer system to predict the effects of environmental and spatial scenarios on nature for national and regional policy. It supports further the decisions on setting environmental standards, on detection of the dominant stress factor and the choice between area specific or general or mitigation measures and the costs. The smallest spatial resolution is 250*250 m. The dominant stress factor will be the most cost effective target for policy making; in some areas this will be desiccation and in others it may be eutrophication caused by deposition of NH3 from agriculture. The system has functions for viewing databases and maps of species distribution, soil or environmental scenario's. It is possible to choose a new vegetation structure in certain grid cells and than to compute the probability of occurrence of species under the given environmental conditions of soil, groundwater and acid or N-deposition. Another important application of the Nature Planner on a more regional scale is the computation of the specific critical N-load for a nature reserve. Further development is going on in close co-operation with other research institutes and some provinces with respect to: aquatic ecosystems, ecotoxicological aspects, succession/management practices, salinity, climate, and a separate module for effects of environmental changes and landscape fragmentation on birds and other fauna.
Rorije E; Muller M; Peijnenburg WJGM (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-05-31)
Estimates of (bio)degradation kinetics for 1073 compounds in various environmental compartments have been made as a part of the EU-project 'Fate and Activity Modelling of Environmental Pollutants using Structure-Activity Relationships' (FAME). These estimates have been made for all single compounds on the High Production Volume Chemicals (HPVC) list of the European Union (as of June 4th 1995). No predictions can be made for the large amount (> 50 %) of mixtures and ill-defined compounds on the HPVC-list. The models that have been applied are Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs), which were selected from literature. An indication of the precision of the estimates is given, either based on available validation studies of the models, and/or based on the statistical quality of the models. Given the large amount of compounds for which no or very few experimental degradation kinetics are available, these estimates can serve as supplementary information for the priority setting and the risk assessment of existing chemicals in the EU that is now being performed as a part of EU Regulation (EEC) 793/93 on existing chemical substances. In the future the estimates, and therefore the selected QSAR models, will be validated using new data on the HPVC that are being collected by the EU at this moment, from the European industries.
Gofferje D (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-11-30)
The CAR-Parking computer program, for which this manual has been written, was developed for calculating the air quality in the vicinity of parking garages and for testing the concentration of benzene against the standards for this compound. The model calculates the emission of benzene from cars inside the parking garage and the contribution to the concentration of benzene in the vicinity of the parking garage. The input data apply to traffic (e.g. number of cars per day, average velocity, length of time car is parked), parking garages (dimensions, number of levels, distance between levels), ventilation (open parts of the outer wall, capacity of mechanized ventilation) and configuration (presence of other buildings). Outer-wall concentrations are calculated for user-defined distances. The CAR-Parking program is a Windows application. The manual comes complete with two disks containing installation software.
Lijzen JPA; Meulen GRB ter; Vries W de (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-06-30)
This Guideline will be useful for limiting, constructing, managing or purchasing agricultural land on behalf of the Netherlands' National Ecological Network. The soils of agricultural areas are often slightly polluted, possibly even so polluted that objectives for development of natural areas can not be achieved. Therefore the Guideline should determine whether a location has enough potential for realizing the intended objectives, considering the soil pollution, and whether construction and management of the area could improve opportunities. This is done by means of an ecotoxicological risk assessment. This is based on 'bioavailable' fractions of the soil contaminants, since land-use changes can lead to changes in soil conditions (pH, redox, organic matter) which can change the bioavailable fractions. The framework of the Guideline consists of the following six modules: 1) actual conditions and basic data, 2) the desired development and corresponding scenarios, 3) prognosis of future soil conditions, 4) prognosis of future available fractions of the contaminants, 5) ecotoxicological risk assessments, and 6) the integration of the modules and other relevant factors, and final assessment.
Janse JH; Puijenbroek PJTM van (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-09-30)
Overfertilization by agriculture loads polder ditches in such a manner as to allow transition from submerged macrophyte-dominated clear water to water completely covered with duckweed, the latter disturbing aerobic life and diminishing biodiversity. PCDitch, representing a functional model of a ditch, describes the nutrient fluxes in the water, the sediments and the vegetation, as well as the competition between different groups of vegetation. PCDitch was calibrated using data from the experimental ditch system at Sinderhoeve, in cooperation with the Wageningen Agricultural University and the Winand Staring Centre. The observed dominance of submerged macrophytes at a low nutrient loading, in contrast to duckweed dominance at a high one, was simulated reasonably by the model. This was followed by a model application on the ditches in the province of Noord-Holland, using field data from the Water Authority in Hollands Noorderkwartier. The final result was a method to relate nutrient load to dominant vegetation. The model predicts the existence of a 'critical load' or 'critical concentration' in the water above which one may expect duckweed coverage. These 'critical' parameters depend on type of soil, concentration of inlet waters, hydraulic residence time and nutrient-uptake by vegetation. The dose-effect responses calculated in this stage are preliminary.
Bakkes JA; Woerden JW van; Alcamo J; Berk MM; Bol P; Born GJ van den; Brink BJE ten; Hettelingh JP; Langeweg F; Niessen LW; et al. (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-01-27)
This report documents the scenario analysis in UNEP's first Global Environment Outlook, published at the same time as the scenario analysis. This Outlook provides a pilot assessment of developments in the environment, both global and regional, between now and 2015, with a further projection to 2050. The study was carried out in support of the Agenda 21 interim evaluation, five years after 'Rio' and ten years after 'Brundtland'. The scenario analysis is based on only one scenario, Conventional Development. It features higher incomes and better health, but increasing regional inequalities. This pattern is reinforced by the analysis using detailed environmental models. Agricultural land use has to expand considerably in order to meet the growing demand for food, while agricultural productivity is not growing quickly enough in Africa and Asia. The little that remains of natural areas comes under heavy pressure. The ratio between water demand and availability becomes problematic in an increasing number of the world's catchment areas, although there are strong regional differences. Trade in food products becomes even more important than it is now, both for one's well-being and for the question on where the environmental pressures will occur. The necessary demographic and health transitions are illustrated with case studies for India, Mexico and the Netherlands. Protection of the environment will become an increasingly important factor in improving healthy life expectancy in developing countries. Future generations will be able to use energy, land and water more efficiently. Although the scenario analyzed in this study is rather optimistic in this respect. The assumed efficiency increases are by and large insufficient to meet the absolute growth in demand. On the other hand, there is technically speaking evidence given of considerable room for reducing the pressure on natural resources - assuming political determination, of course.
Klein Goldewijk CGM; Battjes JJ (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-02-28)
Testing against historical data is an important step in the validation of simulation models. Because of their wide scope and coverage, global change models require a large amount of data for testing. This update of an earlier version of a hundred-year database used to test global change models reports on data on population, gross domestic product, added value of industry and services, land use and, livestock, as well as on specific data categories for the systems: energy/economy, atmosphere/ocean and terrestrial environment. Where possible, data are organised according to country for the period 1890 - 1990. Some of the data show geographic detail.
Helder JC; Achterberg PW (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1997-07-31)
This report describes developments in health expenditure in the current fifteen EU countries in relation to developments in Gross Domestic Products (GDP), and to ageing and changes in population numbers. As health care costs increase strongly with age a number of age-cost functions have been drawn up which have been extrapolated in time and applied to all EU countries, departing from one age-costs distribution which has been determined (1988) for the Netherlands and using international population prospects. For the year 2020 the largest ageing-dependent increases in per capita health care costs (1990 = 1.00) are expected for Italy (1.11), Greece (1.10), Spain (1.09), Netherlands and Finland (1.08), with lesser increases in Sweden (1.00), the United Kingdom (1.01), Austria and Belgium (1.05), Denmark and Luxembourg (1.05). The average, weighted, health care costs for the EU are expected to increase (by ageing) from 1.00 in 1990 to 1.06 in 2020. Absolute increases in costs have been estimated by additional inclusion of prospects of population growth. The observed changes become larger. The largest expected increases are expected for the Netherlands (1.27), Luxembourg (1.20), Spain (1.14), France (1.14) and Finland (1.13), with lower expected increases for the United Kingdom (1.06), Portugal (1.09), Sweden, Italy and Ireland (1.10), Germany (1.11) and Austria (1.12). Retrospectively, it appears that in recent years in most EU countries, including the Netherlands, the growth of health care costs per capita has followed increases in GDP per capita quite closely. After 2020, ageing will, especially for the Netherlands, become relatively more important, however, which may cause a further rise in health care costs and leave less room for rises in costs by other causes. Epidemiological, medico-technological and socio-cultural developments, however, may well alter the future age-costs distribution of health care costs and its comparability between countries in a non-predictable way.
In het kader van het Nationaal Onderzoeksprogramma Verdroging is een vergelijkende studie verricht naar de verschillen en overeenkomsten tussen de ecologische voorspellingsmodellen SMART/MOVE en DEMNAT op het gebied van de abiotische en biotische modellering bij effectberekening van grondwaterstandsveranderingen. Vergelijking heeft plaats gevonden op het vlak van de toegepaste modelconcepten en modeluitkomsten. Uitgangspunt bij de gemaakte modelvergelijkingen was dat modelonderdelen in principe dezelfde (deel)uitkomsten zouden moeten genereren, wanneer deze uitspraken doen over dezelfde set van ingrepen, schaal, situatie en effectparameters. SMART/MOVE en DEMNAT zijn beide ecologische voorspellingsmodellen die geschikt zijn voor het maken van effectberekeningen voor deels dezelfde (hydrologische) ingrepen. Beide modellen gebruiken hiervoor in grote lijnen dezelfde geografische en hydrologische invoergegevens en beschouwen daarbij vergelijkbare procesketens. Ongeacht deze overlap zijn er in verschillende modelleringsstappen aanzienlijke verschillen tussen de gebruikte modelconcepten en verkregen (deel)uitkomsten geconstateerd. Daarbij zijn knelpunten van de toegepaste modelconcepten beschreven naast de oorzaken van de geconstateerde verschillen in de modeluitkomsten. Veel van de geconstateerde modelverschillen blijken veroorzaakt te zijn door hetzij minder realistische (soms leidend tot interne inconsistentie) ofwel minder goed onderbouwde modelaannamen. Acties ten behoeve van verbetering van de onderbouwing van deze modelaannamen zullen resulteren in verbetering van zowel de interne modelconsistentie als de onderlinge consistentie tussen de modellijnen.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.