Amstel AR van (ed); Albers RAW; Kroeze C; Matthijsen AJCM; Olivier JGJ; Spakman J (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-09-30)
The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was ratified by the Netherlands in December 1993. One of the obligations is to provide a National Communication on greenhouse gas emissions, projections and programmes to reduce these emissions. This background report was written at the request of the Dutch Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment as a background report for the first Dutch National Communication for the Framework Convention on Climate Change. It documents the methodologies, both for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and sinks, and for projections. For the most important greenhouse gases, it gives estimates for 1980, 1985, 1990, 1991 and 1992, and projections of possible future emissions in 2000 and 2010 under two scenarios. The short-term aim of the Convention is stabilization of emissions between 1990 and 2000. Therefore 1990 was chosen as the base year for emission estimation and 2000 as the base year for evaluation. Emissions were estimated using internationally agreed IPCC methodology as well as methodology used in the Netherlands. The differences between the methods are explicitly explained. Carbon dioxide emissions were estimated with and without a temperature correction. The original Dutch policy method estimates emissions including feedstock use. For methane and nitrous oxide emissions, Dutch emission factors were applied instead of IPCC defaults. As more sources were found for nitrous oxide in the Netherlands, the Dutch emission was higher than when strictly applying IPCC methodology.
Bouwman AF (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-09-30)
This analysis was based on a review of published measurements of nitrous oxide (N2O) emission from fertilized fields. From the literature data selections were made to analyze the importance of factors that regulate N2O production, including soil conditions, type of crop, nitrogen (N) fertilizer type and soil and crop management. Reported N2O losses from anhydrous ammonia and organic forms of N fertilizers or combinations of organic and synthetic N fertilizers are higher than those for other types of N fertilizer. However, the management and environmental conditions represented by the set of measurement data is too limited to be used for estimating emission factors for each fertilizer type individually. The literature data are appropriate for estimating the order of magnitude of emissions. The fertilizer-induced N2O emission is higher for measurements covering longer periods than for measurements which represent short periods. Therefore, a simple method to estimate the total annual direct N2O emission from fertilized fields was based on those measurements covering periods of one year, resulting in the following equation: N2O emission (kg N ha-1.yr-1) = 1 + 1.25 +/- 1% of the N application (kg N ha-1.yr-1). The relation is independent of the type of fertilizer. Although the above regression equation includes considerable uncertainty , it may be appropriate for global analyses.
Rood GA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-07-31)
The current investigation represented an initial survey on the presence of organic contaminants in Bio-waste compost (garden, fruit and vegetable wast). This report provides an indicative comparison between the pollution levels in compost and the target value for soil (H=20%). Partly based on this research, however, standards for organic contaminants will be developed. It was found that all compost samples contained organic contaminants. The PAH levels in the compost samples were shown to be relatively high when compared to the target value for soil. It was found that for most PAH no relation between the levels in the compost and the compost production plant existed. The amount of HCB and phthalates was also found to be higher than the target values. In some samples, the content of chlorinated phenols, PCB, endrin and/or mineral oil turned out to be higher than the target value. All compost samples were shown to contain amounts of dioxins far below the provisional value for soil in urban areas. With reference to the results of this investigation it is recommended to set up extensive research into organic contaminants in compost to get a representative picture of the contaminant levels in compost.
Berdowski JJM; Auweraert RJK van der; Most PFJ van der; Thomas R; Zonneveld EA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-10-31)
In this report a survey is presented of the emission of approximately 60 compounds to the air and the surface-water in the Netherlands for the year 1992. For the year 1993 the emissions are estimated. For each compound specific information is given on the sources of emissions, on the relative contribution to the total emission in the Netherlands, and on the relation with the Dutch Environmental Policy Plans.
Hoek KW van der (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-05-31)
The report presents the RIVM methodology for calculating the emission of ammonia. Four ammonia sources, animal manure, application of fertilizer, industrial processes and households, are distinguished. The ammonia emissions in the Netherlands in the period 1990-1992 are respectively 215, 221 and 170 million kg. The 1992 emissions are presented on a 5 x 5 km grid in the report. The enforced legislation for low emission techniques both for grassland and arable land forms the main reason for the decrease of the 1992 ammonia emission by 50 million kg.
Quarles van Ufford CHA; Gels H (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-02-28)
This document on Graphics industry has been published within the SPIN-project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licences.
Suppers MAA; Smit JRK; Elzenga HE (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-11-30)
This report describes the results of a study to investigate the amounts of solid waste, the amounts of chromium III in these wastes, and the potential for quantitative and qualitative waste reduction in the Dutch leather industry (for the year 1992). The main results concerning the amounts in 1992 are: untanned residues: 14,000 tonnes ; tanned residues: 5,500 tonnes ; sludge from chromium precipitation: 3,300 tonnes and sludge from sewage treatment: 12,500 tonnes. The total chromium content in these wastes amounts to 213 tonnes. The prevention options that are found can be categorized as follows: 1) detanning of chrome splittings ; 2) chrome tanning with high exhaustion ; 3) reuse of chromium after precipitation and recovery from waste water ; 4) tanning with alternative tanning agents (e.g. vegetable or titanium III and aluminium III). On the basis of opinions derived from experts from inside and outside the leather industry, and numerous case studies carried out in other countries, it may be concluded that options from the second and third category seem to offer the best opportunities for reducing the amounts of chromium containing sludge. The technical as well as the financial hinderances are in these cases expected to be relativelly small.
Schipper-Zablotskaja M (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-07-31)
Environmental policy should be based on good information on the sources of pollution. Such information is essential, not only for an optimum diagnosis of the present situation, but it is also the basis for future scenarios. The standard form for an information document is a "process description". Such process descriptions are made for many economic activities in the Netherlands: industrial processes, agriculture, traffic, energy sector. The process description "Municipal Waste Incineration Plant" has been compiled in a series of descriptions in the framework of the Energy Project on request of the Ministry of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment. An integral approach in processes is crucial for the current scheme of the process description. A general flow-diagram of an MSWI plant with an energy recovery boiler, including a flue-gas treatment plant is given. The most efficient parts of the plant (refuse pit, grate, oven, flue-gas cleaning equipment) are described in more detail. An influence of incineration conditions on flue-gas emissions and the quality of residues is focused on. The possibilities of different types of gas cleaning systems are also given. The waste streams from MSWI plants are taken in consideration as well. From the point of view of of environmental pollution and energy possible improvements are suggested. A short inventory of currently operating MSWI plants in the Netherlands and plants to be built in the near future is given. Information on the current Dutch emission legislation is presented.
Bremmer HJ; Troost LM; Kuipers G; Koning J de; Sein AA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-02-28)
Based on the results of an inventory of possible dioxin sources other than municipal solid waste (MCW) incinerators, a number of sources not previously measured, are selected for additional measurements. The results of all measurements carried out in the Netherlands, partly supplemented with data from the literature were then elaborated into a total estimate of the dioxin emissions in the Netherlands. In total, the emission to air in 1991 was 484 g I-TEQ. Of that total, the MSW incinerators emit the largest quantity, i.e. 80% of the total. The remainder of the estimated yearly emission is destributed over 16 different process categories. As a result of emission regulating developments it is expected that the dioxin emission in the year 2000 will be descreased to 58 g I-TEQ.
Quarles van Ufford CHA (Rijksinstituut voor Volksgezondheid en Milieu RIVM, 1994-01-31)
This document on Wood preservation has been published within the SPIN-project. In this project information has been collected on industrial plants or industrial processes to afford support to governmental policy on emission reduction. This document contains information on the processes, emission sources, emissions to air and water, waste, emission factors, use of energy and energy factors, emission reduction, energy conservation, research on clean technology and standards and licences.
The export option will allow you to export the current search results of the entered query to a file. Different
formats are available for download. To export the items, click on the button corresponding with the preferred download format.
By default, clicking on the export buttons will result in a download of the allowed maximum amount of items.
To select a subset of the search results, click "Selective Export" button and make a selection of the items you want to export.
The amount of items that can be exported at once is similarly restricted as the full export.
After making a selection, click one of the export format buttons. The amount of items that will be exported is indicated in the bubble next to export format.